Post grafting time significantly influences royal jelly yield and content of macro and trace elements.
ABSTRACT: Royal jelly (RJ) is commercially harvested after the 4th day of queen larval age. In the current study, it was harvested after 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after grafting of 1-day larval age queens to investigate changes in macro and trace elements associated with harvesting time. The RJ yields were significantly affected by harvest time, and the highest yield was obtained 72 hours after grafting. The highest phosphorus (P) and zinc (Zn) contents were obtained from RJ harvested 24 hours after grafting. Royal jelly harvested 48 hours after grafting had the highest concentrations of magnesium (Mg), calcium (Ca), potassium (K), sodium (Na), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn). Likewise, RJ harvested 96 hours after grafting had higher concentrations of copper (Cu). Royal jelly harvested 72 hours after grafting showed the second rank for P, Mg, Ca, K, Na, Fe, Cu, and Mn concentrations. In descending order, P, Mg, Ca, and K were the most dominant elements in RJ harvested at different times after grafting. The Mg, Ca, K, Na, Cu, and Mn concentrations in RJ were all positively correlated, and P, Fe, and Zn were positively correlated. The P and Zn were negatively correlated with Ca, Cu, and Mn. It was concluded that macro and trace element contents in RJ can differ depending on the harvest time after grafting. We recommend harvesting RJ at 72 hours after grafting for possible use as healthy nutritional human food supplement.
Project description:Honeybees produce royal jelly (RJ) from their cephalic glands. Royal jelly is a source of nutrition for the queen honey bee throughout its lifespan and is also involved in fertility and longevity. Royal jelly has long been considered beneficial to human health. We recently observed that RJ delayed impairment of motor function during aging, affecting muscle fiber size. However, how RJ affects skeletal muscle metabolism and the functional component of RJ is as of yet unidentified. We demonstrate that feeding mice with RJ daily prevents a decrease in myofiber size following denervation without affecting total muscle weight. RJ did not affect atrophy-related genes but stimulated the expression of myogenesis-related genes, including IGF-1 and IGF receptor. Trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10H2DA) and 10-hydroxydecanoic acid (10HDAA), two major fatty acids contained in RJ. After ingestion, 10H2DA and 10HDAA are metabolized into 2-decenedioic acid (2DA) and sebacic acid (SA) respectively. We found that 10H2DA, 10HDAA, 2DA, and SA all regulated myogenesis of C2C12 cells, murine myoblast cells. These novel findings may be useful for potential preventative and therapeutic applications for muscle atrophy disease included in Sarcopenia, an age-related decline in skeletal muscle mass and strength.
Project description:Major royal jelly protein 1 (MRJP1), designated apalbumin 1, has been regarded as a freshness marker of royal jelly (RJ). A MRJP1-specific peptide (IKEALPHVPIFD) identified by bioinformatics analysis of homologous members of the major royal protein family was synthesized and used to raise polyclonal anti-MRJP1 antibody (anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody). Western blot analysis showed that anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody only reacted with MRJP1 in RJ. In contrast, the previously reported antibody against recombinant MRJP1 (anti-R-MRJP1 antibody) reacted with other members of MRJP family in RJ. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody demonstrated that MRJP1 content in RJ stored at 40 °C significantly degraded by 37.3%, 55.9%, 58.0%, 60.6%, 65.7%, 72.7%, and 73.1% at 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 d, respectively, when compared with MRJP1 content in fresh RJ (0 d). Optical density analysis of MRJP bands from sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles demonstrated that the degradation of MRJP1, MRJP2, MRJP3, and MRJP5 in RJ was strongly and positively correlated with the period of storage (P<0.0001). Our results indicated anti-SP-MRJP1 antibody was highly specific for MRJP1, and ELISA using the antibody is a sensitive and easy-to-use method to determine the freshness and authenticity of RJ.
Project description:Royal jelly (RJ) is a secretion of the hypopharyngeal glands (HGs) of honeybee workers. High royal jelly producing bees (RJBs), a stock of honeybees selected from Italian bees (ITBs), have developed a stronger ability to produce RJ than ITBs. However, the mechanism underpinning the high RJ-producing performance in RJBs is still poorly understood. We have comprehensively characterized and compared the proteome across the life span of worker bees between the ITBs and RJBs. Our data uncover distinct molecular landscapes that regulate the gland ontogeny and activity corresponding with age-specific tasks. Nurse bees (NBs) have a well-developed acini morphology and cytoskeleton of secretory cells in HGs to prime the gland activities of RJ secretion. In RJB NBs, pathways involved in protein synthesis and energy metabolism are functionally induced to cement the enhanced RJ secretion compared with ITBs. In behavior-manipulated RJB NBs, the strongly expressed proteins implicated in protein synthesis and energy metabolism further demonstrate their critical roles in the regulation of RJ secretion. Our findings provide a novel understanding of the mechanism consolidating the high RJ-output in RJBs.
Project description:Apisin, a protein that is unique to royal jelly (RJ), is known to compose the greater part of the RJ proteins and to exist as a heterooligomer containing major royal jelly protein 1 and apisimin. However, few reports on the methods for quantifying apisin have been published. Thus, we attempted to quantify apisin using HPLC, a widely used analytical technique, as described below. Isoelectric precipitation and size-exclusion chromatography were used to obtain the purified protein, which was identified as apisin by SDS-PAGE and LC-MS analyses. The purified apisin was lyophilized and then used to generate a calibration curve to quantify apisin in RJ. The apisin content was fairly constant (i.e., 3.93 to 4.67?w/w%) in natural RJ. This study is the first to describe a simple, standardized method for quantifying apisin using HPLC and suggests that apisin can be used as a benchmark for future evaluations of RJ quality.
Project description:Royal jelly (RJ), a natural honeybee product, has a wide range of antibacterial activities. N-glycosylated major royal jelly protein 2 (N-MRJP2), purified from RJ, can inhibit the growth of <i>Paenibacillus larvae</i> (<i>P. larvae</i>, Gram-positive), a contagious etiological agent of the American foulbrood disease of honeybees. However, the inhibitory mechanism is largely unknown. Antibacterial assay and membrane proteome were conducted to investigate the inhibition capacity of RJ from different instar larvae and <i>P. larvae</i> treated by N-MRJP2, respectively. The similar antibacterial efficiency of RJ from different larval instar indicates that RJ is vital for the adaptive immune defense of small larvae. The killing of <i>P. larvae</i> by N-MRJP2 is achieved by disturbing the cell wall biosynthesis, increasing the permeability of cell membrane, hindering aerobic respiration, restraining cell division and inducing cell death. This demonstrates that RJ is critical for the passive immunity of immature larvae and N-MRJP2 can be used as natural antibiotic substance to resist <i>P. larvae</i>, even for other gram-positive bacteria. This constitutes solid evidence that RJ and N-MRJP2 have potentials as novel antibacterial agents.
Project description:The lipidome of royal jelly (RJ) consists of medium-chained (8-12 carbon atoms) free fatty acids. We present herein a liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) method that permits the determination of RJ fatty acids and at the same time the detection of suspect fatty acids. The method allows for the direct quantification of seven free fatty acids of RJ, avoiding any derivatization step. It was validated and applied in seven RJ samples, where the major RJ fatty acid trans-10-hydroxy-2-decenoic acid (10-HDA) was found to vary from 0.771 ± 0.08 to 0.928 ± 0.04 g/100 g fresh RJ. Four additional suspect fatty acids were simultaneously detected taking advantage of the HRMS detection.
Project description:In the Western honey bee, <i>Apis mellifera</i>, queens and workers have different longevity although they share the same genome. Queens consume royal jelly (RJ) as the main food throughout their life, including as adults, but workers only eat worker jelly when they are larvae less than 3 days old. In order to explore the effect of RJ and the components affecting longevity of worker honey bees, we first determined the optimal dose for prolonging longevity of workers as 4% RJ in 50% sucrose solution, and developed a method of obtaining long lived workers. We then compared the effects of longevity extension by RJ 4% with bee-collected pollen from rapeseed (<i>Brassica napus</i>). Lastly, we determined that a water soluble RJ protein obtained by precipitation with 60% ammonium sulfate (RJP<sub>60</sub>) contained the main component for longevity extension after comparing the effects of RJ crude protein extract (RJCP), RJP<sub>30</sub> (obtained by precipitation with 30% ammonium sulfate), and RJ ethanol extract (RJEE). Understanding what regulates worker longevity has potential to help increase colony productivity and improve crop pollination efficiency.
Project description:Tears are secreted from the lacrimal gland (LG), a dysfunction in which induces dry eye, resulting in ocular discomfort and visual impairment. Honey bee products are used as a nutritional source in daily life and medicine; however, little is known about their effects on dry eye. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of honey bee products on tear secretion capacity in dry eye. We selected raw honey, propolis, royal jelly (RJ), pollen, or larva from commercially available honey bee products. Tear secretion capacity was evaluated following the oral administration of each honey bee product in a rat blink-suppressed dry eye model. Changes in tear secretion, LG ATP content, and LG mitochondrial levels were measured. RJ restored the tear secretion capacity and decrease in LG ATP content and mitochondrial levels to the largest extent. Royal jelly can be used as a preventative intervention for dry eye by managing tear secretion capacity in the LG.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>In the honey bee (Apis mellifera), queen and workers have different behavior and reproductive capacity despite possessing the same genome. The primary substance that leads to this differentiation is royal jelly (RJ), which contains a range of proteins, amino acids, vitamins and nucleic acids. MicroRNA (miRNA) has been found to play an important role in regulating the expression of protein-coding genes and cell biology. In this study, we characterized the miRNAs in RJ from two honey bee sister species and determined their possible effect on transcriptome in one species.<h4>Methodology/principal findings</h4>We sequenced the miRNAs in RJ either from A. mellifera (RJM) or A. cerana (RJC). We then determined the global transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera developed from larvae fed either with RJM (mRJM) or RJC (mRJC). Finally we analyzed the target genes of those miRNA that are species specific or differentially expressed in the two honey bee species. We show that there were differences in miRNA between RJM and RJC, and that transcriptomes of adult A. mellifera were affected by the two types of RJ. A high proportion (23.3%) of the affected genes were target genes of differential miRNAs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We show for the first time that there are differences in miRNAs in RJ between A. mellifera and A. cerana. Further, the differences in transcriptomes of bees reared from these two RJs might be related to miRNA differences of the two species. This study provides the first evidence that heterospecific royal jelly can modify gene expression in honey bees through an epigenetic mechanism.
Project description:Restraint and cold stress increase both corticosterone and glycemia, which lead to oxidative damages in hepatic tissue. This study assessed the effect of royal jelly (RJ) supplementation on the corticosterone level, glycemia, plasma enzymes and hepatic antioxidant system in restraint and cold stressed rats. Wistar rats were allocated into no-stress, stress, no-stress supplemented with RJ and stress supplemented with RJ groups. Initially, RJ (200mg/Kg) was administered for fourteen days and stressed groups were submitted to chronic stress from the seventh day. The results showed that RJ supplementation decreases corticosterone levels and improves glycemia control after stress induction. RJ supplementation also decreased the body weight, AST, ALP and GGT. Moreover, RJ improved total antioxidant capacity, SOD activity and reduced GSH, GR and lipoperoxidation in the liver. Thus, RJ supplementation reestablished the corticosterone levels and the hepatic antioxidant system in stressed rats, indicating an adaptogenic and hepatoprotective potential of RJ.