Mutant Proteomics of Lung Adenocarcinomas Harboring Different EGFR Mutations.
ABSTRACT: Epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR major driver mutations may affect downstream molecular networks and pathways, which would influence treatment outcomes of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This study aimed to unveil profiles of mutant proteins expressed in lung adenocarcinomas of 36 patients harboring representative driver EGFR mutations (Ex19del, nine; L858R, nine; no Ex19del/L858R, 18). Surprisingly, the orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis performed for identified mutant proteins demonstrated the profound differences in distance among the different EGFR mutation groups, suggesting that cancer cells harboring L858R or Ex19del emerge from cellular origins different from L858R/Ex19del-negative cells. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis, together with over-representative analysis, identified 18 coexpressed modules and their eigen proteins. Pathways enriched differentially for both the L858R and Ex19del mutations included carboxylic acid metabolic process, cell cycle, developmental biology, cellular responses to stress, mitotic prophase, cell proliferation, growth, epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and immune system. The IPA causal network analysis identified the highly activated networks of PARPBP, HOXA1, and APH1 under the L858R mutation, whereas those of ASGR1, APEX1, BUB1, and MAPK10 were highly activated under the Ex19del mutation. Interestingly, the downregulated causal network of osimertinib intervention showed the highest significance in overlap p-value among most causal networks predicted under the L858R mutation. We also identified the causal network of MAPK interacting serine/threonine kinase 1/2 (MNK1/2) highly activated differentially under the L858R mutation. Tumor-suppressor AMOT, a component of the Hippo pathways, was highly inhibited commonly under both L858R and Ex19del mutations. Our results could identify disease-related protein molecular networks from the landscape of single amino acid variants. Our findings may help identify potential therapeutic targets and develop therapeutic strategies to improve patient outcomes.
Project description:It is unclear how epidermal growth factor receptor EGFR major driver mutations (L858R or Ex19del) affect downstream molecular networks and pathways. This study aimed to provide information on the influences of these mutations. The study assessed 36 protein expression profiles of lung adenocarcinoma (Ex19del, nine; L858R, nine; no Ex19del/L858R, 18). Weighted gene co-expression network analysis together with analysis of variance-based screening identified 13 co-expressed modules and their eigen proteins. Pathway enrichment analysis for the Ex19del mutation demonstrated involvement of SUMOylation, epithelial and mesenchymal transition, ERK/mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling via phosphorylation and Hippo signalling. Additionally, analysis for the L858R mutation identified various pathways related to cancer cell survival and death. With regard to the Ex19del mutation, ROCK, RPS6KA1, ARF1, IL2RA and several ErbB pathways were upregulated, whereas AURK and GSKIP were downregulated. With regard to the L858R mutation, RB1, TSC22D3 and DOCK1 were downregulated, whereas various networks, including VEGFA, were moderately upregulated. In all mutation types, CD80/CD86 (B7), MHC, CIITA and IFGN were activated, whereas CD37 and SAFB were inhibited. Costimulatory immune-checkpoint pathways by B7/CD28 were mainly activated, whereas those by PD-1/PD-L1 were inhibited. Our findings may help identify potential therapeutic targets and develop therapeutic strategies to improve patient outcomes.
Project description:PURPOSE:The third-generation EGFR inhibitor, osimertinib, is the first mutant-selective inhibitor that has received regulatory approval for the treatment of patients with EGFR-mutant lung cancer. Despite the development of highly selective third-generation inhibitors, acquired resistance remains a significant clinical challenge. Recently, we and others have identified a novel osimertinib resistance mutation, G724S, which was not predicted in in vitro screens. Here, we investigate how G724S confers resistance to osimertinib.Experimental Design: We combine structure-based predictive modeling of G724S in combination with the 2 most common EGFR-activating mutations, exon 19 deletion (Ex19Del) and L858R, with in vitro drug-response models and patient genomic profiling. RESULTS:Our simulations suggest that the G724S mutation selectively reduces osimertinib-binding affinity in the context of Ex19Del. Consistent with our simulations, cell lines transduced with Ex19Del/G724S demonstrate resistance to osimertinib, whereas cells transduced with L858R/G724S are sensitive to osimertinib. Subsequent clinical genomic profiling data further suggest G724S occurs with Ex19Del but not L858R. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Ex19Del/G724S retains sensitivity to afatinib, but not to erlotinib, suggesting a possible therapy for patients at the time of disease relapse. CONCLUSIONS:Altogether, these data suggest that G724S is an allele-specific resistance mutation emerging in the context of Ex19Del but not L858R. Our results fundamentally reframe the problem of targeted therapy resistance from one focused on the "drug-resistance mutation" pair to one focused on the "activating mutation-drug-resistance mutation" trio. This has broad implications across clinical oncology.
Project description:The present study aimed to determine the diagnostic concordance of plasma epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation using droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) with tumor tissue samples and the predictive clinical significance of plasma EGFR mutation concentration. Plasma DNA samples from patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were analyzed for EGFR exon 21 codon 858 (L858R) mutation, deletion of exon 19 (ex19del) and exon 20 codon 790 (T790M) mutation using ddPCR. Firstly, the mutations in the plasma samples were compared with the matched tumor samples to determine the concordance. Secondly, image examination follow-ups were analyzed to assess the association between plasma EGFR mutation concentration and patients' response to EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). A total of 51 patients with NSCLC were enrolled, including 48 newly diagnosed patients. Compared with tumor tissue samples, the sensitivity and specificity of ddPCR were 76.19% (16/21) and 96.55% (28/29) for mutant L858R, and 88.89% (8/9) and 100% (41/41) for ex19del, respectively. No patient exhibited the T790M mutation in the tumor tissue or plasma samples. Furthermore, 5 patients with the L858R mutation and 4 patients with ex19del in plasma and tumor tissue samples had been followed up with image examination for ≥3 months following EGFR-TKI treatment. The baseline mutant EGFR concentrations were positively correlated with a reduction in tumor burden (Spearman's r=0.7000, P=0.0358). When analyzed separately, ex19del concentrations (Spearman's r=1.0000, P<0.0001) were also positively correlated with the reduction, while mutant L858R concentrations were not (Spearman's r=0.7000, P=0.1881). In the present study, detection of plasma EGFR mutations using ddPCR exhibited sufficient concordance with tumor tissue sample results. Baseline plasma mutant EGFR and ex19del concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with response to EGFR-TKIs.
Project description:We hypothesized that plasma-based EGFR mutation analysis for NSCLC may be feasible for monitoring treatment response to EGFR TKIs and also predict drug resistance.Clinically relevant mutations including exon 19 deletion (ex19del), L858R and T790M were analyzed using droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in longitudinally collected plasma samples (n = 367) from 81 NSCLC patients treated with EGFR TKI. Of a total 58 baseline cell-free DNA (cfDNA) samples available for ddPCR analysis, 43 (74.1%) had the same mutation in the matched tumors (clinical sensitivity: 70.8% [17/24] for L858R and 76.5% [26/34] for ex19del). The concordance rates of plasma with tissue-based results of EGFR mutations were 87.9% for L858R and 86.2% for ex19del. All 40 patients who were detected EGFR mutations at baseline showed a dramatic decrease of mutant copies (>50%) in plasma during the first two months after treatment. Median progression-free survival (PFS) was 10.1 months for patients with undetectable EGFR v 6.3 months for detectable EGFR mutations in blood after two-month treatment (HR 3.88, 95% CI 1.48-10.19, P = 0.006). We observed emerging resistance with early detection of T790M as a secondary mutation in 14 (28.6%) of 49 patients. Plasma-based EGFR mutation analysis using ddPCR can monitor treatment response to EGFR TKIs and can lead to early detection of EGFR TKIs resistance. Further studies confirming clinical implications of EGFR mutation in plasma are warranted to guide optimal therapeutic strategies upon knowledge of treatment response and resistance.
Project description:The detection of certain oncogenic driver mutations, including those of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), is essential for determining treatment strategies for advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The current study assessed the feasibility of testing exhaled breath condensate (EBC) for EGFR mutations by droplet digital PCR (ddPCR). Samples were collected from 12 patients with NSCLC harboring EGFR mutations that were admitted to Okayama University Hospital between June 1, 2014 and December 31, 2017. A total of 21 EBC samples were collected using the RTube™ method and EGFR mutations (L858R, exon 19 deletions or T790M) were assessed through ddPCR analysis (EBC-ddPCR). A total of 3 healthy volunteer samples were also tested to determine a threshold value for each mutation. Various patient characteristics were determined, including sex (3 males and 9 females), age (range 54-81 years; median, 66 years), smoking history (10 had never smoked; 2 were former smokers), histology (12 patients exhibited adenocarcinoma), clinical stage (9 patients were stage IV; 3 exhibited post-operative recurrence) and EGFR mutation type (4 had L858R; 8 had exon 19 deletions; 8 had T790M). EBC-ddPCR demonstrated positive droplets in 8 of the 12 patients. The sensitivity and specificity of each mutation was as follows: 27.3 and 80.0% for EGFR L858R, 30.0 and 90.9% for EGFR Ex19del, and 22.2 and 100% for EGFR T790M. EBC-ddPCR analysis of EGFR mutations exhibited modest sensitivity and acceptable specificity. EBC-ddPCR is a minimally invasive and replicable procedure and may be a complementary method for EGFR testing in patients where blood or tissue sampling proves difficult.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Osimertinib is a potent, irreversible third-generation epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor for both EGFR-activating and T790M resistant mutation. The treatment efficacy of osimertinib was assessed in previously untreated patients with metastatic non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) harboring activating EGFR mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) as well as tumor DNA.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Patients with activating EGFR mutations in their tumor DNA underwent screening with ctDNA analysis using Mutyper and Cobas v2 assays. Enrolled subjects received osimertinib 80 mg, once daily. Primary endpoint was objective response rate (ORR) and secondary endpoints were ctDNA test sensitivity, progression-free survival (PFS), duration of response (DoR), and safety.<h4>Results</h4>Among 39 screened patients, 29 were ctDNA positive for activating EGFR mutations and 19 were enrolled (ex19del, n=11; L858R/L861Q, n=7; G719A, n=1). Median age was 70 and most patients had brain metastases (15/19, 79%). ctDNA test sensitivity for activating EGFR mutations was 74% using both methods and 62% (Mutyper) or 64% (Cobas v2) for individual methods. ORR was 68% (13/19), median PFS was 11.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.0 to 26.7), and median DoR was 17.6 months (95% CI, 3.5 to 31.7). ORR and median PFS were significantly superior with ex19del (91%; 21.9 months; 95% CI, 5.5 to 38.3) than with L858R/L861Q (43%; 5.1 months; 95% CI, 2.3 to 7.9). One patient discontinued the drug because of drug-related interstitial pneumonitis.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Osimertinib had favorable efficacy in the first-line treatment of metastatic NSCLC harboring activating EGFR mutations in ctDNA as well as tumor DNA.
Project description:PURPOSE:EGFR exon 19 deletion (Ex19Del) mutations account for approximately 60% of lung cancer-associated EGFR mutations and include a heterogeneous group of mutations. Although they are associated with benefit from tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), the relative inhibitor sensitivity of individual Ex19Del mutations is unknown.Experimental Design: We studied the TKI sensitivity and structural features of common Ex19Del mutations and the consequences for patient outcomes on TKI treatment. RESULTS:We found that the L747-A750>P mutation, which represents about 4% of all Ex19Del mutations, displays unique inhibitor selectivity. L747-A750>P differs from other Ex19Del mutations in not being suppressed completely by erlotinib or osimertinib, yet is completely inhibited by low doses of afatinib. The HCC4006 cell line (with the L747-A750>P mutation) exhibited increased sensitivity to afatinib over erlotinib and osimertinib, and computational modeling suggests explanations for this sensitivity pattern. Clinically, patients with EGFR L747-A750>P mutant tumors showed inferior outcomes when treated with erlotinib than patients with E746-A750 mutant tumors. CONCLUSIONS:These results highlight important differences between specific Ex19Del mutations that may be relevant for optimizing TKI choice for patients.
Project description:PURPOSE:To assess the utility of the cobas EGFR Mutation Test, with tissue and plasma, for first-line osimertinib therapy for patients with EGFR-mutated (EGFRm; Ex19del and/or L858R) advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the FLAURA study (NCT02296125). EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN:Tumor tissue EGFRm status was determined at screening using the central cobas tissue test or a local tissue test. Baseline circulating tumor (ct)DNA EGFRm status was retrospectively determined with the central cobas plasma test. RESULTS:Of 994 patients screened, 556 were randomized (289 and 267 with central and local EGFR test results, respectively) and 438 failed screening. Of those randomized from local EGFR test results, 217 patients had available central test results; 211/217 (97%) were retrospectively confirmed EGFRm positive by central cobas tissue test. Using reference central cobas tissue test results, positive percent agreements with cobas plasma test results for Ex19del and L858R detection were 79% [95% confidence interval (CI), 74-84] and 68% (95% CI, 61-75), respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) superiority with osimertinib over comparator EGFR-TKI remained consistent irrespective of randomization route (central/local EGFRm-positive tissue test). In both treatment arms, PFS was prolonged in plasma ctDNA EGFRm-negative (23.5 and 15.0 months) versus -positive patients (15.2 and 9.7 months). CONCLUSIONS:Our results support utility of cobas tissue and plasma testing to aid selection of patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC for first-line osimertinib treatment. Lack of EGFRm detection in plasma was associated with prolonged PFS versus patients plasma EGFRm positive, potentially due to patients having lower tumor burden.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a novel target for therapy in subsets of non-small cell lung cancer, especially adenocarcinoma. Tumors with EGFR mutations showed good response to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). We aimed to identify the discriminating capacity of immunohistochemical (IHC) scoring to detect L858R and E746-A750 deletion mutation in lung adenocarcinoma patients and predict EGFR TKIs response. Patients with surgically resected lung adenocarcinoma were enrolled. EGFR mutation status was genotyped by PCR and direct sequencing. Mutation-specific antibodies for L858R and E746-A750 deletion were used for IHC staining. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to determine the capacity of IHC, including intensity and/or quickscore (Q score), in differentiating L858R and E746-A750 deletion. We enrolled 143 patients during September 2000 to May 2009. Logistic-regression-model-based scoring containing both L858R Q score and total EGFR expression Q score was able to obtain a maximal area under the curve (AUC: 0.891) to differentiate the patients with L858R. Predictive model based on IHC Q score of E746-A750 deletion and IHC intensity of total EGFR expression reached an AUC of 0.969. The predictive model of L858R had a significantly higher AUC than L858R intensity only (p?=?0.036). Of the six patients harboring complex EGFR mutations with classical mutation patterns, five had positive IHC staining. For EGFR TKI treated cancer recurrence patients, those with positive mutation-specific antibody IHC staining had better EGFR TKI response (p?=?0.008) and longer progression-free survival (p?=?0.012) than those without. In conclusion, total EGFR expression should be included in the IHC interpretation of L858R. After adjusting for total EGFR expression, the scoring method decreased the false positive rate and increased diagnostic power. According to the scoring method, the IHC method is useful to predict the clinical outcome and refine personalized therapy.
Project description:Multiple randomized clinical trials have demonstrated that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) exon 19 deletion (19Del) and exon 21 L858R mutation (L858R) are highly correlated with sensitivity to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) treatment in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A mutation in exon 20 (T790M) is reportedly associated with resistance to EGFR-TKIs. However, few studies have focused on patients harboring double mutations in these 3 mutation sites. In this retrospective study, forty-five patients (45/2546, 1.7%) harbored double mutations of 19Del, L858R, and T790M. Twenty-four patients with EGFR double mutations received EGFR-TKI therapy. Clinical characteristics of these patients, including the response to EGFR-TKIs and progression-free survival outcome for EGFR-TKI treatment (PFS-TKI), were analyzed. Patients with EGFR double mutations were more likely to be nonsmokers, have an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) of 0-1, have adenocarcinoma, and be at stage III-IV. The ORR, DCR, and median PFS-TKI in patients harboring EGFR double mutations were lower than in patients with a single EGFR-activating mutation. The differences in ORR and DCR were statistically insignificant between the 3 groups. Patients with double mutations of 19Del and T790M had longer PFS-TKIs than patients in the other 2 groups.