Soluble Klotho Improves Hepatic Glucose and Lipid Homeostasis in Type 2 Diabetes.
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most escalating global metabolic diseases, which is highly associated with insulin resistance (IR) and risk of combination with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies suggest that soluble klotho (sKL) could serve as a circulating hormone to mediate energy metabolism, but the detailed mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we generated T2D models of wild-type (WT), sKL heterozygous (KL +/-), and sKL transgenic (TgKL) mice continuously fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and constructed L02 cell lines that stably overexpress sKL to investigate the effect of sKL on hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. Surprisingly, we discovered that sKL deficiency resulted in exacerbated diabetic phenotypes and hepatic glucolipid metabolism disorders in HFD-fed KL +/- diabetic mice (KL +/- DM), whereas TgKL diabetic mice (TgKL DM) exhibited ameliorated diabetic phenotypes and decreased IR. Mechanistic studies in vitro and in vivo demonstrated that sKL could inhibit the PI3K/AKT/mTORC1 signaling to upregulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) expression by directly interacting with type 1 insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF1R) in HFD-fed T2D mice. Thus, sKL could improve hepatic glucolipid homeostasis to ameliorate diabetic phenotypes and lipid accumulation and may function as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of T2D and reduce the risk of NAFLD.
Project description:BACKGROUND:As a compound Chinese medicine, Zhenqing Recipe (ZQR) has been shown to ameliorate hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, fatty liver and insulin resistance in patients with diabetes and diabetic rats. In this paper, we further examined the effect of ZQR on diabetes complicated by non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS:Diabetic rats with NAFLD were developed by a high-fat diet (HFD) with low-dose streptozotocin (STZ) injection for 4?weeks. These rats were randomly separated into the diabetic model (DM), ZQR, metformin (Met), adenovirus expressing-salt-induced kinase 1 (Ad-SIK1) and adenovirus labeled with green fluorescent protein (Ad-GFP) groups. The effects on hepatic expression of gluconeogenic genes, glycolipid metabolism and pathological changes were subsequently detected. RESULTS:Serum glucose, triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC) and hepatic TG were reduced in the ZQR group. The histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the liver and pancreas in the ZQR group were significantly alleviated. The decrease of SIK1 expression was observed in the liver of diabetic rats induced by HFD and STZ. SIK1 overexpression in the liver relieved hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia and fatty liver. Both the mRNA and protein levels of CREB-regulated transcription co-activator 2 (CRTC2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) in the liver were drastically reduced, whereas those of SIK1 were markedly increased in the ZQR group compared to levels in the DM group. Compared with the DM group, Ser577 phosphorylation of SIK1 was obviously reduced in the liver, while T182 phosphorylation of SIK1 and S171 phosphorylation of CRTC2 were evidently increased in the Ad-SIK1, Met and ZQR groups. CONCLUSIONS:ZQR ameliorates hepatic gluconeogenesis and lipid storage in diabetic rats induced by HFD and STZ by activating the SIK1/CRTC2 signaling pathway. Upregulating hepatic SIK1 by ZQR may represent an efficient strategy for treating diabetes with NAFLD.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a common liver disease that ranges from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). So far, the underlying mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we show that hepatic carboxylesterase 2 (CES2) is markedly reduced in NASH patients, diabetic db/db mice, and high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Restoration of hepatic CES2 expression in db/db or HFD-fed mice markedly ameliorates liver steatosis and insulin resistance. In contrast, knockdown of hepatic CES2 causes liver steatosis and damage in chow- or Western diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that CES2 has triglyceride hydrolase activity. As a result, gain of hepatic CES2 function increases fatty acid oxidation and inhibits lipogenesis, whereas loss of hepatic CES2 stimulates lipogenesis by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress. We further show that loss of hepatic CES2 stimulates lipogenesis in a sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP-1)-dependent manner. Finally, we show that hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 alpha (HNF-4?) plays a key role in controlling hepatic CES2 expression in diabetes, obesity, or NASH. CONCLUSION:CES2 plays a protective role in development of NAFLD. Targeting the HNF-4?/CES2 pathway may be useful for treatment of NAFLD. (Hepatology 2016;63:1860-1874).
Project description:Upregulation of the hepatic endocannabinoid (EC) receptor [cannabinoid receptor-1 (CB1)] and arachidonoylethanolamide (AEA) is associated with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Male mice fed high-fat diet (HFD) ad libitum also exhibit NAFLD, increased hepatic AEA, and obesity. But, preference for HFD complicates interpretation and almost nothing is known about these effects in females. These issues were addressed by pair-feeding HFD. Similarly to ad libitum-fed HFD, pair-fed HFD also increased WT male and female mouse fat tissue mass (FTM), but preferentially at the expense of lean tissue mass. In contrast, pair-fed HFD did not elicit NAFLD in WT mice regardless of sex. Concomitantly, pair-fed HFD oppositely impacted hepatic AEA, 2-arachidonoyl glycerol, and/or CB1 in WT males versus females. In pair-fed HFD mice, liver FA binding protein-1 (Fabp1) gene ablation (LKO): i) exacerbated FTM in both sexes; ii) did not elicit liver neutral lipid accumulation in males and only slightly in females; iii) increased liver AEA in males, but decreased it in females; and iv) decreased CB1 only in males. Thus, pair-fed HFD selectively impacted hepatic ECs more in females, but did not elicit NAFLD in either sex. These effects were modified by LKO consistent with FABP1's ability to impact EC and FA metabolism.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE:It has been accepted that AMPK (Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase) activation exhibits many beneficial effects on glucolipid metabolism. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an important lysophospholipid which can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic mice and attenuate inflammation by activating AMPK signal pathway in macrophages. Synthetic alkylphospholipids (ALPs), such as miltefosine, is used as an alternate of LPC for the clinical application. Here, we investigated whether miltefosine could have an impact on hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH:Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to generate an obese model. Next, the obese mice were randomly divided into three groups: saline-treated and miltefosine-treated (2.5 or 5 mg/kg/d) groups. Miltefosine was intraperitoneally administrated into mice for additional 4 weeks plus HFD treatment. KEY RESULTS:It was shown that miltefosine treatment could substantially improve glucose metabolism, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation, and inhibited liver inflammation in HFD-fed mice by activating AMPK signal pathway. In vitro, miltefosine stimulated AMPK? phosphorylation both in time and dose dependent manner and decreased lipid accumulation in liver cells. When a specific AMPK inhibitor compound C was used to treat mice, the antagonistic effects of miltefosine on HFD-induced mouse hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis were abolished. Treatment with miltefosine also dramatically inhibited the HFD-induced liver inflammation in mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:Here we demonstrated that miltefosine might be a new activator of AMPK signal pathway in vivo and in vitro and be useful for treatment of hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the hepatic manifestation of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Robust coagulation cascade activation is common in obese patients with NAFLD. We identified a critical temporal relationship between thrombin generation and the manifestation of hepatic steatosis, inflammation, and injury in C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 1, 2, and 3 months. Mice fed a HFD exhibited dramatic increases in hepatocellular injury and inflammation over time. Hepatic fibrin deposition preceded an increase in serum alanine aminotransferase, and the most dramatic changes in liver histopathology occurred in conjunction with a detectable increase in plasma thrombin-antithrombin levels at 3 months. To directly determine whether thrombin activity promotes NAFLD pathogenesis, mice were fed a HFD and simultaneously treated with the direct thrombin inhibitor dabigatran etexilate for 3 months. Notably, dabigatran treatment significantly reduced hepatic fibrin deposition, hepatic inflammation, hepatocellular injury, and steatosis in mice fed a HFD. Of interest, dabigatran treatment also significantly attenuated HFD-induced body weight gain. Gene expression analysis suggested that thrombin potentially drives NAFLD pathogenesis by altering the expression of genes associated with lipid metabolism and bile acid synthesis. Collectively, the results suggest that thrombin activity is central to HFD-induced body weight gain, liver injury, and inflammation and provide the proof-of-principle evidence that pharmacological thrombin inhibition could be effective in limiting NAFLD and associated pathologies.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Innate immune dysfunction contributes to the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), however, its pathogenesis is still incompletely understood. Identifying the key innate immune component responsible for the pathogenesis of NAFLD and clarifying the underlying mechanisms may provide therapeutic targets for NAFLD. Recently, F-box- and WD repeat domain-containing 7 (FBXW7) exhibits a regulatory role in hepatic glucose and lipid metabolism. This study aims to investigate whether FBXW7 controls high-mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1)-mediated innate immune signaling to improve NAFLD and the mechanism underlying this action. METHODS:Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 or 20 weeks to establish NAFLD model. Hepatic overexpression or knockdown of FBXW7 was induced by tail-vein injection of recombinant adenovirus. Some Ad-FBXW7-injected mice fed a HFD were injected intraperitoneally with recombinant mouse HMGB1 to confirm the protective role of FBXW7 in NAFLD via inhibition of HMGB1. RESULTS:FBXW7 improves NAFLD and related metabolic parameters without remarkable influence of body weight and food intake. Moreover, FBXW7 markedly ameliorated hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in the HFD-fed mice. Furthermore, FBXW7 dramatically attenuated the expression and release of HMGB1 in the livers of HFD-fed mice, which is associated with inhibition of protein kinase R (PKR) signaling. Thereby, FBXW7 restrains Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) signaling in HFD-fed mouse livers. In addition, exogenous HMGB1 treatment abolished FBXW7-mediated inhibition of hepatic inflammation and insulin resistance in HFD-fed mouse livers. CONCLUSIONS:Our results demonstrate a protective role of FBXW7 in NAFLD by abating HMGB1-mediated innate immune signaling to suppress inflammation and consequent insulin resistance, suggesting that FBXW7 is a potential target for therapeutic intervention in NAFLD development.
Project description:SCOPE:The aim of this study is to examine whether perilla oil supplementation improves glucolipid metabolism and modulates gut microbiota in diabetic KKAy mice. METHODS AND RESULTS:The successfully established diabetic KKAy mice are randomized into four groups: diabetic model (DM), low-dose perilla oil (LPO), middle-dose perilla oil (MPO), and high-dose perilla oil (HPO). C57BL/6J mice are fed a chow diet as normal control (NC). At the end of 12 weeks, mice are euthanized and glucolipid indications are analyzed. Gut microbiota analysis is carried out based on the sequencing results on V4 region of 16S rRNA. Although serum glucose, insulin, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, abundance-based coverage estimator, and shannon are unchanged, serum triglyceride significantly decreases in LPO compared with DM. The histopathological changes of hepatocellular macrovesicular steatosis and adipocyte hypertrophy are ameliorated by perilla oil supplementation. Blautia is significantly decreased in LPO, MPO, and HPO, compared with DM. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis shows NC and LPO are relatively coherent. CONCLUSION:These findings indicate that dietary supplementation with perilla oil can improve hypertriglyceridemia and gut dysbiosis in diabetic KKAy mice, which can be associated with potential benefits to human health.
Project description:Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major worldwide health problem. Recent studies suggest that the gut microbiota influences NAFLD pathogenesis. Here, a murine model of high-fat diet-induced (HFD-induced) NAFLD was used, and the effects of alterations in the gut microbiota on NAFLD were determined. Mice treated with antibiotics or tempol exhibited altered bile acid composition, with a notable increase in conjugated bile acid metabolites that inhibited intestinal farnesoid X receptor (FXR) signaling. Compared with control mice, animals with intestine-specific Fxr disruption had reduced hepatic triglyceride accumulation in response to a HFD. The decrease in hepatic triglyceride accumulation was mainly due to fewer circulating ceramides, which was in part the result of lower expression of ceramide synthesis genes. The reduction of ceramide levels in the ileum and serum in tempol- or antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD resulted in downregulation of hepatic SREBP1C and decreased de novo lipogenesis. Administration of C16:0 ceramide to antibiotic-treated mice fed a HFD reversed hepatic steatosis. These studies demonstrate that inhibition of an intestinal FXR/ceramide axis mediates gut microbiota-associated NAFLD development, linking the microbiome, nuclear receptor signaling, and NAFLD. This work suggests that inhibition of intestinal FXR is a potential therapeutic target for NAFLD treatment.
Project description:Curcumin has the potential to cure dyslipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, its therapeutic effects are curbed by poor bioavailability. Our previous work has shown that modification of curcumin with polyethylene glycol (PEG) improves blood concentration and tissue distribution. This study sought to investigate the role of a novel PEGylated curcumin derivative (Curc-mPEG454) in regulating hepatic lipid metabolism and to elucidate the underlying molecular mechanism in a high-fat-diet- (HFD-) fed C57BL/6J mouse model. Mice were fed either a control chow diet (D12450B), an HFD (D12492) as the NAFLD model, or an HFD with Curc-mPEG454 administered by intraperitoneal injection at 50 mg/kg or 100 mg/kg for 16 weeks. We found that Curc-mPEG454 significantly lowered the body weight and serum triglyceride (TG) levels and reduced liver lipid accumulation in HFD-induced NAFLD mice. It was also shown that Curc-mPEG454 suppressed the HFD-induced upregulated expression of CD36 and hepatic peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ), a positive regulator of CD36. Moreover, Curc-mPEG454 dramatically activated cAMP response element-binding (CREB) protein, which negatively controls hepatic PPAR-γ expression. These findings suggest that Curc-mPEG454 reverses HFD-induced hepatic steatosis via the activation of CREB inhibition of the hepatic PPAR-γ/CD36 pathway, which may be an effective therapeutic for high-fat-diet-induced NAFLD.
Project description:Our previous studies suggested that salidroside could alleviate hepatic steatosis in type 2 diabetic C57BLKS/Leprdb (db/db) mice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic effect of salidroside on high-fat diet- (HFD-) induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) by investigating underlying mechanisms. Mice were fed with HFD or regular diet, randomly divided into two groups, and treated with salidroside or vehicle for 8 weeks. Then, biochemical analyses and histopathological examinations were conducted in vivo and in vitro. Salidroside administration attenuated HFD-induced obesity, blood glucose variability, and hepatic lipid deposition, markedly increasing insulin sensitivity in HFD mice. In addition, salidroside suppressed oxidative stress, thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP) expression, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation in the liver. In cultured hepatocytes, salidroside dose dependently regulated lipid accumulation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and NLRP3 inflammasome activation as well as improved AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and insulin sensitivity. The inhibition of AMPK activation by inhibitor or short interfering RNA (siRNA) resulted in the suppression of the beneficial effects of salidroside in hepatocytes. Our findings demonstrated that salidroside protects against NAFLD by improving hepatic lipid metabolism and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and these actions are related to the regulation of the oxidative stress and AMPK-dependent TXNIP/NLRP3 pathways.