Access to highly substituted oxazoles by the reaction of ?-azidochalcone with potassium thiocyanate.
ABSTRACT: The reactivity of ?-azidochalcones has been explored for the preparation of highly substituted oxazoles via a 2H-azirine intermediate. The azidochalcones, when treated with potassium thiocyanate in the presence of potassium persulfate, lead to 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles in good yields. Incidentally, 2-aminothiazoles are the products when ferric nitrate is employed instead of persulfate in the above reaction.
Project description:A novel method for the synthesis of trisubstituted oxazoles via a one-pot oxazole synthesis/Suzuki-Miyaura coupling sequence has been developed. One-pot formation of 5-(triazinyloxy)oxazoles using carboxylic acids, amino acids and a dehydrative condensing reagent, DMT-MM, followed by Ni-catalyzed Suzuki-Miyaura coupling with boronic acids provided the corresponding 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles in good yields.
Project description:A copper(II)-catalyzed oxidative cyclization of enamides to oxazoles via vinylic C-H bond functionalization at room temperature is described. Various 2,5-disubstituted oxazoles bearing aryl, vinyl, alkyl, and heteroaryl substituents could be synthesized in moderate to high yields. This reaction protocol is complementary to our previously reported iodine-mediated cyclization of enamides to afford 2,4,5-trisubstituted oxazoles.
Project description:New routes to 2, 4, 5-trisubstituted oxazoles were established whereby the substitution pattern was established by the structure of the starting nonsymmetrical acyloins. 2-Chloromethyl-4, 5-disubstituted oxazoles were prepared by refinements of an earlier described process whereby chloroacetyl esters of symmetrical and non-symmetrical acyloins were cyclized using an ammonium acetate/acetic acid protocol. After substitution is effected, the azide moiety is then installed by substitution under mild conditions. While dibrominated and iodinated phenyloxazoles are required for further synthetic elaboration, the cyclization reaction was found to be very sensitive to the relative positions of the halogens in the starting materials.
Project description:The reaction of ?-azidochalcones with carboxylic acids has been investigated resulting in the formation of ?-amido-1,3-diketones under microwave irradiation via in situ formation of 2H-azirine intermediates. An interesting reaction is described wherein, with trifluoroacetic acid at lower temperature, it affords highly substituted 2-(trifluoromethyl)oxazoles. These flexible transformations proceed under solvent free conditions in good to excellent yields without any catalyst.
Project description:An efficient three-step protocol was developed to produce 2-(azidomethyl)oxazoles from vinyl azides in a continuous-flow process. The general synthetic strategy involves a thermolysis of vinyl azides to generate azirines, which react with bromoacetyl bromide to provide 2-(bromomethyl)oxazoles. The latter compounds are versatile building blocks for nucleophilic displacement reactions as demonstrated by their subsequent treatment with NaN3 in aqueous medium to give azido oxazoles in good selectivity. Process integration enabled the synthesis of this useful moiety in short overall residence times (7 to 9 min) and in good overall yields.
Project description:In this study, a highly efficient two-component [3 + 2] cycloaddition reaction of substituted aryl aldehydes with 4-toluenesulfonylmethyl isocyanide (TosMIC) in the presence of 2 equiv of potassium phosphate as a base to 5-substituted oxazoles were established in a isopropanol medium under microwave irradiation. However, using 1 equiv of K3PO4 as a base resulted in the diastereoselective synthesis of 4,5-disubstituted oxazolines under identical reaction conditions. The foremost benefits of these protocols are the moderate-to-excellent yields with good functional group compatibility, simple experimental procedure, inexpensive readily available starting materials, nonchromatographic purification, and high bond-forming efficiency. The synthetic manipulation reported herein represents a cleaner route to the sustainable preparation of 5-substituted oxazoles and diastereoselective 4,5-disubstituted oxazolines derivatives.
Project description:Cyanide fishing, where a solution of sodium or potassium cyanide is used to stun reef fish for easy capture for the marine aquarium and live fish food trades, continues to be pervasive despite being illegal in many countries and destructive to coral reef ecosystems. Currently, there is no easy, reliable and universally accepted method to detect if a fish has been exposed to cyanide during the capture process. A promising non-invasive technique for detecting thiocyanate ions, the metabolic byproduct excreted by exposed fish, has been reported in the literature. In an effort to validate this method, four cyanide exposure studies on Amphiprion ocellaris (common clownfish) were carried out over three years. Fish were either exposed to the same (25 ppm) or twice the concentration (50 ppm) as the previsouly published method. Over 100 water samples of fish exposed to cyanide were analyzed by reverse phase HPLC with a C30 column treated with polyethylene glycol and UV detector operating at 220 nm. No thiocyanate was detected beyond the analytical standards and positive controls prepared in seawater. As an alternate means of detecting thiocyanate, water samples and thiocyanate standards from these exposures were derivatized with monobromobimane (MBB) for LC-MS/MS analysis. Thiocyanate was detected in standards with concentrations as low as 0.6 ?g/L and quantified to 1 ?g/L, but thiocyanate could not be detected in any of the water samples from fish exposed to cyanide with this method either, confirming the HPLC results. Further, we calculated both the mass balance of thiocyanate and the resultant plausible dosage of cyanide from the data reported in the previously published method. These calculations, along with the known lethal dosage of cyanide, further suggests that the detection of thiocyanate in aquarium water is not a viable method for assessing fish exposure to cyanide.
Project description:A transition metal-free process has been reported for 1,2-dithiocyanation of alkynes in the presence of sodium persulfate and potassium thiocyanate reagent combination in a short reaction time under ambient air. Styrene derivatives are equally applicable under the same reaction conditions. Monothiocyanated vinyl derivatives were also synthesized from 2-ethynylpyridine and dimethyl acetylene dicarboxylate. The reaction proceeds by the radical/polar pathway as evidenced from our experiments and literature. After removal of the solvent from the reaction mixture by evaporation, the crude product was purified without conventional workup.
Project description:An electrochemical iodine-mediated transformation of enamino-esters for the synthesis of 2H-azirine-2-carboxylates is presented. In addition, a thermic conversion of azirines to 4-carboxy-oxazoles in quantitative yield without purification was described. Both classes 2H-azirines-2-carboxylates and the 4-carboxy-oxazoles are substructures in natural products and therefore are of considerable interest for synthetic and pharmaceutical chemists. The optimization was not performed in a conventional manner with a one-factor-at-a-time process but with a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach. Beside a broad substrate scope the reaction was also employed to a robustness screen, a sensitivity assessment, and complemented with mechanistic considerations from cyclic voltammetry experiments.
Project description:Two new and five known oxazoles were identified from two different Pseudomonas strains in addition to the known pyrones pseudopyronine A and B. Labeling experiments confirmed their structures and gave initial evidence for a novel biosynthesis pathway of these natural oxazoles. In order to confirm their structure, they were synthesized, which also allowed tests of their bioactivity. Additionally, the bioactivities of the synthesis intermediates were also investigated revealing interesting biological activities for several compounds despite their overall simple structures.