Chitosan-Hydrogel Polymeric Scaffold Acts as an Independent Primary Inducer of Osteogenic Differentiation in Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells.
ABSTRACT: Regenerative medicine aims to restore damaged tissues and mainly takes advantage of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs), either alone or combined with three-dimensional scaffolds. The scaffold is generally considered a support, and its contribution to hMSC proliferation and differentiation is unknown or poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of an innovative three-dimensional gelatin-chitosan hybrid hydrogel scaffold (HC) to activate the osteogenic differentiation process in hMSCs. We seeded hMSCs from adipose tissue (AT-hMSCs) and bone marrow (BM-hMSCs) in highly performing HC of varying chitosan content in the presence of growing medium (GM) or osteogenic medium (OM) combined with Fetal Bovine Serum (FBS) or human platelet lysate (hPL). We primarily evaluated the viability and the proliferation of AT-hMSCs and BM-hMSCs under different conditions. Then, in order to analyse the activation of osteogenic differentiation, the osteopontin (OPN) transcript was absolutely quantified at day 21 by digital PCR. OPN was expressed under all conditions, in both BM-hMSCs and AT-hMSCs. Cells seeded in HC cultured with OM+hPL presented the highest OPN transcript levels, as expected. Interestingly, both BM-hMSCs and AT-hMSCs cultured with GM+FBS expressed OPN. In particular, BM-hMSCs cultured with GM+FBS expressed more OPN than those cultured with GM+hPL and OM+FBS; AT-hMSCs cultured with GM+FBS presented a lower expression of OPN when compared with those cultured with GM+hPL, but no significant difference was detected when compared with AT-hMSCs cultured with OM+FBS. No OPN expression was detected in negative controls. These results show the capability of HC to primarily and independently activate osteogenic differentiation pathways in hMCSs. Therefore, these scaffolds may be considered no more as a simple support, rather than active players in the differentiative and regenerative process.
Project description:We recently developed and characterized a standardized and clinical grade human Platelet Lysate (hPL) that constitutes an advantageous substitute for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) expansion required in cell therapy procedures, avoiding xenogenic risks (virological and immunological) and ethical issues. Because of the progressive use of pathogen-reduced (PR) labile blood components, and the requirement of ensuring the viral safety of raw materials for cell therapy products, we evaluated the impact of the novel procedure known as THERAFLEX UV-Platelets for pathogen reduction on hPL quality (growth factors content) and efficacy (as a medium supplement for hMSC expansion). This technology is based on short-wave ultraviolet light (UV-C) that induces non-reversible damages in DNA and RNA of pathogens while preserving protein structures and functions, and has the main advantage of not needing the addition of any photosensitizing additives (that might secondarily interfere with hMSCs).We applied the THERAFLEX UV-Platelets procedure on fresh platelet concentrates (PCs) suspended in platelet additive solution and prepared hPL from these treated PCs. We compared the quality and efficacy of PR-hPL with the corresponding non-PR ones. We found no impact on the content of five cytokines tested (EGF, bFGF, PDGF-AB, VEGF and IGF-1) but a significant decrease in TGF-ß1 (-21%, n = 11, p<0.01). We performed large-scale culture of hMSCs from bone marrow (BM) during three passages and showed that hPL or PR-hPL at 8% triggered comparable BM-hMSC proliferation as FBS at 10% plus bFGF. Moreover, after proliferation of hMSCs in an hPL- or PR-hPL-containing medium, their profile of membrane marker expression, their clonogenic potential and immunosuppressive properties were maintained, in comparison with BM-hMSCs cultured under FBS conditions. The potential to differentiate towards the adipogenic and osteogenic lineages of hMSCs cultured in parallel in the three conditions also remained identical.We demonstrated the feasibility of using UV-C-treated platelets to subsequently obtain pathogen-reduced hPL, while preserving its optimal quality and efficacy for hMSC expansion in cell therapy applications.
Project description:Human platelet lysate (hPL) has been considered as the preferred supplement for the xeno-free stem cell culture for many years. However, the biological effect of hPL on the proliferation and differentiation of dental stem cells combined with the use of medical grade synthetic biomaterial is still under investigation. Thus, the optimal scaffold composition, cell type and specific growth conditions, yet need to be formulated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the regenerative potential of dental stem cells seeded on synthetic scaffolds and maintained in osteogenic media supplemented with either hPL or xeno-derived fetal bovine serum (FBS). Two types of dental stem cells were isolated from human impacted third molars and intact teeth; stem cells of apical papilla (SCAP) and periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs). Cells were expanded in cell culture media supplemented with either hPL or FBS. Consequently, proliferative capacity, immunophenotypic characteristics and multilineage differentiation potential of the derived cells were evaluated on monolayer culture (2D) and on synthetic scaffolds fabricated from poly 'lactic-co-glycolic' acid (PLGA) (3D). The functionality of the induced cells was examined by measuring the concentration of osteogenic markers ALP, OCN and OPN at different time points. Our results indicate that the isolated dental stem cells showed similar mesenchymal characteristics when cultured on hPL or FBS-containing culture media. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and H&E staining revealed the proper adherence of the derived cells on the 3D scaffold cultures. Moreover, the increase in the concentration of osteogenic markers proved that hPL was able to produce functional osteoblasts in both culture conditions (2D and 3D), in a way similar to FBS culture. These results reveal that hPL provides a suitable substitute to the animal-derived serum, for the growth and functionality of both SCAP and PDLSCs. Thus the use of hPL, in combination with PLGA scaffolds, can be useful in future clinical trials for dental regeneration.
Project description:Gingiva has been identified as a minimally invasive source of multipotent progenitor cells (GPCs) for use in bone tissue engineering (BTE). To facilitate clinical translation, it is important to characterize GPCs in xeno-free cultures. Recent evidence indicates several advantages of three-dimensional (3D) spheroid cultures of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) over conventional 2D monolayers. The present study aimed to characterize human GPCs in xeno-free 2D cultures, and to test their osteogenic potential in 3D cultures, in comparison to bone marrow MSCs (BMSCs). Primary GPCs and BMSCs were expanded in human platelet lysate (HPL) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) and characterized based on in vitro proliferation, immunophenotype and multi-lineage differentiation. Next, 3D spheroids of GPCs and BMSCs were formed via self-assembly and cultured in HPL. Expression of stemness- (SOX2, OCT4, NANOG) and osteogenesis-related markers (BMP2, RUNX2, OPN, OCN) was assessed at gene and protein levels in 3D and 2D cultures. The cytokine profile of 3D and 2D GPCs and BMSCs was assessed via a multiplex immunoassay. Monolayer GPCs in both HPL and FBS demonstrated a characteristic MSC-like immunophenotype and multi-lineage differentiation; osteogenic differentiation of GPCs was enhanced in HPL vs. FBS. CD271+ GPCs in HPL spontaneously acquired a neuronal phenotype and strongly expressed neuronal/glial markers. 3D spheroids of GPCs and BMSCs with high cell viability were formed in HPL media. Expression of stemness- and osteogenesis-related genes was significantly upregulated in 3D vs. 2D GPCs/BMSCs; the latter was independent of osteogenic induction. Synthesis of SOX2, BMP2 and OCN was confirmed via immunostaining, and in vitro mineralization via Alizarin red staining. Finally, secretion of several growth factors and chemokines was enhanced in GPC/BMSC spheroids, while that of pro-inflammatory cytokines was reduced, compared to monolayers. In summary, monolayer GPCs expanded in HPL demonstrate enhanced osteogenic differentiation potential, comparable to that of BMSCs. Xeno-free spheroid culture further enhances stemness- and osteogenesis-related gene expression, and cytokine secretion in GPCs, comparable to that of BMSCs.
Project description:Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) are a promising strategy for orthopaedic applications, particularly in bone repair. Ex vivo expansion of ADMSCs is required to obtain sufficient cell numbers. Xenogenic supplements should be avoided in order to minimise the risk of infections and immunological reactions. Human platelet lysate and human plasma may be an excellent material source for ADMSC expansion. In the present study, use of blood products after their recommended transfusion date to prepare human platelet lysate (HPL) and human plasma (Hplasma) was evaluated for in vitro culture expansion and osteogenesis of ADMSCs.Human ADMSCs were cultured in medium supplemented with HPL, Hplasma and a combination of HPL and Hplasma (HPL+Hplasma). Characteristics of these ADMSCs, including osteogenesis, were evaluated in comparison with those cultured in fetal bovine serum (FBS).HPL and HPL+Hplasma had a significantly greater growth-promoting effect than FBS, while Hplasma exhibited a similar growth-promoting effect to that of FBS. ADMSCs cultured in HPL and/or Hplasma generated more colony-forming unit fibroblasts (CFU-F) than those cultured in FBS. After long-term culture, ADMSCs cultured in HPL and/or Hplasma showed reduced cellular senescence, retained typical cell phenotypes, and retained differentiation capacities into osteogenic and adipogenic lineages.HPL and Hplasma prepared from blood products after their recommended transfusion date can be used as an alternative and effective source for large-scale ex vivo expansion of ADMSCs.Cite this article: J. Phetfong, T. Tawonsawatruk, K. Seenprachawong, A. Srisarin, C. Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, A. Supokawej. Re-using blood products as an alternative supplement in the optimisation of clinical-grade adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cell culture. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:414-422. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.67.BJR-2016-0342.R1.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that platelet concentrates used in conjunction with appropriate growth media enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs). However, their potential in inducing osteogenesis of hMSCs when cultured in serum free medium has not been explored. Furthermore, the resulting osteogenic molecular signatures of the hMSCs have not been compared to standard osteogenic medium. We studied the effect of infrequent supplementation (8-day interval) of 15% non-activated platelet-rich concentrate (PRC) in serum free medium on hMSCs proliferation and differentiation throughout a course of 24 days, and compared the effect with those cultured in a standard osteogenic medium (OM). Cell proliferation was analyzed by alamar blue assay. Gene expression of osteogenic markers (Runx2, Collagen1, Alkaline Phosphatase, Bone morphogenetic protein 2, Osteopontin, Osteocalcin, Osteonectin) were analyzed using Q-PCR. Immunocytochemical staining for osteocalcin, osteopontin and transcription factor Runx2 were done at 8, 16 and 24 days. Biochemical assays for the expression of ALP and osteocalcin were also performed at these time-points. Osteogenic differentiation was further confirmed qualitatively by Alizarin Red S staining that was quantified using cetylpyridinium chloride. Results showed that PRC supplemented in serum free medium enhanced hMSC proliferation, which peaked at day 16. The temporal pattern of gene expression of hMSCs under the influence of PRC was comparable to that of the osteogenic media, but at a greater extent at specific time points. Immunocytochemical staining revealed stronger staining for Runx2 in the PRC-treated group compared to OM, while the staining for Osteocalcin and Osteopontin were comparable in both groups. ALP activity and Osteocalcin/DNA level were higher in the PRC group. Cells in the PRC group had similar level of bone mineralization as those cultured in OM, as reflected by the intensity of Alizarin red stain. Collectively, these results demonstrate a great potential of PRC alone in inducing proliferation of hMSCs without any influence from other lineage-specific growth media. PRC alone has similar capacity to enhance hMSC osteogenic differentiation as a standard OM, without changing the temporal profile of the differentiation process. Thus, PRC could be used as a substitute medium to provide sufficient pool of pre-differentiated hMSCs for potential clinical application in bone regeneration.
Project description:Stem cells derived from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of debrided burned skin represent an appealing source of adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) for regenerative medicine. Traditional tissue culture uses fetal bovine serum (FBS), which complicates utilization of ASCs in human medicine. Human platelet lysate (hPL) is one potential xeno-free, alternative supplement for use in ASC culture. In this study, adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation in media supplemented with 10% FBS or 10% hPL was compared in human ASCs derived from abdominoplasty (HAP) or from adipose associated with debrided burned skin (BH). Most (95-99%) cells cultured in FBS were stained positive for CD73, CD90, CD105, and CD142. FBS supplementation was associated with increased triglyceride content and expression of adipogenic genes. Culture in hPL significantly decreased surface staining of CD105 by 31% and 48% and CD142 by 27% and 35% in HAP and BH, respectively (p < 0.05). Culture of BH-ASCs in hPL also increased expression of markers of osteogenesis and increased ALP activity. These data indicate that application of ASCs for wound healing may be influenced by ASC source as well as culture conditions used to expand them. As such, these factors must be taken into consideration before ASCs are used for regenerative purposes.
Project description:Human embryonic stem cell-derived mesenchymal progenitor (hES-MP) cells are mesenchymal-like cells, derived from human embryonic stem cells without the aid of feeder cells. They have been suggested as a potential alternative to mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) in regenerative medicine due to their mesenchymal-like proliferation and differentiation characteristics. Cells and cell products intended for regenerative medicine in humans should be derived, expanded and differentiated using conditions free of animal-derived products to minimize risk of animal-transmitted disease and immune reactions to foreign proteins. Human platelets are rich in growth factors needed for cell culture and have been used successfully as an animal serum replacement for MSC expansion and differentiation. In this study, we compared the proliferation of hES-MP cells and MSCs; the hES-MP cell growth was sustained for longer than that of MSCs. Growth factors, gene expression, and surface marker expression in hES-MP cells cultured with either human platelet lysate (hPL) or fetal bovine serum (FBS) supplementation were compared, along with differentiation to osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages. Despite some differences between hES-MP cells grown in hPL- and FBS-supplemented media, hPL was found to be a suitable replacement for FBS. In this paper, we demonstrate for the first time that hES-MP cells can be grown using platelet lysates from expired platelet concentrates (hPL).
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human platelet lysate (HPL) is emerging as the preferred xeno-free supplement for the expansion of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) for bone tissue engineering (BTE) applications. Due to a growing demand, the need for standardization and scaling-up of HPL has been highlighted. However, the optimal storage time of the source material, i.e., outdated platelet concentrates (PCs), remains to be determined. The present study aimed to determine the optimal storage time of PCs in terms of the cytokine content and biological efficacy of HPL. METHODS:Donor-matched bone marrow (BMSCs) and adipose-derived MSCs (ASCs) expanded in HPL or fetal bovine serum (FBS) were characterized based on in vitro proliferation, immunophenotype, and multi-lineage differentiation. Osteogenic differentiation was assessed at early (gene expression), intermediate [alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity], and terminal stages (mineralization). Using a multiplex immunoassay, the cytokine contents of HPLs produced from PCs stored for 1-9?months were screened and a preliminary threshold of 4?months was identified. Next, HPLs were produced from PCs stored for controlled durations of 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4?months, and their efficacy was compared in terms of cytokine content and BMSCs' proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. RESULTS:BMSCs and ASCs in both HPL and FBS demonstrated a characteristic immunophenotype and multi-lineage differentiation; osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs and ASCs was significantly enhanced in HPL vs. FBS. Multiplex network analysis of HPL revealed several interacting growth factors, chemokines, and inflammatory cytokines. Notably, stem cell growth factor (SCGF) was detected in high concentrations. A majority of cytokines were elevated in HPLs produced from PCs stored for ??4?months vs. >?4?months. However, no further differences in PC storage times between 0 and 4?months were identified in terms of HPLs' cytokine content or their effects on the proliferation, ALP activity, and mineralization of BMSCs from multiple donors. CONCLUSIONS:MSCs expanded in HPL demonstrate enhanced osteogenic differentiation, albeit with considerable donor variation. HPLs produced from outdated PCs stored for up to 4?months efficiently supported the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of MSCs. These findings may facilitate the standardization and scaling-up of HPL from outdated PCs for BTE applications.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Innovative human stromal cell therapeutics require xeno-free culture conditions. Various formulations of human platelet lysate (HPL) are efficient alternatives for fetal bovine serum (FBS). However, a consistent lack of standardized manufacturing protocols and quality criteria hampers comparability of HPL-products. Aim of this study was to compare the biochemical composition of three differential HPL-preparations with FBS and to investigate their impact on stromal cell biology. METHODS:Stromal cells were isolated from bone marrow (BM), white adipose tissue (WAT) and umbilical cord (UC) and cultured in medium supplemented with pooled HPL (pHPL), fibrinogen-depleted serum-converted pHPL (pHPLS), mechanically fibrinogen-depleted pHPL (mcpHPL) and FBS. Biochemical parameters were analyzed in comparison to standard values in whole blood. Distinct growth factors and cytokines were measured by bead-based multiplex technology. Flow cytometry of stromal cell immunophenotype, in vitro differentiation, and mRNA expression analysis of transcription factors SOX2, KLF4, cMYC, OCT4 and NANOG were performed. RESULTS:Biochemical parameters were comparable in all pHPL preparations, but to some extent different to FBS. Total protein, glucose, cholesterol and Na+ were elevated in pHPL preparations, K+ and Fe3+ levels were higher in FBS. Compared to FBS, pHPL-based media significantly enhanced stromal cell propagation. Characteristic immunophenotype and in vitro differentiation potential were maintained in all four culture conditions. The analysis of growth factors and cytokines revealed distinct levels depending on the pre-existence in pHPL, consumption or secretion by the stromal cells. Interestingly, mRNA expression of the transcription and mitotic bookmarking factors cMYC and KLF4 was significantly enhanced in a source dependent manner in stromal cells cultured in pHPL- compared to FBS-supplemented media. SOX2 mRNA expression of all stromal cell types was increased in all pHPL culture conditions. CONCLUSION:All pHPL-supplemented media equally supported proliferation of WAT- and UC-derived stromal cells significantly better than FBS. Mitotic bookmarking factors, known to enable a quick re-entry to the cell cycle, were significantly enhanced in pHPL-expanded cells. Our results support a better characterization and standardization of humanized culture media for stromal cell-based medicinal products.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) is a valuable source of cell therapy. By stimulating extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion, ASC sheets can be fabricated with enhanced regenerative capabilities. In recent years, human platelet lysate (HPL) provides an attractive alternative to fetal bovine serum (FBS) for the ex vivo expansion of ASCs for clinical use. However, the effect of HPL on ASC sheet formation has not been previously determined. In this study, we compared ECM composition and cellular characteristics of ASC sheets cultured in growth medium supplemented with either FBS or HPL. HPL supplement significantly enhanced ASC proliferation without obvious change in the expression pattern of cell surface markers. We found that culturing ASCs with HPL rendered thicker cell sheets with significantly more ECM deposition, including collagen and fibronectin. Proteomic analysis of the FBS or HPL-cultured cell sheets showed diversity in ECM composition. HPL-cultured ASC sheets exhibited up-regulation of interleukin-6 and an anti-inflammatory cytokine, C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-3. Conditioned medium of HPL-cultured ASC sheets significantly enhanced fibroblast migration and tube formation of endothelial cells in vitro, while it inhibited the migration of macrophages toward stimulated macrophages in vitro. TGF-?1-stimulated fibroblasts cultured in ASC sheet-conditioned medium showed down-regulation of ?-SMA and TGF-?1. By adding an anti-hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) neutralizing antibody in conditioned medium, we indicated that an anti-fibrosis effect of HPL-cultured ASC sheets is partially mediated through the increased secretion of HGF. Moreover, chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay showed comparable capillary density after applying either FBS or HPL-cultured ASC sheets, both of which were significantly higher than the control. In conclusion, robust ECM formation with altered ECM composition was noted in ASC sheets cultured in HPL-supplemented medium. Their immunomodulatory and pro-angiogenesis capabilities were largely maintained. Our findings paved the way to elucidate the potential of HPL-cultured ASC sheets for clinical application in tissue regeneration.