The Mediating Effects of Coping Style on the Effects of Breath Count Mindfulness Training on Depressive Symptoms among International Students in China.
ABSTRACT: Mindfulness training has gained popularity in the scientific field and has been proposed as an efficient way for emotional regulation. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is designed especially for depressive people in reducing risk of depression relapse and is recommended in national guidelines as a treatment choice for relapse prevention in recurrent depression. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of mindfulness training on depressive symptoms of international students and probe into the mediating role of mindfulness in stressful events and depression. In addition, we introduced a new kind of mindfulness training, the breathing exercise-based mindfulness training, which is based on the integration of Buddhism and Daoism. Self-report questionnaires assessing the coping style, abnormal depressive behavior, and stressful live events were completed in 260 international students in China (mean?age = 21.4 years). The results showed that (1) many international students showed depression symptoms, (2) stressful life events play a completely mediating role in the initiation of depression and anxiety, and (3) mindfulness training for 8 weeks significantly reduced the depressive symptoms, and it was also related to a positive coping style. This study has certain theoretical significance in exploring the mechanism of the occurrence and development of depression among international students and provides useful tools for this special group of international students. In addition, the international students can also learn Chinese culture through the training. These findings indicate that mindfulness training and positive coping style are interrelated with treating depressive symptoms for international students.
Project description:The present prospective study examined the relations among stressful life events, coping, and depressive symptoms in children at varied risk for depression. Participants were 227 children between 7 and 17 years old (mean age = 12.13 years, SD = 2.31, 54.6 % female) who were part of a longitudinal study of depressed and nondepressed parents and their children. Youth completed measures assessing stressful life events and coping strategies at four time points over 22 months. Children's depressive symptoms were assessed at each time point by clinical interviews of parents and children, and children's self-report. Structural equation modeling indicated that stressful life events significantly predicted subsequent depressive symptoms. Bootstrap analyses of the indirect effects in three different models revealed that primary control engagement coping and disengagement coping strategies partially mediated the relation between stressful life events and children's depressive symptoms across time. Regarding the direction of effects, more consistent relations were found for coping as a mediator of the link from stress to depressive symptoms than from symptoms to stress. Thus, one potential mechanism by which stressful life events may contribute to depressive symptoms in children is through less use of primary control coping and greater use of disengagement coping strategies. This is consistent with the view that the adverse effects of stress may contribute to impairments in the ability to cope effectively.
Project description:Background:Exposure to childhood abuse has been identified as a salient risk factor for the development of depression. However, the mediating factors between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms have not been sufficiently elucidated. This study aims to investigate the mediating effects of neuroticism, social support, and coping style between childhood abuse and depressive symptoms in population covering general adults, depressed patients, bipolar disorder patients, and high risk population for depression. Methods:This is a cross-sectional study. Five validated questionnaires were used to measure the psychological outcomes (Childhood Trauma Questionnaire CTQ-SF, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire EPQR-S, Social Support Rating Scale SSRS, Simplified Coping Style Questionnaire SCSQ, and Patient Health Questionnaire-9 PHQ-9) of 312 participants. Multiple regressions and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to conduct data analysis. Results:Multiple regression analysis and SEM showed a significant association between childhood emotional abuse and depression symptoms. Neuroticism, use of social support, and active coping style were important mediating variables of this association. The R 2 for our model was 0.456, indicating that 45.6% of the variability in depressive symptoms can be explained by the model. Conclusion:This study suggested that neuroticism, active coping, and use of social support play important role in mediating the effects of childhood abuse on adult depressive symptoms.
Project description:Depression is a common mental health problem with a higher prevalence in medical students than in the general population. This study aims to investigate the association between depressive symptoms, particularly those in each domain of the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression (CES-D) Scale, and related factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a random sample of 1319 medical students at Haiphong University of Medicine and Pharmacy in 2016. The CES-D scale and a self-reported questionnaire were used to identify the prevalence of depressive symptoms and related risk factors. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to assess the risk factors associated with depressive symptoms and the score for each structure factor. Depressive symptoms were observed in 514 (39%) students, including more males than females (44.2% vs 36.9%, p = 0.015). Students whose mothers' highest education level was primary school had a higher prevalence of depressive symptoms than students whose mothers had higher education levels (p = 0.038). There was a significant relationship between depressive symptoms and stressful life events, especially a decline in personal health. A higher correlation was found between the somatic complaints and depressive affect domains. The impacts of risk factors differed for each domain of the depression scale. Only the factor of achieving excellence showed no statistically significant associations with depressive symptoms and the scores on the four domains considered in this study. The high prevalence of depressive symptoms among medical students with risk factors and the impact of these risk factors on each domain of depression scale need further clarification to alleviate depression in students during their medical training.
Project description:This study tested the plausibility of a theoretical model of change for the Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), a cognitive-behavioral (CB) depression prevention program for adolescents. Middle school students (N = 697) were randomized to PRP, an assessment-only control condition (CON), or a placebo-control condition (PLA). Explanatory style and depressive symptoms were evaluated over 24 months of follow-up. Relative to both CON and PLA, there were significant indirect effects of PRP on 12-month levels of depressive symptoms through improvements in explanatory style in two of three participating schools. Within a third school, where PRP was not effective in targeting depressive symptoms (Gillham et al., 2007), there was no evidence of group differences in growth in explanatory style or indirect effects. When effective, PRP's CB training provides incremental value over non-specific components and there are indirect effects on depressive symptoms through improvements in explanatory style.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>This study aimed at testing the significance of mediating and moderating roles of sense of coherence, adaptive coping styles and social support in the relationship between exposure to trauma and psychological symptoms in a refugee population in sub-Saharan Africa.<h4>Methods</h4>A cross-sectional survey design was employed to collect data. The study was carried out in Mai Aini refugee camp in Ethiopia. A total of 562 adult Eritrean refugees aged 18-74 years were selected randomly to screen for depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms and to examine associated factors. Data were collected using the premigration and postmigration living difficulties checklist, Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scale, Primary Care PTSD Screener, coping style scale, Sense of Coherence scale and Oslo Social Support scale. Path modelling was used to test the mediation and moderation effects of prespecified factors.<h4>Results</h4>Premigration living difficulties were associated directly with symptoms of PTSD (?=0.09, p<0.05), and associated indirectly with PTSD symptoms in paths through duration of stay in the camp, sense of coherence, postmigration living difficulties, task-oriented coping style and depressive symptoms (?=0.26, p<0.01). Premigration and postmigration living difficulties were associated directly with depressive symptoms with standardised estimate of ?=0.35(p<0.001) and ?=0.23(p<0.05), respectively. Postmigration living difficulties were associated indirectly with PTSD through paths of sense of coherence, task-oriented coping style and depressive symptoms (?=0.13; p<0.01). Social support moderated the effect of postmigration living difficulties on depressive symptoms (p<0.05). Emotion-oriented coping style moderated the effect of premigration threat for abuse on PTSD (?=-0.18, p<0.001) and depressive (?=-0.12, p<0.01) symptoms, as well as moderating threat to life on PTSD symptoms (?=-0.13, p<0.001).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Sense of coherence and task-oriented coping style showed a partial mediating effect on the association between exposure to trauma and symptoms of PTSD. An emotion-oriented coping style and social support moderated the effect of premigration and postmigration living difficulties, respectively. Fostering social support, task-oriented and emotion-oriented coping styles may be beneficial for these refugees.
Project description:Self-compassion has been associated with less distress, particularly when people face stressful and negative events. This study analyzed the mediation role of coping and affect in the relation between self-compassion and negative emotional symptoms during the quarantine decreed by Portuguese Health Authorities in the first phase of the coronavirus outbreak. A total of 428 Portuguese adults (75% women; <i>M</i><sub>age</sub> = 40.8, <i>SD</i> = 11.6) completed an online survey comprised by the Self-Compassion Scale (predictor); Short Version of Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (outcomes); The Positive and Negative Affect Schedule; and Brief-COPE. These instruments were adapted to COVID 19's epidemic. Parallel mediation analyses demonstrated that self-compassionate participants were at less risk of suffering from symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress during the quarantine. Plus, the relation between self-compassion and depressive, anxious, and stress symptoms were mediated by negative affect and dysfunctional coping style, but only for symptoms of depression. The findings support coping strategies and affect as links between self-compassion and distress but also the importance of separately analyzing the role of self-compassion, negative affect, and coping on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and stress. Low self-compassion might increase negative affect, maintaining stress responses to face demanding events during the COVID-19 epidemic. Results were discussed in the context of the pandemic outbreak.
Project description:The study of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important topic in mental health around the globe. However, there is the need for more evidence about the cumulative influence of psychological variables on HRQOL. The main aim of the study was to evaluate how specific personality traits might explain scores in HRQOL and to explore how this relationship might be mediated by coping styles and psychological distress.Young Colombian subjects (N?=?274) were included (mean age: 21.3; SD?=?3.8). The Short-Form Health Survey was used to measure HRQOL. For assessment of psychological variables, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale, The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations and the short version of Big Five Inventory were used.The personality trait that was the best predictor of HRQOL was openness to experience, forming an explanatory model for HRQOL, along with emotional coping style and depressive and anxious symptoms. Emotional coping style and psychological distress were significant mediators of the relationship between openness and HRQOL.Our findings provide additional data about the cumulative influence of specific psychological variables on HRQOL, in a mostly young female Latin American sample.
Project description:In patients with a history of suicidal depression, recurrence of depressive symptoms can easily reactivate suicidal thinking. In this study, we investigated whether training in mindfulness, which is aimed at helping patients "decenter" from negative thinking, could help weaken the link between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions.Analyses were based on data from a recent randomized controlled trial, in which previously suicidal patients were allocated to mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT), an active control treatment, cognitive psychoeducation (CPE), which did not include any meditation practice, or treatment as usual (TAU). After the end of the treatment phase, we compared the associations between depressive symptoms, as assessed through self-reports on the Beck Depression Inventory-II (Beck, Steer, & Brown, 1996), and suicidal thinking, as assessed through the Suicidal Cognitions Scale (Rudd et al., 2001).In patients with minimal to moderate symptoms at the time of assessment, comparisons of the correlations between depressive symptoms and suicidal cognitions showed significant differences between the groups. Although suicidal cognitions were significantly related to levels of symptoms in the 2 control groups, there was no such relation in the MBCT group.The findings suggest that, in patients with a history of suicidal depression, training in mindfulness can help to weaken the association between depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking, and thus reduce an important vulnerability for relapse to suicidal depression.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Although numerous studies address the relationships of depression with coping processes directed toward approaching or avoiding stressful experiences, the large majority are cross-sectional in design, assess coping processes at only one timepoint, or solely include prediction of the linear slope of depressive symptoms. In this research, coping processes were investigated as predictors of depressive symptoms, symptom trajectory classes (consistently high, recovery, consistently low), and major depressive episodes (MDEs) over 12 months in the cancer context. METHOD:Women (N = 460) within 4 months of breast cancer diagnosis completed assessments of cancer-related coping processes, depressive symptoms, and MDEs at 7 points across 1 year. RESULTS:Beyond sociodemographic and medical variables, coping through cancer-related avoidance an average of 2 months after diagnosis was associated with likelihood of being in the high depressive symptom trajectory class and occurrence of a MDE during the year. Less decline in avoidant coping over time also predicted poor outcomes. In contrast, high initial engagement in approach-oriented coping, as well as increases in coping through emotional expression and acceptance, were associated with lower depressive symptoms across assessments and higher likelihood of being in the recovery or low trajectory class. CONCLUSIONS:Greater engagement in cancer-related avoidant coping was associated with all three indicators of depression, and greater approach-oriented coping was related to more favorable outcomes (except MDE). Sustained or increasing coping through emotional expression or acceptance predicted recovery from initially high depressive symptoms. Approach- and avoidance-oriented coping processes constitute malleable targets for preventive and ameliorative approaches. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Project description:Job related factors have been associated with higher risk for developing depression, but past studies lacked full consideration of individual factors such as personality and coping. We sought to evaluate associations of personality, coping, job characteristics, and burnout with 12-month trajectories of depressive symptoms among nursing workers.Cohort of nursing workers (N?=?281) in a private hospital system, with baseline assessments of personality, job characteristics, and coping. Burnout and depression were measured at baseline and during monthly follow-ups. Linear mixed modeling was used to examine contributions to between- and within-individual variation in monthly depressive symptoms.Personality trait of negative affectivity accounted for 36% of between-individual variation in depressive symptoms over 12 months, while job characteristics and coping explained an additional 5% and 8% of this variation, respectively. Exhaustion dimension of burnout was associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms (fixed effect ? coefficient 2.44, p?<?0.001), but not with within-individual variation in symptoms. Disengagement dimension of burnout was not associated with between-individual variation in depressive symptoms, but contributed to within-individual variation in depressive symptoms over time (fixed effect ? coefficient 0.52, p?=?0.01).Participants were nursing workers within a single hospital system. Participants who were excluded due to missing baseline data were more likely of non-white race, which may also limit the generalizability of our results. We used latent variables to represent certain job and coping characteristics, which may make our results less comparable with other studies examining the role of these factors in work-associated depression.Future interventions to prevent depression in healthcare workers should consider multiple job and individual factors. Potential components include strategies to manage negative affectivity and reduce avoidant coping, such as cognitive reframing and mindfulness-based techniques, and organizational approaches to address burnout through augmentation of job resources.