Identification of microRNA-451a as a Novel Circulating Biomarker for Colorectal Cancer Diagnosis.
ABSTRACT: Background:Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer death worldwide. Successful treatment of CRC relies on accurate early diagnosis, which is currently a challenge due to its complexity and personalized pathologies. Thus, novel molecular biomarkers are needed for early CRC detection. Methods:Gene and microRNA microarray profiling of CRC tissues and miRNA-seq data were analyzed. Candidate microRNA biomarkers were predicted using both CRC-specific network and miRNA-BD tool. Validation analyses were carried out to interrogate the identified candidate CRC biomarkers. Results:We identified miR-451a as a potential early CRC biomarker circulating in patient's serum. The dysregulation of miR-451a was revealed both in primary tumors and in patients' sera. Downstream analysis validated the tumor suppressor role of miR-451a and high sensitivity of miR-451a in CRC patients, further confirming its potential role as CRC circulation biomarker. Conclusion:The miR-451a is a potential circulating biomarker for early CRC diagnosis.
Project description:The natural course of multiple myeloma (MM) varies greatly between patients. The Revised MM International Staging System (R-ISS) identifies high-risk patients, but it is unsuitable for assessing minimal residual disease (MRD). Furthermore, the focal location of myeloma cells and clonal evolution often produce false negative results in flow cytometry. Extracellular microRNA (miRNA/miR) expression levels are stable in bodily fluids, and are retrievable and measurable from fresh or archived serum or plasma samples. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the clinical utility of circulating miRNA levels in patients with MM, particularly miR-451a, which is commonly downregulated in MM, and whether it could predict the prognosis and relapse of patients with MM. In total, 66 patients with MM, stratified using the R-ISS criteria, were recruited, while 10 healthy subjects (transplantation donors) were enrolled as controls. Reverse transcription-quantitative PCR was used to evaluate miR-451a expression in bone marrow (BM) and in the circulation. IL-6 levels were measured using ELISA, while western blotting was conducted to analyze the protein expression levels of the IL-6 receptor (IL-6R). During follow-up, MRD was assessed via multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC). miR-451a was identified to target IL-6R using a dual-luciferase reporter assay. Circulating miR-451a levels were low in patients with MM, and was found to be 0.39 times that of the control group (U=4.00; P<0.001). Among the 66 patients with MM, the median level of miR-451a was 0.73 and 0.41 times that of the control group in R-ISS stage I MM (15 patients) and R-ISS stage II stage (17 patients), respectively; patients with R-ISS stage III MM (34 patients) had the lowest level, at 0.24 times the value of the control group. Circulating miR-451a levels had a strong positive correlation with miR-451a levels in BM, but negatively correlated with IL-6 and IL-6R levels. After two courses of consolidation chemotherapy, 19 patients achieved complete remission, 10 of whom presented steady circulating miR-451a levels during follow-up; the other nine patients had an abrupt decrease in circulating miR-451a levels. The turning points in the trend appeared 4–8 weeks before positive results were obtained via MFC, and 4–16 weeks before clinical relapse. Moreover, miR-451a overexpression notably downregulated the expression of the IL-6R mRNA and protein. Collectively, circulating miR-451a levels potentially represent a novel biomarker to monitor MRD and predict relapse.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hypopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HSCC) has a very poor prognosis because of its high rates of regional and distant metastasis. Identification of differentially expressed miRNAs and their regulated molecular targets in tumour cells might enhance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of metastasis in human cancers. METHODS:A HSCC miRNA signature was constructed by array-based methods. Functional studies of microRNA-451a (miR-451a) and target genes were performed to investigate cell proliferation, migration and invasion by cancer cell lines. To identify miR-451a-regulated molecular targets, we adopted gene expression analysis and in silico database analysis. RESULTS:Our miRNA signature revealed that miR-451a was significantly downregulated in HSCC. Restoration of miR-451a in cancer cell lines revealed that this miRNA significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion. Our data demonstrated that the gene coding for endothelial and smooth muscle cell-derived neuropilin-like molecule (ESDN/DCBLD2) was a direct target of miR-451a regulation. Silencing of ESDN inhibited cell migration and invasion by cancer cells. CONCLUSIONS:Loss of tumour suppressive miR-451a enhanced cancer cell migration and invasion in HSCC through direct regulation of ESDN. Our miRNA signature and functional analysis of targets regulated by tumour suppressive miR-451a provide new insights into the potential mechanisms of HSCC oncogenesis and metastasis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Vitamin C is an essential element required for normal metabolic function. We investigated the effect of vitamin C supplementation on circulating miRNA (miR) expression in subjects with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Changes in miR expression were also correlated with clinical measures of disease.<h4>Methods</h4>Pre- and post-vitamin C supplementation samples from five participants who had increased vitamin C levels, improved oxidative status and polymorphonuclear (PMN) function after receiving 1,000 mg of vitamin C daily for six weeks were screened for miRNA expression using the NanoString miRNA assay. Differences in miRNA expression identified from the miRNA screen were validated by qRT-PCR.<h4>Results</h4>Four miRNAs showed significantly different expression post-vitamin C supplementation relative to baseline, including the down-regulation of miR-451a (-1.72 fold change (FC), <i>p</i> = 0.036) and up-regulation of miR-1253 (0.62 FC, <i>p</i> = 0.027), miR-1290 (0.53 FC, <i>p</i> = 0.036) and miR-644a (0.5 FC, <i>p</i> = 0.042). The validation study showed only miR-451a expression was significantly different from baseline with vitamin C supplementation. MiR-451a expression was negatively correlated with vitamin C levels (<i>r</i> = - 0.497, <i>p</i> = 0.049) but positively correlated with levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) (<i>r</i> = 0.584, <i>p</i> = 0.017), cholesterol (<i>r</i> = 0.564, <i>p</i> = 0.022) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) (<i>r</i> = 0.522, <i>p</i> = 0.037). Bioinformatics analysis of the putative target genes of miR-451a indicated gene functions related to signaling pathways involved in cellular processes, such as the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Vitamin C supplementation altered circulating miR-451a expression. The results from this pilot study suggest that miRNAs could be used as biomarkers to indicate oxidative status in subjects with T2DM and with poor glycemic control and could lead to a novel molecular strategy to reduce oxidative stress in T2DM.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>There is no effective and reliable biomarker to distinguish benign thyroid nodules from papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTC). This study aimed at examining the levels of plasma miRNAs in patients with PTC or benign nodules to explore the potential miRNA biomarkers for PTC.<h4>Patients and methods</h4>Genome-wide plasma miRNA expression profiles were determined by the miRNA Microarray and the significantly higher levels of miRNAs were validated in plasma and tissues by quantitative RT-PCR. The levels of two miRNAs were further tested in seven patients before and after tumor excision and the potential values for the diagnosis of PTC were evaluated by receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC).<h4>Results</h4>In comparison with that in the patients with benign nodules, eight significantly higher and three lower levels of plasma miRNAs were detected in the PTC patients. Further validation indicated that the levels of plasma miR-25-3p, miR-451a, miR-140-3p and let-7i were significantly higher in the PTC cases than in those with benign nodules or the healthy controls. Significantly higher levels of miR-25-3p and miR-451a were detected in the thyroid tissues from the PTC patients. The levels of plasma miR-25-3p and miR-451a in seven patients significantly decreased after tumor excision. ROC analyses revealed that the levels of plasma miR-25-3p at cut-off 1.41 and miR-451a at 1.38 had sensitivity of 92.8% and 88.9%, and specificity of 68.8% and 66.7% for distinguishing PTC from benign nodules, respectively.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our findings suggest that the levels of plasma miR-25-3p and miR-451a may be valuable for the diagnosis of PTC.
Project description:<b>Introduction:</b> Tobacco smoke is associated with oxidative and inflammatory pathways, increasing the risk of chronic-degenerative diseases. Our goal was to evaluate the effects of acute "Pera" and "Moro" orange juice consumption on inflammatory processes and oxidative stress in microRNA (miRNA) expression in plasma from healthy smokers. <b>Methods:</b> This was a randomized crossover study that included healthy smokers over 18 years old. Blood samples were collected before and 11 h after beverage ingestion. Participants were instructed to drink 400 mL of Pera orange juice (<i>Citrus sinensis</i>), Moro orange juice (<i>Citrus sinensis</i> L. <i>Osbeck</i>), or water. Each subject drank the beverages in a 3-way crossover study design. Inflammatory and oxidative stress biomarkers and circulating miRNA expression profiles were determined. The subjects maintained their usual tobacco exposure during the experiment. <b>Results:</b> We included 18 individuals (12 men and 6 women), with 37.0 ± 12.0 years old. All subjects received the 3 interventions. Increased expression of circulating miRNAs (miR-150-5p, miR-25-3p, and miR-451a) was verified after cigarette smoking, which were attenuated after intake of both types of orange juice. There was no difference regarding serum levels of TNF-α, IL-6, MMP-9, and C-reactive protein. Despite the increased activity of serum superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase after "Pera" or "Moro" orange juice intake, respectively, no changes in lipid hydroperoxide levels were detected. <b>Conclusion:</b> Tobaccos smokers showed increased expression of miR-150-5p, miR-25-3p, and miR-451a was noted, and attenuated by orange juice intake. miRNAs were predicted to regulate 244 target genes with roles in oxidative stress, PI3K-Akt, and MAPK signaling, which are pathways frequently involved in smoking-related cardiovascular diseases and cancer.
Project description:Recent analyses of our microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures obtained from several types of cancer have provided novel information on their molecular pathology. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), expression of microRNA-451a (miR-451a) was significantly downregulated in patient specimens and low expression of miR-451a was significantly associated with poor prognosis of RCC patients (P = .00305) based on data in The Cancer Genome Atlas. The aims of the present study were to investigate the antitumor roles of miR-451a and to identify novel oncogenic networks it regulated in RCC cells. Ectopic expression of miR-451a significantly inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion by RCC cell lines, suggesting that miR-451a had antitumor roles. To identify oncogenes regulated by miR-451a in RCC cells, we analyzed genome-wide gene expression data and examined information in in silico databases. A total of 16 oncogenes and were found to be possible targets of miR-451a regulation. Interestingly, high expression of 9 genes (PMM2, CRELD2, CLEC2D, SPC25, BST2, EVL, TBX15, DPYSL3, and NAMPT) was significantly associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we focused on phosphomannomutase 2 (PMM2), which was the most strongly associated with prognosis. Overexpression of PMM2 was detected in clinical specimens and Spearman's rank test indicated a negative correlation between the expression levels of miR-451a and PMM2 (P = .0409). Knockdown of PMM2 in RCC cells inhibited cancer cell migration and invasion, indicating overexpression of PMM2 could promote malignancy. Analytic strategies based on antitumor miRNAs is an effective tool for identification of novel pathways of cancer.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a leading cause of cancer-related death. The biologic response of CRC to standard of care adjuvant therapies such as chemotherapy and radiation are poorly understood. MicroRNAs (miRs) have been shown to affect CRC progression and metastasis. Therefore, we hypothesized that specific miRs modulate CRC response to chemoradiation.<h4>Methods</h4>In this study, we used miR expression profiling and discovered a set of microRNAs upregulated rapidly in response to either a single 2 Gy dose fraction or a 10 Gy dose of ?-radiation in mouse colorectal carcinoma models. We used gain and loss-of-function studies in 2D and 3Dcell proliferation assays and colony formation assays to understand the role of the top miR candidate from our profiling. We used Student's T-tests for simple comparisons and two-factor ANOVA for evaluating significance.<h4>Results</h4>The most upregulated candidate at early time points in our signature, miR-451a inhibited tumor cell proliferation and attenuated surviving fraction in longer-term cultures. Conversely, inhibition of miR-451a increased proliferation, tumorsphere formation, and surviving fraction of tumor cells. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified four genes, CAB39, EMSY, MEX3C, and EREG, as targets of miR-451a. Transfection of miR-451a decreased both mRNA and protein levels of these targets. Importantly, we found miR-451a expression was high and CAB39, EMSY levels were low in a small subset of rectal cancer patients who had a partial response to chemoradiation when compared to patients that had no response. Finally, analysis of a TCGA colorectal cancer dataset revealed that CAB39 and EMSY are upregulated at the protein level in a significant number of CRC patients. Higher levels of CAB39 and EMSY correlated with poorer overall survival.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Taken together, our data indicates miR-451a is induced by radiation and may influence colorectal carcinoma proliferation via CAB39 and EMSY pathways.
Project description:Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine is currently the most effective prophylaxis to prevent cervical cancer. However, concerns regarding its potential severe adverse reactions have limited the vaccination rate. HPV vaccines have been determined to contain adjuvants which induce inflammation by the innate immune system and are crucial for triggering adaptive immunity. MicroRNA-451a (miR-451a) is located within circulating extracellular vesicles (EVs) and regulates the innate immune response. In this study, we examined the effect of HPV vaccines and EV miR-451a on murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), which is an autoimmune disorder that affects the central nervous system. Although HPV vaccine induced pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and macrophage cell death, it failed to exacerbate mouse EAE, whereas circulating EV miR-451a levels were associated with the severity of EAE. Since miR-451a knockout exhibited only marginal effect on the murine EAE clinical score, our data suggest that miR-451a levels reflect an unknown condition associated with EAE severity. Interestingly, excessive uptake of glucose increased EV miR-451a levels both in vitro and in vivo and also exacerbated mouse EAE. Therefore, environmental factors that increase EV miR-451a levels exacerbate the autoimmune disorder more than the HPV vaccine. These observations provide evidence for the safety of HPV vaccines.
Project description:Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are frequently overexpressed in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, few related lncRNA signatures have been established for predicting CRC metastasis. The purpose of the present study was to identify lncRNAs that serve key roles in the metastasis of human CRC, and their potential downstream targets. A total of 31 human CRC biopsy samples were collected, and the expression of long intergenic non-protein coding RNA-467 (linc00467) and its association with clinical characteristics were evaluated. Consequently, linc00467 was revealed to be overexpressed in human CRC tissues, and its expression was significantly associated with metastasis and Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage. In HT29 and HCT116 cells, linc00467-knockout was revealed to decrease cellular proliferation and increase apoptosis (P<0.05). Finally, the downstream target of linc00467 in CRC promotion was predicted using bioinformatics analysis. The results demonstrated that linc00467 targets and regulates the expression of microRNA (miR)-451a, promoting carcinogenesis and metastasis in CRC. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that increased linc00467 expression promotes metastasis by targeting miR-451a, which ultimately increases cellular proliferation and inhibits apoptosis in human CRC cells.