Circulating miR-134 is a potential biomarker for diagnosis and monitoring of major depressive disorder.
ABSTRACT: Aim: to investigate the diagnostic value of circulating miR-134 in major depressive disorder (MDD). Plasma miR-134 levels were determined in patients with MDD, bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SCZ), as well as in healthy controls using quantitative real-time PCR. The diagnostic value of circulating miR-134 was assessed using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis. A chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model was established to evaluate the miR-134 expression pattern in serum and diseased brain tissues. Plasma miR-134 levels in MDD patients were significantly lower than those in healthy controls and patients with BD or SCZ. In addition, plasma miR-134 levels could be used to discriminate MDD patients from healthy controls (areas under the curve (AUC) = 0.901), healthy controls + patients with BD or SCZ (AUC = 0.864), patients with SCZ (AUC = 0.856), patients with SCZ or BD (AUC = 0.828), and patients with BD (AUC = 0.799), respectively. In CUMS rats, the miR-134 levels in plasma (P < 0.001), prefrontal cortex (P = 0.031), and hippocampus (P = 0.006) were consistently reduced compared with those in control group, with the exception of those in olfactory bulb (P = 0.565). Circulating miR-134 a potential biomarker for MDD diagnosis and monitoring.
Project description:Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a prevalent and debilitating psychiatric mood disorder that lacks objective laboratory-based tests to support its diagnosis. A class of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been found to be centrally involved in regulating many molecular processes fundamental to central nervous system function. Among these miRNAs, miRNA-134 (miR-134) has been reported to be related to neurogenesis and synaptic plasticity. In this study, the hypothesis that plasma miR-134 can be used to diagnose MDD was tested. Perturbation of peripheral and central miR-134 in a depressive-like rat model was also examined. By reverse-transcription quantitative PCR, miR-134 was comparatively measured in a small set of plasma samples from MDD and healthy control (HC) subjects. To determine its diagnostic efficacy, plasma miR-134 levels were assessed in 100 MDD, 50 bipolar disorder (BD), 50 schizophrenic (SCZ), and 100 HC subjects. A chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) rat model was also developed to evaluate miR-134 expression in plasma, hippocampus (HIP), prefrontal cortex (PFC), and olfactory bulb. We found that plasma miR-134 was significantly downregulated in MDD subjects. Diagnostically, plasma miR-134 levels could effectively distinguish MDD from HC with 79% sensitivity and 84% specificity, while distinguishing MDD from HC, BD, and SCZ subjects with 79% sensitivity and 76.5% specificity. Congruent with these clinical findings, CUMS significantly reduced miR-134 levels in the rat plasma, HIP, and PFC. Although limited by the relatively small sample size, these results demonstrated that plasma miR-134 displays potential ability as a biomarker for MDD.
Project description:Altered connectivity of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and hippocampus during working memory is considered an intermediate phenotype for schizophrenia (SCZ), but the relevance for other mental disorders with shared genetic background remains unknown. Here we investigated its presence in unaffected first-degree relatives of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) or major depressive disorder (MDD). Furthermore, we aimed to provide an independent replication of this phenotype in first-degree relatives of SCZ patients. We acquired functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data from 309 healthy controls and 218 healthy first-degree relatives of index patients with SCZ (n = 62), BD (n = 66) and MDD (n = 90), who completed the n-back working memory paradigm. We observed a significant group effect on DLPFC-hippocampus coupling (PFWE = .031, all P-values region of interest [ROI] corrected). Post hoc comparisons revealed that this effect was driven by the SCZ relatives, who showed a significant increase in the negative functional connectivity of the DLPFC and right hippocampus compared to controls (PFWE = .001), BD relatives (PFWE = .015) and trend-wise also MDD relatives (PFWE = .082). Comparison of BD and MDD relatives to the controls revealed no difference (PFWE-values > .451). Supplementary analyses suggested that the SCZ relatives finding is robust to a range of potential confounds, including structural differences. Our data further support altered DLPFC-hippocampus connectivity during working memory as an intermediate phenotype for SCZ. This suggests that this phenotype is relatively specific to SCZ and does not translate to other genetically related disorders in the mood-psychosis spectrum.
Project description:Brain network alterations have increasingly been implicated in schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD). However, little is known about the similarities and differences in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. A total of 512 participants (121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls, matched for age and sex) completed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging at a single site. Four global measures (the clustering coefficient, the characteristic shortest path length, the normalized clustering coefficient, and the normalized characteristic path length) were computed at a voxel level to quantify segregated and integrated configurations. Inter-regional functional associations were examined based on the Euclidean distance between regions. Distance strength maps were used to localize regions with altered distances based on functional connectivity. Patient groups exhibited shifts in their network architectures toward randomized configurations, with SCZ>BD>MDD in the degree of randomization. Patient groups displayed significantly decreased short-range connectivity and increased medium-/long-range connectivity. Decreases in short-range connectivity were similar across the SZ, BD, and MDD groups and were primarily distributed in the primary sensory and association cortices and the thalamus. Increases in medium-/long-range connectivity were differentially localized within the prefrontal cortices among the patient groups. We highlight shared and distinct connectivity features in functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD, which expands our understanding of the common and distinct pathophysiological mechanisms and provides crucial insights into neuroimaging-based methods for the early diagnosis of and interventions for psychiatric disorders.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD) are heritable psychiatric disorders with partially overlapping genetic liability. Shared and disorder-specific neurobiological abnormalities associated with familial risk for developing mental illnesses are largely unknown. We performed a meta-analysis of structural brain imaging studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD to identify overlapping and discrete brain structural correlates of familial risk for mental disorders. Search for voxel-based morphometry studies in relatives of patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD in PubMed and Embase identified 33 studies with 2292 relatives and 2052 healthy controls (HC). Seed-based d Mapping software was used to investigate global differences in gray matter volumes between relatives as a group versus HC, and between those of each psychiatric disorder and HC. As a group, relatives exhibited gray matter abnormalities in left supramarginal gyrus, right striatum, right inferior frontal gyrus, left thalamus, bilateral insula, right cerebellum, and right superior frontal gyrus, compared with HC. Decreased right cerebellar gray matter was the only abnormality common to relatives of all three conditions. Subgroup analyses showed disorder-specific gray matter abnormalities in left thalamus and bilateral insula associated with risk for SCZ, in left supramarginal gyrus and right frontal regions with risk for BD, and in right striatum with risk for MDD. While decreased gray matter in right cerebellum might be a common brain structural abnormality associated with shared risk for SCZ, BD, and MDD, regional gray matter abnormalities in neocortex, thalamus, and striatum appear to be disorder-specific.
Project description:Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) have been suggested to participate in the pathogenesis of neuropsychiatric diseases, but their role in major depressive disorder (MDD) is unknown. We performed a genome-wide miRNA expression profiling of blood-derived exosomes from MDD patients and control subjects and revealed the top differentially expressed exosomal miRNA, i.e. hsa-miR-139-5p (upregulation), had good performance to differentiate between MDD patients and controls. Tail vein injection of blood exosomes isolated from MDD patients into normal mice caused their depressive-like behaviors as determined by the forced swimming, tail suspension, and novelty suppressed feeding tests, and injection of blood exosomes isolated from healthy volunteers into unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-treated mice alleviated their depressive-like behaviors. CUMS mice also showed significantly increased blood and brain levels of exosomal miR-139-5p. Furthermore, the depressive-like behaviors in CUMS-treated mice were rescued by intranasal injection of miR-139-5p antagomir, suggesting that increased exosomal miR-139-5p levels may mediate stress-induced depression-like behavior in mice. Both exosome treatment and miR-139-5p antagomir treatment increased hippocampal neurogenesis in the CUMS-treated mice, and treatment of exosome from MDD patients decreased hippocampal neurogenesis in the normal mice. The role of miR-139-5p in neurogenesis was validated by in vitro experiments, demonstrating that miR-139-5p is a negative regulator for neural stem cell proliferation and neuronal differentiation. Our findings together suggest that exosomes from patients with major depression caused depressive-like behaviors in mice with involvement of miR-139-5p-regulated neurogenesis. Therefore, exosomal miRNAs are promising targets for the diagnosis and treatment of MDD.
Project description:Psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia (SCZ), bipolar disorder (BD), and major depressive disorder (MDD), share clinical and neurobiological features. Because previous investigations of functional dysconnectivity have mainly focused on single disorders, the transdiagnostic alterations in the functional connectome architecture of the brain remain poorly understood. We collected resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 512 participants, including 121 with SCZ, 100 with BD, 108 with MDD, and 183 healthy controls. Individual functional brain connectomes were constructed in a voxelwise manner, and the modular architectures were examined at different scales, including (1) global modularity, (2) module-specific segregation and intra- and intermodular connections, and (3) nodal participation coefficients. The correlation of these modular measures with clinical scores was also examined. We reliably identify common alterations in modular organization in patients compared to controls, including (1) lower global modularity; (2) lower modular segregation in the frontoparietal, subcortical, visual, and sensorimotor modules driven by more intermodular connections; and (3) higher participation coefficients in several network connectors (the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and angular gyrus) and the thalamus. Furthermore, the alterations in the SCZ group are more widespread than those of the BD and MDD groups and involve more intermodular connections, lower modular segregation and higher connector integrity. These alterations in modular organization significantly correlate with clinical scores in patients. This study demonstrates common hyper-integrated modular architectures of functional brain networks among patients with SCZ, BD, and MDD. These findings reveal a transdiagnostic mechanism of network dysfunction across psychiatric disorders from a connectomic perspective.
Project description:Schizophrenia (SCZ) is a highly heterogeneous disorder with remarkable intersubject variability in clinical presentations. Previous neuroimaging studies in SCZ have primarily focused on identifying group-averaged differences in the brain connectome between patients and healthy controls (HCs), largely neglecting the intersubject differences among patients. We acquired whole-brain resting-state functional MRI data from 121 SCZ patients and 183 HCs and examined the intersubject variability of the functional connectome (IVFC) in SCZ patients and HCs. Between-group differences were determined using permutation analysis. Then, we evaluated the relationship between IVFC and clinical variables in SCZ. Finally, we used datasets of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) to assess the specificity of IVFC alteration in SCZ. The whole-brain IVFC pattern in the SCZ group was generally similar to that in HCs. Compared with the HC group, the SCZ group exhibited higher IVFC in the bilateral sensorimotor, visual, auditory, and subcortical regions. Moreover, altered IVFC was negatively correlated with age of onset, illness duration, and Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores and positively correlated with clinical heterogeneity. Although the SCZ shared altered IVFC in the visual cortex with BD and MDD, the alterations of IVFC in the sensorimotor, auditory, and subcortical cortices were specific to SCZ. The alterations of whole-brain IVFC in SCZ have potential implications for the understanding of the high clinical heterogeneity of SCZ and the future individualized clinical diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
Project description:Cortical gyrification of the brain represents the folding characteristic of the cerebral cortex. How the brain cortical gyrification changes from childhood to old age in healthy human subjects is still unclear. Additionally, studies have shown regional gyrification alterations in patients with major psychiatric disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia (SCZ). However, whether the lifespan trajectory of gyrification over the brain is altered in patients diagnosed with major psychiatric disorders is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the trajectories of gyrification in three independent cohorts based on structural brain images of 881 subjects from age 4 to 83. We discovered that the trajectory of gyrification during normal development and aging was not linear and could be modeled with a logarithmic function. We also found that the gyrification trajectories of patients with MDD, BD and SCZ were deviated from the healthy one during adulthood, indicating altered aging in the brain of these patients.
Project description:Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a debilitating psychiatric illness. However, there is currently no objective laboratory-based diagnostic tests for this disorder. Although, perturbations in multiple neurotransmitter systems have been implicated in MDD, the biochemical changes underlying the disorder remain unclear, and a comprehensive global evaluation of neurotransmitters in MDD has not yet been performed. Here, using a GC-MS coupled with LC-MS/MS-based targeted metabolomics approach, we simultaneously quantified the levels of 19 plasma metabolites involved in GABAergic, catecholaminergic, and serotonergic neurotransmitter systems in 50 first-episode, antidepressant drug-naïve MDD subjects and 50 healthy controls to identify potential metabolite biomarkers for MDD (training set). Moreover, an independent sample cohort comprising 49 MDD patients, 30 bipolar disorder (BD) patients and 40 healthy controls (testing set) was further used to validate diagnostic generalizability and specificity of these candidate biomarkers. Among the 19 plasma neurotransmitter metabolites examined, nine were significantly changed in MDD subjects. These metabolites were mainly involved in GABAergic, catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems. The GABAergic and catecholaminergic had better diagnostic value than serotonergic pathway. A panel of four candidate plasma metabolite biomarkers (GABA, dopamine, tyramine, kynurenine) could distinguish MDD subjects from health controls with an AUC of 0.968 and 0.953 in the training and testing set, respectively. Furthermore, this panel distinguished MDD subjects from BD subjects with high accuracy. This study is the first to globally evaluate multiple neurotransmitters in MDD plasma. The altered plasma neurotransmitter metabolite profile has potential differential diagnostic value for MDD.
Project description:Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified >100 susceptibility loci for schizophrenia (SCZ) and demonstrated that SCZ is a polygenic disorder determined by numerous genetic variants but with small effect size. We conducted a GWAS in the Japanese (JPN) population (a) to detect novel SCZ-susceptibility genes and (b) to examine the shared genetic risk of SCZ across (East Asian [EAS] and European [EUR]) populations and/or that of trans-diseases (SCZ, bipolar disorder [BD], and major depressive disorder [MDD]) within EAS and between EAS and EUR (trans-diseases/populations). Among the discovery GWAS subjects (JPN-SCZ GWAS: 1940 SCZ cases and 7408 controls) and replication dataset (4071 SCZ cases and 54479 controls), both comprising JPN populations, 3 novel susceptibility loci for SCZ were identified: SPHKAP (Pbest = 4.1 × 10-10), SLC38A3 (Pbest = 5.7 × 10-10), and CABP1-ACADS (Pbest = 9.8 × 10-9). Subsequent meta-analysis between our samples and those of the Psychiatric GWAS Consortium (PGC; EUR samples) and another study detected 12 additional susceptibility loci. Polygenic risk score (PRS) prediction revealed a shared genetic risk of SCZ across populations (Pbest = 4.0 × 10-11) and between SCZ and BD in the JPN population (P ~ 10-40); however, a lower variance-explained was noted between JPN-SCZ GWAS and PGC-BD or MDD within/across populations. Genetic correlation analysis supported the PRS results; the genetic correlation between JPN-SCZ and PGC-SCZ was ? = 0.58, whereas a similar/lower correlation was observed between the trans-diseases (JPN-SCZ vs JPN-BD/EAS-MDD, rg = 0.56/0.29) or trans-diseases/populations (JPN-SCZ vs PGC-BD/MDD, ? = 0.38/0.12). In conclusion, (a) Fifteen novel loci are possible susceptibility genes for SCZ and (b) SCZ "risk" effect is shared with other psychiatric disorders even across populations.