Prehabilitation in patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery - effects on functional capacity and quality of life: a randomized controlled trial.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:To determine the impact of an exercise-based prehabilitation (EBPrehab) program on pre- and postoperative exercise capacity, functional capacity (FC) and quality of life (QoL) in patients awaiting elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG). DESIGN:A two-group randomized controlled trail. SETTING:Ambulatory prehabilitation. SUBJECTS:Overall 230 preoperative elective CABG-surgery patients were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG, n?=?88; n?=?27 withdrew after randomization) or control group (CG, n?=?115). INTERVENTION:IG: two-week EBPrehab including supervised aerobic exercise. CG: usual care. MAIN MEASURES:At baseline (T1), one day before surgery (T2), at the beginning (T3) and at the end of cardiac rehabilitation (T4) the following measurements were performed: cardiopulmonary exercise test, six-minute walk test (6MWT), Timed-Up-and-Go Test (TUG) and QoL (MacNew questionnaire). RESULTS:A total of 171 patients (IG, n?=?81; CG, n?=?90) completed the study. During EBPrehab no complications occurred. Preoperatively FC (6MWTIG: 443.0?±?80.1?m to 493.5?±?75.5?m, P?=?0.003; TUGIG: 6.9?±?2.0?s to 6.1?±?1.8?s, P?=?0.018) and QoL (IG: 5.1?±?0.9 to 5.4?±?0.9, P?
Project description:Background: Integrative oncology has proven to be a useful approach to control cancer symptoms and improve the quality of life (QoL) and overall health of patients, delivering integrated patient care at both physical and emotional levels. The objective of this randomized trial was to evaluate the effects of a triple intervention program on the QoL and lifestyle of women with breast cancer. Methods: Seventy-five survivors of stage IIA-IIB breast cancer were randomized into 2 groups. The intervention group (IG) received a 6-month dietary, exercise, and mindfulness program that was not offered to the control group (CG). Data were gathered at baseline and at 6 months postintervention on QoL and adherence to Mediterranean diet using clinical markers and validated questionnaires. Between-group differences at baseline and 3 months postintervention were analyzed using Student's t test for related samples and the Wilcoxon and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: At 6 months postintervention, the IG showed significant improvements versus CG in physical functioning (p = .027), role functioning (p = .028), and Mediterranean diet adherence (p = .02) and a significant reduction in body mass index (p = .04) and weight (p = .05), with a mean weight loss of 0.7 kg versus a gain of 0.55 kg by the CG (p = .05). Dyspnea symptoms were also increased in the CG versus IG (p = .066). Conclusions: These results demonstrate that an integrative dietary, physical activity, and mindfulness program enhances the QoL and healthy lifestyle of stage IIA-IIB breast cancer survivors. Cancer symptoms may be better managed by the implementation of multimodal rather than isolated interventions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>To evaluate the short- and mid-term effect of a specially tailored resistance and balance training provided in addition to usual cardiac rehabilitation (CR) care program in older patients after valve surgery/intervention.<h4>Methods</h4>Single-center (inpatient CR clinic in Lithuania) randomized controlled trial. Two hundred fifty-two patients were assessed for eligibility on the first day of admittance to CR early after (14.5?±?5.9?days) valve surgery/intervention between January 2018 and November 2019. Participants were coded centrally in accordance with randomization 1:1 using a computerized list. Control group (CG) patients were provided with usual care phase-II-CR inpatient multidisciplinary CR program, while intervention group (IG) patients received additional resistance and balance training (3 d/wk). Patients participated in a 3-month follow-up. Main outcome measures were functional capacity (6?min walk test (6MWT, meters), cardiopulmonary exercise testing), physical performance (Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB, score) and 5-m walk test (5MWT, meters/second)), strength (one repetition maximum test for leg press), physical frailty (SPPB, 5MWT).<h4>Results</h4>One hundred sixteen patients (76.1?±?6.7?years, 50% male) who fulfilled the study inclusion criteria were randomized to IG (n?=?60) or CG (n?=?56) and participated in CR (18.6?±?2.7?days). As a result, 6MWT (IG 247?±?94.1 vs. 348?±?100.1, CG 232?±?102.8 vs. 333?±?120.7), SPPB (IG 8.31?±?2.21 vs. 9.51?±?2.24, CG 7.95?±?2.01 vs. 9.08?±?2.35), 5MWT (IG 0.847?±?0.31 vs. 0.965?±?0.3, CG 0.765?±?0.24 vs 0.879?±?0.29) all other outcome variables and physical frailty level improved significantly (p?<?0.05) in both groups with no significant difference between groups. Improvements were sustained over the 3-month follow-up for 6MWT (IG 348?±?113 vs. CG 332?±?147.4), SPPB (IG 10.37?±?1.59 vs CG 9.44?±?2.34), 5MWT (IG 1.086?±?0. 307 vs CG 1.123?±?0.539) and other variables. Improvement in physical frailty level was significantly more pronounced in IG (p?<?0.05) after the 3-month follow-up.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Exercise-based CR improves functional and exercise capacity, physical performance, and muscular strength, and reduces physical frailty levels in patients after valve surgery/intervention in the short and medium terms. SPPB score and 5MWT were useful for physical frailty assessment, screening and evaluation of outcomes in a CR setting. Additional benefit from the resistance and balance training could not be confirmed.<h4>Trial registration</h4>NCT04234087 , retrospectively registered 21 January 2020.
Project description:Due to the importance of exercise in prehabilitation, we conducted this study to understand the effects of different exercise intensities on cancer-related cachexia. Forty adult male CDF1 mice were randomly divided into a non-cancer control group (N=10, NC), cancer control group (N=10, CC), cancer with moderate exercise group (N=10, ME, 70% maxHR), and cancer with intense exercise group (N=10, SE, 90% maxHR) for obtaining data such as tissue weight and body weight changes, quality of life (QoL) indicators, and levels of cytokines and a muscle homeostasis regulatory protein. We verified that mouse colonic carcinoma cancer cells metastasized based on our observation that the weight of CC group lungs was almost 87% greater than NC group lungs. Survival rates of SE, NC, ME, and CC groups were 100%, 100%, 80%, and 50%, respectively (p<0.01). Other results such as tissue and body weight changes, QoL indicators, and protein analyses also supported our hypothesis that the SE group had improved survival compared to CC and ME groups (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively). Our results suggest that exercise, especially intense exercise, improves QoL and survival rate and prevents muscle atrophy. These data suggest that exercise is an optimal prehabilitation choice to alleviate the negative impacts of cancer cachexia.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Exercise prehabilitation may improve outcomes after surgery. Frailty is a key predictor of adverse postoperative outcomes in older people; the multidimensional nature of frailty makes this a population who may derive substantial benefit from exercise prehabilitation. The objective of this trial is to test the efficacy of exercise prehabilitation to improve postoperative functional outcomes for people living with frailty having cancer surgery with curative intent. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will conduct a single-centre, parallel-arm randomised controlled trial of home-based exercise prehabilitation versus standard care among consenting patients >60 years having elective cancer surgery (intra-abdominal and intrathoracic) and who are frail (Clinical Frailty Scale >4). The intervention consists of > 3 weeks of exercise prehabilitation (strength, aerobic and stretching). The primary outcome is the 6?min walk test at the first postoperative clinic visit. Secondary outcomes include the short physical performance battery, health-related quality of life, disability-free survival, complications and health resource utilisation. The primary outcome will be analysed by intention to treat using analysis of covariance. Outcomes up to 1?year after surgery will be ascertained through linkage to administrative data. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval has been granted by our ethics review board (Protocol Approval #2016009-01H). Results will be disseminated through presentation at scientific conferences, through peer-reviewed publication, stakeholder organisations and engagement of social and traditional media. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:NCT02934230; Pre-results.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:To investigate the feasibility of delivering a functional exercise-based prehabilitation intervention and its effects on postoperative length of hospital stay, preoperative physical functioning and health-related quality of life in elective colorectal surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS:In this randomised controlled feasibility trial, 22 elective colorectal surgery patients were randomly assigned to exercise prehabilitation (n = 11) or standard care (n = 11). Feasibility of delivering the intervention was assessed based on recruitment and compliance to the intervention. Impact on postoperative length of hospital stay and complications, preoperative physical functioning (timed up and go test, five times sit to stand, stair climb test, handgrip dynamometry and 6-min walk test) and health-related quality of life were also assessed. RESULTS:Over 42% of patients (84/198) screened were deemed ineligible for prehabilitation due to insufficient time existing prior to scheduled surgery. Of those who were eligible, approximately 18% consented to the trial. Median length of hospital stay was 8 [range 6-27] and 10 [range 5-12] days respectively for the standard care and prehabilitation groups. Patterns towards preoperative improvements for the timed up and go test, stair climb test and 6-min walk test were observed for all participants receiving prehabilitation but not standard care. CONCLUSIONS:Despite prehabilitation appearing to convey positive benefits on physical functioning, short surgical wait times and patient engagement represent major obstacles to implementing exercise prehabilitation programmes in colorectal cancer patients.
Project description:Background: Prehabilitation to maximize exercise capacity before lung cancer surgery has the potential to improve operative tolerability and patient outcomes. However, translation of this evidence into clinical practice is limited. Aims: To determine the acceptability and perceived benefit of prehabilitation in lung cancer among thoracic surgeons. Procedure: 198 cardiothoracic surgeons within Australia and New Zealand were surveyed to evaluate their attitudes and perceived benefits of prehabilitation in lung cancer. Results: Response rate was 14%. A moderate proportion of respondents reported that there is a need to refer lung resection patients to preoperative physiotherapy/prehabilitation, particularly high-risk patients or those with borderline fitness for surgery. 91% of surgeons were willing to delay surgery (as indicated by cancer stage/type) to optimize patients via prehabilitation. The main barriers to prehabilitation reported were patient comorbidities and access to allied health professionals, with 33% stating that they were unsure who to refer to for prehabilitation in thoracic surgery. This is despite 60% of the cohort reporting that pulmonary rehabilitation is available as a preoperative resource. 92% of respondents believe that further research into prehabilitation in lung cancer is warranted. Conclusion: The benefits of prehabilitation for the oncology population have been well documented in the literature over recent years and this is reflected in the perceptions surgeons had on the benefits of prehabilitation for their patients. This survey demonstrates an interest among cardiothoracic surgeons in favor of prehabilitation, and therefore further research and demonstration of its benefit is needed in lung cancer to facilitate implementation into practice.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Mobile health interventions, especially smartphone applications (apps), have been proposed as promising interventions for supporting adherence to healthy behaviour in patients post cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The overall aim of the study was to examine the effect of individualized follow-up with an app for one year on peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in patients completing CR. DESIGN:The study was designed as a single-blinded multicentre randomized controlled trial. METHODS:The intervention group (IG) received individualized follow-up enabled with an app for one year, while the control group (CG) received usual care. The primary outcome was difference in VO2peak. Secondary outcomes included exercise performance (time to exhaustion, peak incline (%) and peak velocity (km/h)), bodyweight, resting blood pressure, lipid profile, triglycerides, exercise habits, health-related quality of life, health status and self-perceived goal achievement. RESULTS:In total, 113 patients completing CR (73.4% with coronary artery disease, 16.8% after valve surgery and 9.8% with other heart diseases) were randomly allocated to the IG or CG. Intention to treat analyses showed a statistically significant difference in VO2peak between the groups at follow-up of 2.2?ml/kg/min, 95% confidence interval 0.9-3.5 (p?<?0.001). Statistically significant differences were also observed in exercise performance, exercise habits and in self-perceived goal achievement. CONCLUSIONS:Individualized follow-up for one year with an app significantly improved VO2peak, exercise performance and exercise habits, as well as self-perceived goal achievement, compared with a CG in patients post-CR. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups at follow-up in the other outcome measures evaluated.
Project description:Tele-rehabilitation provides better access to healthcare services and optimizes exercise adherence. However, its feasibility and effectiveness are unknown in the preoperative period in esophagogastric cancer patients. We aimed to assess the feasibility and the preliminary effects of a "tele-prehabilitation" program in esophagogastric cancer patients requiring surgery. Enrolled participants performed an internet-based tele-prehabilitation including aerobic, resistance and inspiratory muscle training over 2-4 weeks. The primary outcome was feasibility, measured in terms of recruitment, retention and attendance rates, adverse events and patient satisfaction. Secondary outcomes (functional exercise capacity, fatigue, quality of life, anxiety and depression) were assessed at baseline, presurgery, and 4 and 12 weeks postsurgery. Among the 24 eligible subjects, 23 were enrolled, 22 performed the intervention and 15 completed the study. Recruitment and retention rates were both 96%. Attendances to aerobic and resistance sessions and inspiratory muscle training were 77% and 68%, respectively. No adverse events occurred, and the satisfaction was excellent. After prehabilitation, participants significantly improved fatigue (p = 0.039), quality of life (p = 0.009), physical well-being (p = 0.034), emotional well-being (p = 0.005) and anxiety (p = 0.044). This study demonstrated the feasibility of a tele-prehabilitation in esophagogastric cancer patients undergoing surgery, with a high recruitment rate, retention rate and satisfaction, a good attendance to exercise sessions and no exercise-related adverse events.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is a cognitive intervention for patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) that aims to maintain everyday competences. The analysis of functional connectivity (FC) in resting-state functional MRI has been used to investigate the effects of cognitive interventions.<h4>Objectives</h4>We evaluated the effect of CR on the default mode network FC in a group of patients with mild AD, compared to an active control group.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed a three-month interventional study including 16 patients with a diagnosis of AD. The intervention group (IG) consisted of eight patients, performing twelve sessions of CR. The active control group (CG) performed a standardized cognitive training. We used a seed region placed in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) for FC analysis, comparing scans acquired before and after the intervention. Effects were thresholded at a significance of p?<?0.001 (uncorrected) and a minimal cluster size of 50 voxels.<h4>Results</h4>The interaction of group by time showed a higher increase of PCC connectivity in IG compared to CG in the bilateral cerebellar cortex. CG revealed widespread, smaller clusters of higher FC increase compared with IG. Across all participants, an increase in quality of life was associated with connectivity increase over time in the bilateral precuneus.<h4>Conclusions</h4>CR showed an effect on the FC of the DMN in the IG. These effects need further study in larger samples to confirm if FC analysis may suit as a surrogate marker for the effect of cognitive interventions in AD.
Project description:Background:Breast cancer surgery results in numerous acute and long-term adverse outcomes; the degree to which these can be mitigated or prevented through prehabilitation is unknown. Methods:We conducted a longitudinal, single-arm, mixed-methods study to examine the feasibility of prehabilitation in 22 women undergoing breast cancer surgery. All participants received an individualized exercise prescription including upper quadrant-specific resistance and mobility training and aerobic exercise for the duration of their surgical wait time. Feasibility was assessed by recruitment, adherence, attrition, and intervention-related adverse event rates. An exploratory investigation of intervention efficacy was conducted via a 6-min walk test, upper-quadrant strength and range of motion, volumetric chances associated with lymphedema, and participant-reported quality of life, fatigue, pain, and disability. Outcome assessments were conducted at baseline, prior to surgery, and at six and 12 weeks after surgery. Semi-structured interviews with a subset of participants (n = 5) and health-care providers (H; n = 2) were conducted to provide further insights about intervention feasibility. Qualitative data were analyzed using a hybrid inductive and deductive thematic analysis approach. Results:Recruitment and attrition rates were 62 and 36%, respectively. Average prehabilitation duration was 31 days (range = 7-69 days). Seventy six percent of participants complied with at least 70% of their prehabilitation prescription. There was a clinically significant increase in the 6-min walk distance from baseline to the preoperative assessment (57 m, 95% CI = -7.52, 121.7). The interviews revealed that the intervention was favorably received by participants and HCPs and included suggestions that prehabilitation (i) should be offered to all surgical candidates, (ii) is an avenue to regain control in the preoperative period, (iii) is a facilitator of postoperative recovery, and (iv) is an opportunity to provide education regarding postoperative rehabilitation protocols. A preference for multimodal prehabilitation (including dietetic and psychological counseling) was also highlighted. Conclusion:Our findings suggest that surgical prehabilitation in women with breast cancer is feasible. Data are hampered by study sample size and lack of a control group. Thus, randomized controlled trials to examine prehabilitation efficacy in people with breast cancer, especially interventions employing a multimodal strategy, are warranted.