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Wet Air Oxidation of Oil Shales: Kerogen Dissolution and Dicarboxylic Acid Formation.


ABSTRACT: Until now, the oil shale kukersite has been used mainly for energy and oil production. To broaden the possible applications of oil shales, the wet air oxidation of kukersite (an organic-rich sedimentary rock from Estonia) was studied. Kukersite was oxidized with an oxygen-rich gas in water at temperatures up to 200 °C and pressures up to 60 bar. The efficiency of this batch process was evaluated from organic matter conversion, from the amount of solubilized organics obtained, and from the rate of dicarboxylic acid (DCA) formation. The effect of several reaction parameters-pressure, temperature, time, acid/base additives, substrate concentration, the origin of a substrate and its organic matter content, and so forth-was measured. A conversion of 91% in total organic carbon was achieved at 175 °C with 40 bar of the 1:1 oxygen/nitrogen mixture in 3 h without the presence of any additives. Under basic conditions, high yields (up to 50%) of dissolved organic matter were obtained with 8% of DCA; the best results are obtained with K2CO3 and KOH. The highest DCA outcome (12%) within the 3 h reaction time was obtained in the presence of acetic acid. It was found that temperatures higher than 185 °C, pressures over 30 bar of pO2, and long reaction times in the acidic media caused a considerable decrease in the DCA outcome. It was also found that the same process can be applied to shales of different origins, although with lower DCA yields.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7482093 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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