Genetic and microenvironmental differences in non-smoking lung adenocarcinoma patients compared with smoking patients.
ABSTRACT: Background:Non-smoking-related lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) has its own characteristics. Genetic and microenvironmental differences in smoking and non-smoking LUAD patients were analyzed to elucidate the oncogenesis of non-smoking-related LUAD, which will improve our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanism and be of clinical use in the future. Methods:The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) databases were used for clinical and genomic information. Various bioinformatics tools were used to analyze differences in somatic mutations, RNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression, immune infiltration, and stemness indices. GO, KEGG, and GSVA analyses were performed with R. A merged protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and analyzed. A miRNA-differentially expressed gene network was constructed with miRNet. qRT-PCR was used for validation of 4 most significantly differently expressed genes and 2 miRNAs in tumor samples obtained from 20 pairs of non-smoking and smoking patients. Results:Five hundred and one patients with LUAD were obtained, including 210 in the non-smoking group and 292 in the smoking group. A total of 174 significantly altered somatic mutations were detected, including mutations in tumor protein p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor, which were downregulated in non-smoking-related LUAD. At the RNA level, 231 significantly differentially expressed genes were obtained; 124 were upregulated and 107 downregulated in the non-smoking group. GSVA analysis revealed 42 significant pathways. Other functional and enrichment analyses of somatic mutations and RNA expression levels revealed that these genes were significantly enriched in receptor activity regulation and receptor binding. Differences in microenvironments including immune infiltration (e.g., CD8+ T cells and resting mast cells) and stemness indices were also found between groups. A 79-pair interaction was found between differentially expressed genes and miRNAs, of which miR-335-5p and miR-34a-5p were located in the center. Twenty-one genes, including vitronectin, neurotensin, and neuronatin, were differentially expressed in both non-smoking LUAD patients and DMSO-treated A549 cells. And the different expression of neurotensin, neuronatin, trefoil factor family2, regenerating family member 4, miR-377-5p, miR-34a were verified with the same tendency in our own samples. Conclusions:Non-smoking LUAD patients, compared to smokers, have different characteristics in terms of somatic mutation, gene, and miRNA expression and the microenvironment, indicating a diverse mechanism of oncogenesis.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), the main subtype of non-small cell lung cancer, is known to be regulated by various microRNAs (miRs/miRNAs); however, the role of miR-198-5p in LUAD has not been clarified. In the present study, the clinical value of miR-198-5p in LUAD and its potential molecular mechanism was evaluated. miR-198-5p expression was examined by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) in 101 paired LUAD and adjacent normal lung tissues. Subsequently, the miR-198-5p expression level was determined from microarray data from the Gene Expression Omnibus, ArrayExpress and by meta-analyses. Furthermore, the target mRNAs of miR-198-5p from 12 miRNA-mRNA predictive tools were intersected with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA)-based differentially expressed genes. In addition, Gene Ontology annotation and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis were conducted to determine the possible mechanism of miR-198-5p in LUAD. The Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins database was employed to construct a protein-protein interaction network among the potential target genes of miR-198-5p. The results showed that miR-198-5p expression was lower in LUAD tissues than in adjacent non-cancerous lung tissues (4.469±2.495 vs. 5.301±2.502; P=0.015). Meta-analyses, including the data from the present study and online microarray data, also verified the downregulation of miR-198-5p in 584 cases of LUAD. The expression of miR-198-5p was associated with the age, blood vessel invasion, Tumor-Node-Metastasis stage, and lymph node metastasis of patients with LUAD and served as an independent prognostic factor for survival. The hub genes of miR-198-5p were upregulated in LUAD, according to TCGA and The Human Protein Atlas. For the KEGG pathway analysis, the most enriched KEGG pathway was the p53 signaling pathway (P=1.42×10-6). These findings indicated that the downregulation of miR-198-5p may play a pivotal role in the development of LUAD by targeting various signaling pathways.
Project description:<b>Background: </b>Long non-coding RNAs (LncRNAs) have been associated with several types of cancer. However, little is known about their role in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD).<br><br><b>Results: </b>LINC00968 was significantly differentially expressed in LUAD tissues. Downregulated LINC00968 was associated with clinicopathological features of LUAD. LINC00968 inhibited cell growth and metastasis by regulating the Hippo signaling pathway We demonstrated that LINC00968 acts as a ceRNA to consume miR-21-5p, enhancing the accumulation of SMAD7, a miR-21-5p target.<br><br><b>Conclusions: </b>LINC00968 limits LUAD progression via the miR-21-5p/SMAD7 axis and may serve as a prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for LUAD.<br><br><b>Methods: </b>We conducted comprehensive data mining on LINC00968 based on the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. The expression of LINC00968 in LUAD cells was determined using <i>in situ</i> hybridization. We detected LINC00968 function in LUAD cells using the MTT, clone formation, and transwell assays, and tumor xenografts. Label-free quantitative proteomics, western blotting, a dual-luciferase reporter assay, immunofluorescence, and RNA immunoprecipitation assays were used to determine the correlations among LINC00968, miR-21-5p, and SMAD7. Gain- and loss-function approaches were used to explore the effects of LINC00968, miR-21-5p, and SMAD7 on cell proliferation, migration, and invasion.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most common histological subtype of non-small cell lung cancer, but novel biomarkers for early diagnosis are lacking. Extensive effort has been exerted to identify miRNA biomarkers in LUAD. Unfortunately, high inter-lab variability and small sample sizes have produced inconsistent conclusions in this field. To resolve the above-mentioned limitations, we performed a comprehensive analysis based on LUAD miRNome profiling studies using the robust rank aggregation (RRA) method. Moreover, miRNA-gene interaction network, pathway enrichment analysis and Kaplan-Meier survival curves were used to investigate the clinical values and biological functions of the identified miRNAs. A total of six common differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified in LUAD. An independent cohort further confirmed that four miRNAs (miR-21-5p, miR-210-3p, miR-182-5p and miR-183-5p) were up-regulated and two miRNAs (miR-126-3p and miR-218-5p) were down-regulated in LUAD tissues. Pathway enrichment analysis also suggested that the above-listed six DEMs may affect LUAD progression via the estrogen signaling pathway. Survival analysis based on the TCGA dataset revealed the potential prognostic values of six DEMs in patients with LUAD (<i>P</i>-value<0.01). In conclusion, we identified a panel of six miRNAs from LUAD using miRNome profiling studies. Our results provide evidence for the use of these six DEMs as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for LUAD patients.
Project description:Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) LINC00665 was demonstrated to be upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and target miR-181c-5p. ZIC2, which is upregulated in LUAD, serves as a putative target of miR-181c-5p. In this study, we aimed to reveal whether LINC00665 regulates miR-181c-5p/ZIC2 axis to promote LUAD progression. The results showed that LINC00665, HOXA1, ZIC2, and HOXA11 levels were increased in LUAD tissues, while miR-181c-5p level was decreased when compared to the adjacent normal tissues. High expression levels of LINC00665, ZIC2, HOXA1 and HOXA11, and low expression of miR-181c-5p were closely linked to poor prognosis of LUAD patients. Knockdown of LINC00665 induced obvious inhibitions in cell viability, clone formation, invasion and tumorigenesis in LUAD cells, whereas miR-181c-5p downregulation significantly neutralized these effects. In addition, downregulation of ZIC2 obviously reversed the enhancements of cell viability, clone formation, invasion and tumorigenesis induced by miR-181c-5p knockdown. In summary, the present study reveals that silencing of LINC00665 suppresses LUAD progression through targeting miR-181c-5p/ZIC2 axis.
Project description:Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is the most prevalent histological subclass of non-small cell lung cancer. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been recognized as the crucial regulatory factors in tumor development and progression. Nevertheless, limited research has been carried on the function of PRKCZ-AS1 in LUAD. In this study, the expression of PRKCZ-AS1 in LUAD tissues and cell lines was notably upregulated. Moreover, knockdown of PRKCZ-AS1 inhibited the proliferation and migration, but promoted apoptosis in LUAD cells. Furthermore, miR-766-5p could bind with PRKCZ-AS1. Besides, the expression miR-766-5p was negatively regulated by PRKCZ-AS1 expression in LUAD cells. Furtherly, PRKCZ-AS1 expression positively regulated the expression of MAPK1. Similarly, the expression of MAPK1 was negatively regulated by miR-766-5p expression. Moreover, the binding ability between miR-766-5p and MAPK1 was confirmed. Furthermore, knockdown of MAPK1 partly rescued the miR-766-5p inhibition-mediated promoting effect on proliferation and migration in LUAD cells transfected with PRKCZ-AS1#1. Overall, above results suggested that PRKCZ-AS1 promotes the occurrence of LUAD by sponging miR-766-5p to upregulate MAPK1 expression, which may provide new insights into LUAD treatment.
Project description:The present study aimed to explore gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression differences between lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) and lung squamous cell carcinoma (LUSC). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) were identified by analyzing mRNA and miRNA expression data in normal and cancerous lung tissues that were obtained from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. A total of 778 DEGs and 7 DEMs were identified. Altered gene functions and signaling pathways were investigated using Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses, which revealed that DEGs were significantly enriched in extracellular matrix organization, cell differentiation, negative regulation of toll signaling pathway, and several other terms and pathways. Transcription factor (TF)?miRNA?gene networks in LUAD and LUSC were predicted using the TargetScan, Miranda, and TRANSFAC databases, which revealed the regulatory links among the TFs, DEMs, and DEGs. The central TFs, i.e., the TFs in the middle of the TF?miRNA?gene network, of LUAD and LUSC were similar. Although LUAD and LUSC shared similar miRNAs in the predicted networks, miR?29b?3p was demonstrated to be upregulated only in LUAD, whereas miR?1, miR?105?5p, and miR?193b?5p were altered in LUSC. These findings may improve our understanding of the different molecular mechanisms in non?small cell lung cancers and may promote new and accurate strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.
Project description:Background:Circular RNA (circRNA) has recently been considered as a key regulator in carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated the functional significance and regulatory role of circ-CAMK2A (hsa_circ_0128332) in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). Methods:GSE101586 was employed to screen differentially expressed circRNAs. = Relative expression levels of circ-CAMK2A, miR-615-5p, fibronectin 1 (FN1), MMP2, and MMP9 were tested by quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) or western blotting. Functional experiments were performed by CCK-8, wound healing, and transwell assays. Luciferase reporter and biotin-labeled RNA pull-down assays were carried out to evaluate the interaction between circ-CAMK2A, miR-615-5p, and fibronectin 1. In addition, a lung metastasis model was constructed to determine the metastasis-promoting role of circ-CAMK2A in vivo. Results:Circ-CAMK2A overexpression was observed in LUAD and was closely associated with lymph node metastasis, distant metastasis, advanced clinical stage, and poor prognosis. Circ-CAMK2A silencing evidently inhibited LUAD cell migration and invasion, whereas circ-CAMK2A overexpression had an opposite effect. Importantly, overexpression of circ-CAMK2A also enhanced LUAD metastasis in vivo. Mechanistically, miR-615-5p was identified as a direct target of circ-CAMK2A. Circ-CAMK2A up-regulates the expression level of fibronectin 1 by sponging miR-615-5p, thereby increasing MMP2 and MMP9 expression to promote the metastasis of LUAD. Conclusion:Circ-CAMK2A plays a crucial role in the metastasis of LUAD, at least partially, by regulating the miR-615-5p/fibronectin 1 axis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Extensive studies revealed that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) could act as a regulator in tumors, including lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD). LncRNA FTX transcript, XIST regulator (FTX) has been reported to regulate the biological behaviors of some cancers. Nevertheless, its functional role and molecular mechanism remain obscure in LUAD. Our current study concentrates on exploring the biological function of FTX in LUAD.<h4>Methods</h4>RT-qPCR was used to test the expression of FTX, miR-335-5p or NUCB2 in LUAD cells. The effect of FTX on LUAD progression was investigated by colony formation, EdU, flow cytometry, TUNEL, transwell and western blot assays. The interaction between microRNA-335-5p (miR-335-5p) and FTX or nucleobindin 2 (NUCB2) was confirmed by luciferase reporter assay.<h4>Results</h4>RT-qPCR showed that FTX expression was up-regulated in LUAD cell lines. Loss-of-function assay indicated that FTX accelerated cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while inhibited cell apoptosis in LUAD. Besides, miR-335-5p, lowly expressed in LUAD cells, was discovered to be sponged by FTX. Subsequently, NUCB2 was identified as a target gene of miR-335-5p. Additionally, it was confirmed that NUCB2 functioned as an oncogene in LUAD. Rescue assays indicated that LUAD progression inhibited by FTX knockdown could be restored by NUCB2 up-regulation.<h4>Conclusion</h4>FTX played an oncogenic role in LUAD and contributed to cancer development via targeting miR-335-5p/NUCB2 axis.
Project description:<b>Background</b>: Lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) is one of the main types of lung cancer. Because of its low early diagnosis rate, poor late prognosis, and high mortality, it is of great significance to find biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis. <b>Methods</b>: Five hundred and twelve LUADs from The Cancer Genome Atlas were used for differential expression analysis and short time-series expression miner (STEM) analysis to identify the LUAD-development characteristic genes. Survival analysis was used to identify the LUAD-unfavorable genes and LUAD-favorable genes. Gene set variation analysis (GSVA) was used to score individual samples against the two gene sets. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis and univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis were used to explore the diagnostic and prognostic ability of the two GSVA score systems. Two independent data sets from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) were used for verifying the results. Functional enrichment analysis was used to explore the potential biological functions of LUAD-unfavorable genes. <b>Results</b>: With the development of LUAD, 185 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were gradually upregulated, of which 84 genes were associated with LUAD survival and named as LUAD-unfavorable gene set. While 237 DEGs were gradually downregulated, of which 39 genes were associated with LUAD survival and named as LUAD-favorable gene set. ROC curve analysis and univariate/multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses indicated both of LUAD-unfavorable GSVA score and LUAD-favorable GSVA score were a biomarker of LUAD. Moreover, both of these two GSVA score systems were an independent factor for LUAD prognosis. The LUAD-unfavorable genes were significantly involved in p53 signaling pathway, Oocyte meiosis, and Cell cycle. <b>Conclusion</b>: We identified and validated two LUAD-development characteristic gene sets that not only have diagnostic value but also prognostic value. It may provide new insight for further research on LUAD.
Project description:Despite the fact that previous studies have reported the aberrant expression of miR?183?5p in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD), the oncogenic role of miR?183?5p in LUAD and its underlying mechanisms have remained elusive. Hence, we attempted to elucidate the clinicopathological significance of miR?183?5p expression in LUAD and identify the biological function of miR?183?5p in LUAD in this study. Meta?analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) data, data mining of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and real?time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) were performed to evaluate the clinicopathological significance of miR?183?5p in LUAD. Then, the effect of miR?183?5p on cell growth in LUAD was assessed by in vitro experiments. Additionally, the target genes of miR?183?5p were identified via miRWalk v.2.0 and TCGA. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis and Disease Ontology (DO) analysis were further carried out for the target genes. The targetability between target genes in key KEGG pathways and miR?183?5p was validated by independent samples t?test, Pearson's correlation test and immunohistochemistry results from the Human Protein Atlas (HPA). According to the results, miR?183?5p was overexpressed in LUAD and exhibited significant diagnostic value. Moreover, miR?183 expression was associated with tumor progression in the TCGA data. In vitro experiments revealed the positive influence of miR?183?5p on cell viability and proliferation as well as the negative effect of miR?183?5p on caspase?3/7 activity in LUAD, which supports the finding that target genes of miR?183?5p are mainly enriched in gene pathways containing cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and gene pathways important in cancer. Therefore, we conclude that miR?183?5p acts as an oncogene in LUAD and participates in the pathogenesis of LUAD via the interaction networks of its target genes.