Characterization and genomic analysis of a diesel-degrading bacterium, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CA16, isolated from Canadian soil.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:With the high demand for diesel across the world, environmental decontamination from its improper usage, storage and accidental spills becomes necessary. One highly environmentally friendly and cost-effective decontamination method is to utilize diesel-degrading microbes as a means for bioremediation. Here, we present a newly isolated and identified strain of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus ('CA16') as a candidate for the bioremediation of diesel-contaminated areas. RESULTS:Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CA16 was able to survive and grow in minimal medium with diesel as the only source of carbon. We determined through metabolomics that A. calcoaceticus CA16 appears to be efficient at diesel degradation. Specifically, CA16 is able to degrade 82 to 92% of aliphatic alkane hydrocarbons (CnHn +?2; where n =?12-18) in 28?days. Several diesel-degrading genes (such as alkM and xcpR) that are present in other microbes were also found to be activated in CA16. CONCLUSIONS:The results presented here suggest that Acinetobacter strain CA16 has good potential in the bioremediation of diesel-polluted environments.
Project description:We report here the complete assembled genome sequence of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus CA16, which is capable of utilizing diesel and lignin as a sole carbon source. CA16 contains a 4,110,074-bp chromosome and a 5,920-bp plasmid. The assembled sequences will help elucidate potential metabolic pathways and mechanisms responsible for CA16's hydrocarbon degradation ability.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>Despite wide research on bioremediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, the mechanisms of surfactant-enhanced bioavailability of the contaminants are still unclear. The presented study was focused on the in-depth description of relationships between hydrocarbons, bacteria, and surfactants. In order to that, the biodegradation experiments and cell viability measurements were conducted, and the properties of cell surface were characterized.<h4>Methods</h4>MTT assay was employed to measure plant extracts toxicity to microbes. Then, membrane permeability changes were evaluated, followed by diesel oil biodegradation in the presence of surfactants measurements by GCxGC-TOFMS and PCR-RAPD analysis.<h4>Results</h4>Our study undoubtedly proves that different surfactants promote assimilation of different groups of hydrocarbons and modify cell surface properties in different ways. Increased biodegradation of diesel oil was observed when cultures with <i>Acinetobacter calcoaceticus</i> M1B were supplemented with <i>Saponaria officinalis</i> and <i>Verbascum nigrum</i> extracts. Interestingly, these surfactants exhibit different influences on cell surface properties and their viability in contrast to the other surfactants. Moreover, the preliminary analyses have shown changes in the genome caused by exposure to surfactants.<h4>Conclusions</h4>The results indicated that the benefits of surfactant use may be related to deep modification at the omics level, not only that of cell surface properties and confirms the complexity of the interactions between bacterial cells, pollutants and surfactants.
Project description:Antarctica is an attractive target for human exploration and scientific investigation, however the negative effects of human activity on this continent are long lasting and can have serious consequences on the native ecosystem. Various areas of Antarctica have been contaminated with diesel fuel, which contains harmful compounds such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Bioremediation of PAHs by the activity of microorganisms is an ecological, economical, and safe decontamination approach. Since the introduction of foreign organisms into the Antarctica is prohibited, it is key to discover native bacteria that can be used for diesel bioremediation. By following the degradation of the PAH phenanthrene, we isolated 53 PAH metabolizing bacteria from diesel contaminated Antarctic soil samples, with three of these isolates exhibiting a high phenanthrene degrading capacity. In particular, the Sphingobium xenophagum D43FB isolate showed the highest phenanthrene degradation ability, generating up to 95% degradation of initial phenanthrene. D43FB can also degrade phenanthrene in the presence of its usual co-pollutant, the heavy metal cadmium, and showed the ability to grow using diesel-fuel as a sole carbon source. Microtiter plate assays and SEM analysis revealed that S. xenophagum D43FB exhibits the ability to form biofilms and can directly adhere to phenanthrene crystals. Genome sequencing analysis also revealed the presence of several genes involved in PAH degradation and heavy metal resistance in the D43FB genome. Altogether, these results demonstrate that S. xenophagum D43FB shows promising potential for its application in the bioremediation of diesel fuel contaminated-Antarctic ecosystems.
Project description:Genome analysis of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus PHEA-2 was undertaken because of the importance of this bacterium for bioremediation of phenol-polluted water and because of the close phylogenetic relationship of this species with the human pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii. To our knowledge, this is the first strain of A. calcoaceticus whose genome has been sequenced.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The bioremediation of soils impacted by diesel fuels is very often limited by the lack of indigenous microflora with the required broad substrate specificity. In such cases, the soil inoculation with cultures with the desired catabolic capabilities (bioaugmentation) is an essential option. The use of consortia of microorganisms obtained from rich sources of microbes (e.g., sludges, composts, manure) via enrichment (i.e., serial growth transfers) on the polluting hydrocarbons would provide bioremediation enhancements more robust and reproducible than those achieved with specialized pure cultures or tailored combinations (co-cultures) of them, together with none or minor risks of soil loading with unrelated or pathogenic allocthonous microorganisms. RESULTS: In this work, two microbial consortia, i.e., ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2, were enriched from ENZYVEBA (a complex commercial source of microorganisms) on Diesel (G1) and HiQ Diesel (G2), respectively, and characterized in terms of microbial composition and hydrocarbon biodegradation capability and specificity. ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 exhibited a comparable and remarkable biodegradation capability and specificity towards n-C10 to n-C24 linear paraffins by removing about 90% of 1 g l-1 of diesel fuel applied after 10 days of aerobic shaken flask batch culture incubation at 30 degrees C. Cultivation dependent and independent approaches evidenced that both consortia consist of bacteria belonging to the genera Chryseobacterium, Acinetobacter, Psudomonas, Stenotrophomonas, Alcaligenes and Gordonia along with the fungus Trametes gibbosa. However, only the fungus was found to grow and remarkably biodegrade G1 and G2 hydrocarbons under the same conditions. The biodegradation activity and specificity and the microbial composition of ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 did not significantly change after cryopreservation and storage at -20 degrees C for several months. CONCLUSIONS: ENZ-G1 and ENZ-G2 are very similar highly enriched consortia of bacteria and a fungus capable of extensively degrading a broad range of the hydrocarbons mainly composing diesel fuels. Given their remarkable biodegradation potential, stability and resistance to cryopreservation, both consortia appear very interesting candidates for bioaugmentation operations on Diesel fuel impacted soils and sites.
Project description:The 3.94-Mb draft genome of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus GK1, a hydrocarbonoclastic plant growth-promoting Gram-negative rhizospheric bacterium, is presented here. Isolated at the Ford Motor Company site in Genk, Belgium, from poplar trees planted on a diesel-contaminated plume, GK1 is useful for enhancing hydrocarbon phytoremediation.
Project description:Role of microbes in bioremediation of oil spills has become inevitable owing to their eco friendly nature. This study focused on the isolation and characterization of bacterial strains with superior oil degrading potential from crude-oil contaminated soil. Three such bacterial strains were selected and subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis as Corynebacterium aurimucosum, Acinetobacter baumannii and Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans respectively. The specific activity of catechol 1,2 dioxygenase (C12O) and catechol 2,3 dioxygenase (C23O) was determined in these three strains wherein the activity of C12O was more than that of C23O. Among the three strains, Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans exhibited superior crude oil degrading ability as evidenced by its superior growth rate in crude oil enriched medium and enhanced activity of dioxygenases. Also degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) in crude oil was higher with Microbacterium hydrocarbonoxydans. The three strains also produced biosurfactants of glycolipid nature as indicated d by biochemical, FTIR and GCMS analysis. These findings emphasize that such bacterial strains with superior oil degrading capacity may find their potential application in bioremediation of oil spills and conservation of marine and soil ecosystem.
Project description:Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) is a member of the Picornaviridae family and causes mild and self-limiting hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in infants and young children. CA16 infection can also progress to central nervous system (CNS) complications; however, the underlying mechanism by which CA16 penetrates the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then causes CNS damage remains unclear. This study aimed to explore the mechanism of CA16 neurotropic tropism by establishing an in vitro BBB model with CA16 infection and an in vivo CA16 rhesus monkey infant infection model. The results showed that CA16 infection induced increased permeability of the BBB accompanied by upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) expression. Subsequently, high-throughput miRNA sequencing technology and bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-1303 may regulate BBB permeability by targeting MMP9. Next, we used dual-luciferase, qRT-PCR, and western blot assays to provide evidence of MMP9 targeting by miR-1303. Further experiments revealed that CA16 infection promoted the degradation of junctional complexes (Claudin4, Claudin5, VE-Cadherin, and ZO-1), likely by downregulating miR-1303 and upregulating MMP9. Finally, EGFP-CA16 infection could enter the CNS by facilitating the degradation of junctional complexes, eventually causing neuroinflammation and injury to the CNS, which was confirmed using the in vivo rhesus monkey model. Our results indicate that CA16 might penetrate the BBB and then enter the CNS by downregulating miR-1303, which disrupts junctional complexes by directly regulating MMP9 and ultimately causing pathological CNS changes. These results provide new therapeutic targets in HFMD patients following CA16 infection.
Project description:The genus Acinetobacter is ubiquitous in soil, aquatic, and sediment environments and includes pathogenic strains, such as A. baumannii. Many Acinetobacter species isolated from various environments have biotechnological potential since they are capable of degrading a variety of pollutants. Acinetobacter sp. strain DR1 has been identified as a diesel degrader. Here we report the complete genome sequence of Acinetobacter sp. DR1 isolated from the soil of a rice paddy.