Research Progress of Genetic Structure, Pathogenic Mechanism, Clinical Characteristics, and Potential Treatments of Coronavirus Disease 2019.
ABSTRACT: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and currently affects more than 8 million people worldwide. SARS-CoV-2 mainly invades the cells by binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, leading to the injury of respiratory system, cardiovascular system, digestive system, and urinary system, and even secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and systemic inflammatory response, resulting in multiple organ failure. In this review, mainly focusing on biogenesis and pathogenic mechanisms, we describe the recent progress in our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 and then summarize and discuss its crucial clinical characteristics and potential mechanism in different systems. Additionally, we discuss the potential treatments for COVID-19, aiming at a better understanding of the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 and providing new ideas for the personalized treatment of COVID-19.
Project description:The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has become a global public health threat. Majority of the patients with COVID-19 have fever, cough, and fatigue. Critically ill patients can develop dyspnea and acute respiratory distress syndrome. In addition to respiratory symptoms, neurological damage also occurs in some patients. However, the mechanisms by which SARS-CoV-2 invades the nervous system have not been elucidated yet. In order to provide some reference for designing optimal therapeutic strategies, we have discussed the complications and potential mechanisms of COVID-19 in the nervous system in this review.
Project description:COVID-19 is an infectious disease caused by the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), and according to the World Health Organization (WHO), to date, SARS-CoV-2 has already infected more than 91.8 million people worldwide with 1,986,871 deaths. This virus affects mainly the respiratory system, but the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is also a target, meanwhile SARS-CoV-2 was already detected in oesophagus, stomach, duodenum, rectum, and in fecal samples from COVID-19 patients. Prolonged GIT manifestations in COVID-19, mainly the diarrhea, were correlated with decreased richness and diversity of the gut microbiota, immune deregulation and delayed SARS-CoV-2 clearance. So, the bidirectional interactions between the respiratory mucosa and the gut microbiota, known as gut-lung axis, are supposed to be involved in the healthy or pathologic immune responses to SARS-CoV-2. In accordance, the intestinal dysbiosis is associated with increased mortality in other respiratory infections, due to an exacerbated inflammation and decreased regulatory or anti-inflammatory mechanisms in the lungs and in the gut, pointing to this important relationship between both mucosal compartments. Therefore, since the mucous membranes from the respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts are affected, in addition to dysbiosis and inflammation, it is plausible to assume that adjunctive therapies based on the modulation of the gut microbiota and re-establishment of eubiosis conditions could be an important therapeutic approach for constraining the harmful consequences of COVID-19. Then, in this review, we summarized studies showing the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 in the gastrointestinal system and the related digestive COVID-19 manifestations, in addition to the literature demonstrating nasopharyngeal, pulmonary and intestinal dysbiosis in COVID-19 patients. Lastly, we showed the potential beneficial role of probiotic administration in other respiratory infections, and discuss the possible role of probiotics as an adjunctive therapy in SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:The coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic is an unprecedented worldwide health crisis. COVID-19 is caused by SARS-CoV-2, a highly infectious pathogen that is genetically similar to SARS-CoV. Similar to other recent coronavirus outbreaks, including SARS and MERS, SARS-CoV-2 infected patients typically present with fever, dry cough, fatigue, and lower respiratory system dysfunction, including high rates of pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS); however, a rapidly accumulating set of clinical studies revealed atypical symptoms of COVID-19 that involve neurological signs, including headaches, anosmia, nausea, dysgeusia, damage to respiratory centers, and cerebral infarction. These unexpected findings may provide important clues regarding the pathological sequela of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, no efficacious therapies or vaccines are currently available, complicating the clinical management of COVID-19 patients and emphasizing the public health need for controlled, hypothesis-driven experimental studies to provide a framework for therapeutic development. In this mini-review, we summarize the current body of literature regarding the central nervous system (CNS) effects of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss several potential targets for therapeutic development to reduce neurological consequences in COVID-19 patients.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel coronavirus that has caused a worldwide pandemic of the human respiratory illness COVID-19, resulting in a severe threat to public health and safety. Analysis of the genetic tree suggests that SARS-CoV-2 belongs to the same Betacoronavirus group as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Although the route for viral transmission remains a mystery, SARS-CoV-2 may have originated in an animal reservoir, likely that of bat. The clinical features of COVID-19, such as fever, cough, shortness of breath, and fatigue, are similar to those of many acute respiratory infections. There is currently no specific treatment for COVID-19, but antiviral therapy combined with supportive care is the main strategy. Here, we summarize recent progress in understanding the epidemiological, virological, and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 and discuss potential targets with existing drugs for the treatment of this emerging zoonotic disease.
Project description:There is increasing evidence of neurological manifestations and complications in patients with coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). More than one-quarter of patients with COVID-19 developed various neurological symptoms, ranging from headache and dizziness to more serious medical conditions, such as seizures and stroke. The recent investigations introduced hyposmia as a potential early criterion of infection with COVID-19. Despite the high mortality and morbidity rate of COVID-19, its exact mechanism of action and pathogenesis is not well characterized. The spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) could interact with angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) in the endothelial, neural, and glial cells. In the present study, we reviewed the most common neurological manifestations and complications that emerged after infection with the SARS-CoV-2 and discussed their possible relation to the expression and function of ACE2. Comprehensive and detailed studies are required to uncover how this virus invades the neural system as well as other critical organs.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a kind of viral pneumonia which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has been marked as the third introduction of a highly pathogenic coronavirus into the human population after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the twenty-first century. In this minireview, we provide a brief introduction of the general features of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss current knowledge of molecular immune pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of COVID-19 on the base of the present understanding of SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV infections, which may be helpful in offering novel insights and potential therapeutic targets for combating the SARS-CoV-2 infection.
Project description:The discovery of angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE-2) as the receptor for SARS- CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) has implicated the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and respiratory failure in patients with coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The angiotensin converting enzyme-1-angiotensin II-angiotensin AT1 receptor pathway contributes to the pathophysiology of ARDS, whereas activation of the ACE-2-angiotensin(1-7)-angiotensin AT2 receptor and the ACE-2-angiotensin(1-7)-Mas receptor pathways have been shown to be protective. Here we propose and discuss therapeutic considerations how to increase soluble ACE-2 in plasma in order for ACE-2 to capture and thereby inactivate SARS-CoV-2. This could be achieved by administering recombinant soluble ACE-2. We also discuss why and how ACEIs and ARBs provide cardiovascular, renal and also pulmonary protection in SARS-CoV-2- associated ARDS. Discontinuing these medications in COVID-19 patients may therefore potentially be harmful.
Project description:Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infects host cells following binding with the cell surface ACE2 receptors, thereby leading to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 causes viral pneumonia with additional extrapulmonary manifestations and major complications, including acute myocardial injury, arrhythmia, and shock mainly in elderly patients. Furthermore, patients with existing cardiovascular comorbidities, such as hypertension and coronary heart disease, have a worse clinical outcome following contraction of the viral illness. A striking feature of COVID-19 pandemics is the high incidence of fatalities in advanced aged patients: this might be due to the prevalence of frailty and cardiovascular disease increase with age due to endothelial dysfunction and loss of endogenous cardioprotective mechanisms. Although experimental evidence on this topic is still at its infancy, the aim of this position paper is to hypothesize and discuss more suggestive cellular and molecular mechanisms whereby SARS-CoV-2 may lead to detrimental consequences to the cardiovascular system. We will focus on aging, cytokine storm, NLRP3/inflammasome, hypoxemia, and air pollution, which is an emerging cardiovascular risk factor associated with rapid urbanization and globalization. We will finally discuss the impact of clinically available CV drugs on the clinical course of COVID-19 patients. Understanding the role played by SARS-CoV2 on the CV system is indeed mandatory to get further insights into COVID-19 pathogenesis and to design a therapeutic strategy of cardio-protection for frail patients.
Project description:The pandemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is causing substantial morbidity and mortality. Older age and presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and obesity significantly increases the risk for hospitalization and death in COVID-19 patients. In this Perspective, informed by the studies on SARS-CoV-2, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS-CoV), and the current literature on SARS-CoV-2, we discuss potential mechanisms by which diabetes modulates the host-viral interactions and host-immune responses. We hope to highlight gaps in knowledge that require further studies pertinent to COVID-19 in patients with diabetes.
Project description:A cluster of pneumonia (COVID-19) cases have been found in Wuhan China in late December, 2019, and subsequently, a novel coronavirus with a positive stranded RNA was identified to be the aetiological virus (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, SARS-CoV-2), which has a phylogenetic similarity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV). SARS-CoV-2 transmits mainly through droplets and close contact and the elder or people with chronic diseases are high-risk population. People affected by SARS-CoV-2 can be asymptomatic, which brings about more difficulties to control the transmission. COVID-19 has become pandemic rapidly after onset, and so far the infected people have been above 2 000 000 and more than 130 000 died worldwide according to COVID-19 situation dashboard of World Health Organization (https://covid19.who.int). Here, we summarized the current known knowledge regarding epidemiological, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical features, comorbidities and treatment of COVID-19/ SARS-CoV-2 as reference for the prevention and control COVID-19.