Diabetes and Sarcopenic Obesity: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, and Treatments.
ABSTRACT: Sarcopenic obesity and diabetes are two increasing health problems worldwide, which both share many common risk factors, such as aging, and general obesity. The pathogenesis of sarcopenic obesity includes aging, physical inactivity, malnutrition, low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance, and hormonal changes. Nevertheless, there are two major reasons to cause diabetes: impaired insulin secretion and impaired insulin action. Furthermore, the individual diagnosis of obesity and sarcopenia should be combined to adequately define sarcopenic obesity. Also, the diagnosis of diabetes includes fasting plasma glucose test (FPG), 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), glycated hemoglobin (A1C), and random plasma glucose coupled with symptoms. Healthy diet and physical activity are beneficial to both sarcopenic obesity and diabetes, but there are only recommended drugs for diabetes. This review consolidates and discusses the latest research in pathogenesis, diagnosis, and treatments of diabetes and sarcopenic obesity.
Project description:The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity is increasing worldwide, particularly amongst aging populations. Insulin resistance is the core mechanism of sarcopenic obesity and is also associated with variable cardiometabolic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. Fat accumulation in muscle tissue promotes a proinflammatory cascade and oxidative stress, leading to mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired insulin signaling, and muscle atrophy. To compound the problem, decreased muscle mass aggravates insulin resistance. In addition, the crosstalk between myokines and adipokines leads to negative feedback, which in turn aggravates sarcopenic obesity and insulin resistance. In this review, we focus on the molecular mechanisms linking sarcopenic obesity and insulin resistance with various biological pathways. We also discuss the impact and mechanism of sarcopenic obesity and insulin resistance on cardiometabolic disease.
Project description:Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity are currently considered major global threats for health and well-being. However, there is a lack of adequate preclinical models for their study. The present trial evaluated the suitability of aged swine by determining changes in adiposity, fatty acids composition, antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation, development of metabolic disturbances and structural changes in tissues and organs. Iberian sows with clinical evidence of aging-related sarcopenia were fed a standard diet fulfilling their maintenance requirements or an obesogenic diet for 100 days. Aging and sarcopenia were related to increased lipid accumulation and cellular dysfunction at both adipose tissue and non-adipose ectopic tissues (liver and pancreas). Obesity concomitant to sarcopenia aggravates the condition by increasing visceral adiposity and causing dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and lipotoxicity in non-adipose tissues. These results support that the Iberian swine model represents certain features of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in humans, paving the way for future research on physiopathology of these conditions and possible therapeutic targets.
Project description:Sarcopenia is defined as the age-related loss of muscle mass and strength or physical performance. Increased amounts of adipose tissue often accompany sarcopenia, a condition referred to as sarcopenic obesity. The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity among adults is rapidly increasing worldwide. However, the lack of a universal definition of sarcopenia limits comparisons between studies. Sarcopenia and obesity have similar pathophysiologic factors, including lifestyle behaviors, hormones, and immunological factors, all of which may synergistically affect the risk of developing a series of adverse health issues. Increasing evidence has shown that sarcopenic obesity is associated with accelerated functional decline and increased risks of cardiometabolic diseases and mortality. Therefore, the identification of sarcopenic obesity may be critical for clinicians in aging societies. In this review, we discuss the effect of sarcopenic obesity on multiple health outcomes and its role as a predictor of these outcomes based on the components of sarcopenia, including muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenic obesity, defined as reduced skeletal muscle mass and power with increased adiposity, was reported to be associated with cardiovascular disease risks in previous cross-sectional studies. Whole body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can simultaneously evaluate both fat and muscle mass, therefore, whole body DXA may be suitable for the diagnosis of sarcopenic obesity. However, little is known regarding whether sarcopenic obesity determined using whole body DXA could predict incident cardiovascular disease (CVD). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of sarcopenic obesity on incident CVD in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS:A total of 716 Japanese patients (mean age 65?±?13 years; 47.0% female) were enrolled. Android fat mass (kg), gynoid fat mass (kg), and skeletal muscle index (SMI) calculated as appendicular non-fat mass (kg) divided by height squared (m2), were measured using whole body DXA. Sarcopenic obesity was defined as the coexistence of low SMI and obesity determined by four patterns of obesity as follows: android to gynoid ratio (A/G ratio), android fat mass or percentage of body fat (%BF) was higher than the sex-specific median, or body mass index (BMI) was equal to or greater than 25 kg/m2. The study endpoint was the first occurrence or recurrence of CVD. RESULTS:Over a median follow up of 2.6 years (IQR 2.1-3.2 years), 53 patients reached the endpoint. Sarcopenic obesity was significantly associated with incident CVD even after adjustment for the confounding variables, when using A/G ratio [hazard ratio (HR) 2.63, 95% CI 1.10-6.28, p?=?0.030] and android fat mass (HR 2.57, 95% CI 1.01-6.54, p?=?0.048) to define obesity, but not %BF (HR 1.67, 95% CI 0.69-4.02, p?=?0.252), and BMI (HR 1.55, 95% CI 0.44-5.49, p?=?0.496). CONCLUSIONS:The present data suggest that the whole body DXA is valuable in the diagnosis of sarcopenic obesity (high A/G ratio or android fat mass with low SMI) to determine the risk of CVD events in patients with type 2 diabetes. Meanwhile, sarcopenic obesity classified with low SMI, and high %BF or BMI was not associated with incident CVD.
Project description:Obesity and muscle impairment (low muscle mass or strength) are present in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and associated to worse prognosis. However, the various existing definitions for these conditions make the diagnosis variable. The aim of the study was to evaluate the agreement between diagnostic criteria for sarcopenic obesity and its components in CKD. Two hundred and sixty seven patients with CKD were included in the study. We assessed body composition by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and muscle function by handgrip strength (HGS); adiposity by BMI, waist circumference (WC), fat mass index (FMI), and percentage of fat mass (%FM). Diagnosis of muscle impairment was made by HGS, appendicular lean mass (ALM) and index (ALMI); obesity by BMI, WC, FMI and %FM, and sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed by concomitant presence of muscle impairment and obesity. Prevalence of muscle impairment varied from 11 to 50%, higher when low muscle mass criteria was used. Prevalence of obesity varied from 26 to 62%, higher when WC and %FM criteria was used. Prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied from 2 to 23%. Women were more affected by sarcopenic obesity. Muscle impairment and sarcopenic obesity were more prevalent among patients on hemodialysis and obesity among non-dialysis-dependent and kidney transplant patients. The agreement was poor between muscle mass and strength criteria; substantial between FMI, BMI, and %FM and only fair between WC and the others measures; for sarcopenic obesity, varied from poor to almost perfect. Significant differences were found among the various diagnostic criteria that are used in the diagnosis of sarcopenic obesity.
Project description:Sarcopenic obesity is associated with several negative health outcomes. However, the prevalence of this condition - and the relationship to physical performance parameters - varies across definitions. The aim of this cross-sectional investigation was to describe the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity using different published definitions and their relationship with handgrip strength and walking speed in older Canadian adults. Individuals aged 65+ in the Canadian Longitudinal Study on Aging (<i>n</i> = 11,803; 49.6% male, 50.4% female) were included. Body composition was measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Sarcopenic obesity was defined using 29 definitions. Low handgrip strength was identified as < 27 kg in males and < 16 kg in females and poor physical performance was defined as gait speed ? 0.8 m/s. The prevalence of sarcopenic obesity ranged from 0.1 to 85.3% in males, and from 0 to 80.4% in females. Sarcopenic obesity was frequently associated with low handgrip strength (<i>p</i> < 0.05) in both males (14/17 definitions, 82.4%) and females (21/29 definitions, 72.4%). In very few definitions, sarcopenic obesity was associated with slow gait speed (males: 1/17 definitions [6.7%]; females: 2/29 [6.9%]). In conclusion, the prevalence of sarcopenic obesity varied greatly according to definitions and sarcopenic obesity was frequently associated with low handgrip strength.
Project description:Aging sarcopenia and muscular dystrophy (MD) are two conditions characterized by lower skeletal muscle quantity, lower muscle strength, and lower physical performance. Aging is associated with a peculiar alteration in body composition called "sarcopenic obesity" characterized by a decrease in lean body mass and increase in fat mass. To evaluate the presence of sarcopenia and obesity in a cohort of adult patients with MD, we have used the measurement techniques considered golden standard for sarcopenia that is for muscle mass dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), for muscle strength hand-held dynamometry (HHD), and for physical performance gait speed. The study involved 14 adult patients with different types of MD. We were able to demonstrate that all patients were sarcopenic obese. We showed, in fact, that all were sarcopenic based on appendicular lean, fat and bone free, mass index (ALMI). In addition, all resulted obese according to the percentage of body fat determined by DXA in contrast to their body mass index ranging from underweight to obese. Skeletal muscle mass determined by DXA was markedly reduced in all patients and correlated with residual muscle strength determined by HHD, and physical performances determined by gait speed and respiratory function. Finally, we showed that ALMI was the best linear explicator of muscle strength and physical function. Altogether, our study suggests the relevance of a proper evaluation of body composition in MD and we propose to use, both in research and practice, the measurement techniques that has already been demonstrated effective in aging sarcopenia.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Aging and obesity are the two major global health concerns. Sarcopenia, an age-linked disease, wherein a progressive loss of muscle volume, muscle strength, and physical activity occurs. In this study we evaluated the association of TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism with the susceptibility to sarcopenic obesity in Iranian old-age subjects.<h4>Methods</h4>Total of 176 old individuals (45 sarcopenic and 131 healthy) were recruited in this research and genotyped by PCR-RFLP. BMI, Skeletal Muscle Mass Index, body composition, Handgrip Strength, Gait Speed (GS), and biochemical parameters were measured. Chi-square test was done for genotypes and alleles frequency. Linear regression was applied to find the correlation between TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism, and biochemical and anthropometric parameters. The correlation between TP53 rs1625895 and the risk of sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity was investigated by logistic regression.<h4>Results</h4>G allele was significantly higher in sarcopenic obesity group [P = 0.037, OR (CI 95%) = 1.9 (1.03-3.5)] compared to A allele. BMI (P = 0.049) and LDL (P = 0.04) were significantly differed between genotypes when GG was compared to AA/AG genotype. The results revealed when GG genotype compared to AA/AG genotype in adjusted model for age, the risk of sarcopenic obesity [P value = 0.011, OR (CI 95%); 2.72 (1.25-5.91)] increased. Similarly, GG/AG genotype increased the risk of sarcopenic obesity [P value = 0.028, OR (CI 95%); 2.43 (1.10-5.36)] in adjusted model for age compared to AA genotype.<h4>Conclusions</h4>We suggested that TP53 rs1625895 polymorphism may increase the risk of sarcopenic obesity in Iranian population.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>This study aims to assess the construct validity of a body composition-defined definition of sarcopenic obesity based on low appendicular lean mass relative to fat mass (ALMI<sub>FMI</sub> ) and high fat mass index (FMI) and to compare with an alternative definition using appendicular lean mass index (ALMI) and percent body fat (%BF).<h4>Methods</h4>This is a secondary analysis of two cohort studies: the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) and the Health, Aging, and Body Composition study (Health ABC). Sarcopenic obesity was defined as low ALMI<sub>FMI</sub> combined with high FMI and was compared with a widely used definition based on ALMI and %BF cut-points. Body composition Z-scores, self-reported disability, physical functioning, and incident disability were compared across body composition categories using linear and logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models.<h4>Results</h4>Among 14, 850 participants from NHANES, patients with sarcopenic obesity defined by low ALMI<sub>FMI</sub> and high FMI (ALMI<sub>FMI</sub> -FMI) had above-average FMI Z-scores [mean (standard deviation): 1.00 (0.72)]. In contrast, those with sarcopenic obesity based on low ALMI and high %BF (ALMI-%BF) had below-average FMI Z-scores. A similar pattern was observed for 2846 participants from Health ABC. Participants with sarcopenic obesity based on ALMI<sub>FMI</sub> -FMI had a greater number of disabilities, worse physical function, and a greater risk of incident disability compared with those defined based on ALMI-%BF.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Body composition-defined measures of sarcopenic obesity defined as excess adiposity and lower-than-expected ALMI relative to FMI are associated with functional deficits and incident disability and overcome the limitations of using %BF in estimating obesity in this context.
Project description:<b>Background:</b> An association between sarcopenic obesity and cardiovascular disease has been suggested. We investigated the relationship between sarcopenia and coronary atherosclerosis, taking into account the presence or absence of obesity in a health check-up population. <b>Methods:</b> Data were reviewed for subjects who underwent bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and coronary calcium scoring (CAC) computed tomography between January 2017 and December 2018. Appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASM) was assessed using BIA. Sarcopenia was defined as reduction of muscle mass and calculated as ASM% (ASM/body weight) more than two standard deviations below the sex-specific mean for healthy young adults. CAC scores were dichotomized as low (<100) or high (≥100). <b>Results:</b> Among 1,282 subjects (mean age, 58.1 years; 75.5% male), the prevalence of high CAC was 21%. When the study population was divided into four groups according to their obesity and sarcopenia status, the prevalence of high CAC in the sarcopenic-obesity (SO) group was significantly higher than in the other groups (40.7%, <i>P</i> < 0.001). After adjusting for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and creatinine, subjects with SO exhibited a significantly higher odds of a high CAC score, compared with the non-sarcopenic, non-obese group (odds ratio, 1.92; 95% confidence interval, 1.16-3.18, <i>P</i> = 0.011). <b>Conclusion:</b> SO was significantly associated with CAC, independent of known risk factors for coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that sarcopenia and obesity may potentiate each other to increase atherosclerotic burden in coronary arteries, which may eventually lead to adverse cardiovascular events.