Taxonomic revision of the Andean genus Xenophyllum (Compositae, Senecioneae).
ABSTRACT: The Andean genus Xenophyllum (Compositae, Senecioneae) is distributed along the high-Andes from northeastern Colombia to northern Chile and northwestern Argentina, mainly thriving in the paramo and puna ecoregions. It comprises suffruticose plants forming dense mats, hummocks, or clumps of erect stems. They are characterized by displaying involucral bracts fused at the base, supplementary bracts absent, and mostly radiate capitula with white ray corollas, seldom yellow or pink (disciform in one species). Traditionally, Xenophyllum species were treated as members of the genus Werneria, a morphologically close genus that includes rosettiform or scapiform perennial herbs. As currently circumscribed, Xenophyllum mostly differs from Werneria in having elongate stems. Herein, the first modern and comprehensive revision of the genus recognizing twenty-two species and two subspecies is presented. Werneria decumbens is synonymized with X. weddellii, as well as X. fontii with X. humile and X. oscartovarii with X. dactylophyllum. Likewise, four varietal names and two sectional names are proposed as new synonyms. Seven names are lectotypified, the name X. sotarense is epitypified, W. decumbens neotypified, and the supraspecific name W. sect. Integrifoliae Rockh. is typified. The combination X. crassum subsp. orientalecomb. nov. is made. Descriptions and distribution maps are provided for all accepted species, in addition to an identification key. Ten species are illustrated, three of them for the first time.
Project description:Nothovernoniagen. nov., is described as a new genus for the tropical African Vernonia purpurea Sch.Bip. ex Walp. and Vernonia amblyolepis Bak, having cymiform inflorescences, pedunculate heads with differentiated foliiform bracts at the base, apiculate involucral bracts with scarious lateral margins, spiculiferous corolla lobes, and strongly spinose, sublopohate tricolporate pollen with the colpi meeting at the poles. The new genus belongs to the subtribe Centrapalinae and a key to the known DNA-sequenced genera of the subtribe is provided. The new species names are Nothovernonia purpurea (Sch.Bip. ex Walp.) H.Rob. and V.A.Funk, comb. nov., and Nothovernonia amblyolepis (Baker) H.Rob. & V.A.Funk, comb. nov.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Some Gynura species have been reported to be natural anti-diabetic plants. Improvement of their traits towards application relies on hybridization. Clearly, phylogenetic relationships could optimize compatible hybridizations. For flowerings plants, chloroplast genomes have been used to solve many phylogenetic relationships. To date, the chloroplast genome sequences of 4 genera of the tribe Senecioneae have been uploaded to GenBank. The internal relationships within the genus Gynura and the relationship of the genus Gynura with other genera in the tribe Senecioneae need further research. RESULTS:The chloroplast genomes of 4 Gynura species were sequenced, assembled and annotated. In comparison with those of 12 other Senecioneae species, the Gynura chloroplast genome features were analysed in detail. Subsequently, differences in the microsatellite and repeat types in the tribe were found. From the comparison, it was found that IR expansion and contraction are conserved in the genera Gynura, Dendrosenecio and Ligularia. Compared to other regions on the chloroplast genome, the region from 25,000 to 50,000?bp was not conserved. Seven ndh genes in this region are under purifying selection, with small changes in amino acids. The whole chloroplast genome sequences of 16 Senecioneae species were used to build a phylogenetic tree. Based on the oldest Artemisia pollen fossil, the divergence time was estimated. CONCLUSIONS:Sequencing the chloroplast genomes of 4 Gynura species helps us to solve many problems. The phylogenetic relationships and divergence time among 4 Gynura and 16 Senecioneae species were evaluated by comparing their chloroplast genomes. The phylogenetic relationship of the genera Gynura and Ligularia was different from that observed previous work. In a previous phylogenetic tree, the genus Ligularia belonged to the Tussilagininae subtribe, which was in a lineage that diverged earlier than other genera. Further morphology and genome-wide analyses are needed to clarify the genus relationships.
Project description:Misspellings of organism scientific names create barriers to optimal storage and organization of biological data, reconciliation of data stored under different spelling variants of the same name, and appropriate responses from user queries to taxonomic data systems. This study presents an analysis of the nature of the problem from first principles, reviews some available algorithmic approaches, and describes Taxamatch, an improved name matching solution for this information domain. Taxamatch employs a custom Modified Damerau-Levenshtein Distance algorithm in tandem with a phonetic algorithm, together with a rule-based approach incorporating a suite of heuristic filters, to produce improved levels of recall, precision and execution time over the existing dynamic programming algorithms n-grams (as bigrams and trigrams) and standard edit distance. Although entirely phonetic methods are faster than Taxamatch, they are inferior in the area of recall since many real-world errors are non-phonetic in nature. Excellent performance of Taxamatch (as recall, precision and execution time) is demonstrated against a reference database of over 465,000 genus names and 1.6 million species names, as well as against a range of error types as present at both genus and species levels in three sets of sample data for species and four for genera alone. An ancillary authority matching component is included which can be used both for misspelled names and for otherwise matching names where the associated cited authorities are not identical.
Project description:As a service to taxonomists and ecologists using names in the well-known and species-rich ship-fouling serpulid genus Hydroides we present an update of all 107 non-synonymised scientific names, with additional information on Hydroides nomenclature, original names, etymologies, and type localities derived from original literature, and in accord with the World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) database. An update is needed because the gender of genus Hydroides has from 1 January 2000 reverted to the original feminine, due to a change in the wording of International Code of Zoological Nomenclature which was overlooked at that time, and is contrary to the usage in practice of Hydroides as masculine which had started about 1992, although Code-required from the 1960s. We match 31 further original names of current WoRMS subjective junior synonyms to each non-synonymised name, and also report on the world distribution of the genus as illustrated by type localities of the valid names. We include notes on seven species inquirenda. The correct rendering is given of six names that have been altered for gender agreement for the first time herein. Hydroides gottfriedinom. n. replaces junior homonym Hydroides rostrata Pillai, 1971. Currently there are 41 non-synonymised species-group names in Hydroides which should be gender invariant, and 23 names which would only change if moved to a neuter genus; the remaining 43 names are fully gender variable. Place-names (23), and personal names (16) make up more than a third (36%) of the species names, with most of the remainder (68) being descriptive of species character states, usually of operculum morphology (54). All species, except Hydroides norvegica (63°N), have type localities in shallow-water coastal locations in temperate to tropical waters below latitude 44°, with the highest number of new species (54) from the adjoining Western Pacific and Indian Ocean areas. The other concentration of new species (31) are those first found on the Pacific and Atlantic coasts of North America and in the Caribbean.
Project description:Aspergillus is one of the economically most important fungal genera. Recently, the ICN adopted the single name nomenclature which has forced mycologists to choose one name for fungi (e.g. Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium, etc.). Previously two proposals for the single name nomenclature in Aspergillus were presented: one attributes the name "Aspergillus" to clades comprising seven different teleomorphic names, by supporting the monophyly of this genus; the other proposes that Aspergillus is a non-monophyletic genus, by preserving the Aspergillus name only to species belonging to subgenus Circumdati and maintaining the sexual names in the other clades. The aim of our study was to test the monophyly of Aspergilli by two independent phylogenetic analyses using a multilocus phylogenetic approach. One test was run on the publicly available coding regions of six genes (RPB1, RPB2, Tsr1, Cct8, BenA, CaM), using 96 species of Penicillium, Aspergillus and related taxa. Bayesian (MrBayes) and Ultrafast Maximum Likelihood (IQ-Tree) and Rapid Maximum Likelihood (RaxML) analyses gave the same conclusion highly supporting the monophyly of Aspergillus. The other analyses were also performed by using publicly available data of the coding sequences of nine loci (18S rRNA, 5,8S rRNA, 28S rRNA (D1-D2), RPB1, RPB2, CaM, BenA, Tsr1, Cct8) of 204 different species. Both Bayesian (MrBayes) and Maximum Likelihood (RAxML) trees obtained by this second round of independent analyses strongly supported the monophyly of the genus Aspergillus. The stability test also confirmed the robustness of the results obtained. In conclusion, statistical analyses have rejected the hypothesis that the Aspergilli are non-monophyletic, and provided robust arguments that the genus is monophyletic and clearly separated from the monophyletic genus Penicillium. There is no phylogenetic evidence to split Aspergillus into several genera and the name Aspergillus can be used for all the species belonging to Aspergillus i.e. the clade comprising the subgenera Aspergillus, Circumdati, Fumigati, Nidulantes, section Cremei and certain species which were formerly part of the genera Phialosimplex and Polypaecilum. Section Cremei and the clade containing Polypaecilum and Phialosimplex are proposed as new subgenera of Aspergillus. The phylogenetic analysis also clearly shows that Aspergillus clavatoflavus and A. zonatus do not belong to the genus Aspergillus. Aspergillus clavatoflavus is therefore transferred to a new genus Aspergillago as Aspergillago clavatoflavus and A. zonatus was transferred to Penicilliopsis as P. zonata. The subgenera of Aspergillus share similar extrolite profiles indicating that the genus is one large genus from a chemotaxonomical point of view. Morphological and ecophysiological characteristics of the species also strongly indicate that Aspergillus is a polythetic class in phenotypic characters.
Project description:Scientific names in biology act as universal links. They allow us to cross-reference information about organisms globally. However variations in spelling of scientific names greatly diminish their ability to interconnect data. Such variations may include abbreviations, annotations, misspellings, etc. Authorship is a part of a scientific name and may also differ significantly. To match all possible variations of a name we need to divide them into their elements and classify each element according to its role. We refer to this as 'parsing' the name. Parsing categorizes name's elements into those that are stable and those that are prone to change. Names are matched first by combining them according to their stable elements. Matches are then refined by examining their varying elements. This two stage process dramatically improves the number and quality of matches. It is especially useful for the automatic data exchange within the context of "Big Data" in biology.We introduce Global Names Parser (gnparser). It is a Java tool written in Scala language (a language for Java Virtual Machine) to parse scientific names. It is based on a Parsing Expression Grammar. The parser can be applied to scientific names of any complexity. It assigns a semantic meaning (such as genus name, species epithet, rank, year of publication, authorship, annotations, etc.) to all elements of a name. It is able to work with nested structures as in the names of hybrids. gnparser performs with ≈99% accuracy and processes 30 million name-strings/hour per CPU thread. The gnparser library is compatible with Scala, Java, R, Jython, and JRuby. The parser can be used as a command line application, as a socket server, a web-app or as a RESTful HTTP-service. It is released under an Open source MIT license.Global Names Parser (gnparser) is a fast, high precision tool for biodiversity informaticians and biologists working with large numbers of scientific names. It can replace expensive and error-prone manual parsing and standardization of scientific names in many situations, and can quickly enhance the interoperability of distributed biological information.
Project description:Background:The genus Raphia (Arecaceae/Palmae) is the most economically and culturally important genus of African palms. With over 20 recognized species, it is also the most diversified among tropical African palms. However, significant taxonomic confusion still persists in the genus. Raphia vinifera P.Beauv. is one of the first two names described in the genus, but the species has been misidentified and confused for several decades. New information:We clarify the taxonomic identity of R. vinifera. We retrace the taxonomic history of the name and clarify its morphological identity using the literature and type material. We synonymize the name R. mambillensis with R. vinifera. We provide a new detailed morphological description of R. vinifera based on the study of herbarium material and field data. A distribution map is also provided. Raphia vinifera is still incompletely known, and more research should be undertaken on this species' presence and ecology, especially in West Africa.
Project description:The names Werneria melanandra and W. pygmophylla are transferred to the genus Senecio. They belong to the group of the discoid caespitose Andean Senecio, specifically to the subgroup with blackish anthers and style branches and whitish corollas. The recognition of S. digitatus as a distinct species is also discussed. Within the framework of the mentioned group, the names S. casapaltensis and S. macrorrhizus are lectotypified, S. humillimus var. melanolepis is neotypified, an epitype is designated for the name W. melanandra, and nine new synonyms are proposed. An updated comprehensive dichotomous key including all discoid caespitose Senecio species from Bolivia and Peru is provided.
Project description:Forage grasses of the African genus Urochloa (syn. Brachiaria) are the basis of Brazilian beef production, and there is a strong demand for high quality, productive and adapted forage plants. Among the approximately 100 species of the genus Urochloa, Urochloa decumbens is one of the most important tropical forage grasses used for pastures due to several of its agronomic attributes. However, the level of understanding of these attributes and the tools with which to control them at the genetic level are limited, mainly due to the apomixis and ploidy level of this species. In this context, the present study aimed to identify and characterize molecular microsatellite markers of U. decumbens and to evaluate their cross-amplification in other Urochloa species.Microsatellite loci were isolated from a previously constructed enriched library from one U. decumbens genotype. Specific primers were designed for one hundred thirteen loci, and ninety-three primer pairs successfully amplified microsatellite regions, yielding an average of 4.93 alleles per locus. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values of these loci ranged from 0.26 to 0.85 (average 0.68), and the associated discriminating power (DP) values ranged from 0.22 to 0.97 (average 0.77). Cross-amplification studies demonstrated the potential transferability of these microsatellites to four other Urochloa species. Structure analysis revealed the existence of three distinct groups, providing evidence in the allelic pool that U. decumbens is closely related to Urochloa ruziziensis and Urochloa brizantha. The genetic distance values determined using Jaccard's coefficient ranged from 0.06 to 0.76.The microsatellite markers identified in this study are the first set of molecular markers for U. decumbens species. Their availability will facilitate understanding the genetics of this and other Urochloa species and breeding them, and will be useful for germplasm characterization, linkage mapping and marker-assisted selection.
Project description:A total of ca 800,000 occurrence records from the Australian Museum (AM), Museums Victoria (MV) and the New Zealand Arthropod Collection (NZAC) were audited for changes in selected Darwin Core fields after processing by the Atlas of Living Australia (ALA; for AM and MV records) and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF; for AM, MV and NZAC records). Formal taxon names in the genus- and species-groups were changed in 13-21% of AM and MV records, depending on dataset and aggregator. There was little agreement between the two aggregators on processed names, with names changed in two to three times as many records by one aggregator alone compared to records with names changed by both aggregators. The type status of specimen records did not change with name changes, resulting in confusion as to the name with which a type was associated. Data losses of up to 100% were found after processing in some fields, apparently due to programming errors. The taxonomic usefulness of occurrence records could be improved if aggregators included both original and the processed taxonomic data items for each record. It is recommended that end-users check original and processed records for data loss and name replacements after processing by aggregators.