Molecular docking, molecular dynamics simulations and reactivity, studies on approved drugs library targeting ACE2 and SARS-CoV-2 binding with ACE2.
ABSTRACT: The recent new contagion coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) disease is a new generation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 SARS-CoV-2 which infected millions confirmed cases and hundreds of thousands death cases around the world so far. Molecular docking combined with molecular dynamics is one of the most important tools of drug discovery and drug design, which it used to examine the type of binding between the ligand and its protein enzyme. Global reactivity has important properties, which enable chemists to understand the chemical reactivity and kinetic stability of compounds. In this study, molecular docking and reactivity were applied for eighteen drugs, which are similar in structure to chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, the potential inhibitors to angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE2). Those drugs were selected from DrugBank. The reactivity, molecular docking and molecular dynamics were performed for two receptors ACE2 and [SARS-CoV-2/ACE2] complex receptor in two active sites to find a ligand, which may inhibit COVID-19. The results obtained from this study showed that Ramipril, Delapril and Lisinopril could bind with ACE2 receptor and [SARS-CoV-2/ACE2] complex better than chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine. This new understanding should help to improve predictions of the impact of such alternatives on COVID-19. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:We aimed to analyze the interactions of both hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine with SARS-CoV-2 and identify their possible role for the prevention/treatment of COVID-19 by molecular docking studies. Protein crystal structures of SARS-CoV-2 and ACE2, the compounds hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine, and other ligand structures were minimized by OPLS3 force field. Glide Standard Precision and Extra Precision docking are performed and MM-GBSA values ??are calculated. Molecular docking studies showed that hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine do not interact with SARS-CoV-2 proteins, but bind to the amino acids ASP350, ASP382, ALA348, PHE40 and PHE390 on the ACE2 allosteric site rather than the ACE2 active site. Our results showed that neither hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine bind to the active site of ACE2. However, both molecules prevent the binding of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein to ACE2 by interacting with the allosteric site. This result can help ACE2 inhibitor drug development studies to prevent viruses entering the cell by attaching spike protein to ACE2. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:A novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) identified in Wuhan state of China in 2019 is the causative agent of deadly disease COVID-19. It has spread across the globe (more than 210 countries) within a short period. Coronaviruses pose serious health threats to both humans and animals. A recent publication reported an experimental 3D complex structure of the S protein of SARS-CoV-2 showed that the ectodomain of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein binds to the peptidase domain (PD) of human ACE2 with a dissociation constant (Kd) of ~?15 nM. In this study, we focused on inhibitors for ACE2: S protein complex using virtual screening and inhibition studies through molecular docking for over 200,000 natural compounds. Toxicity analysis was also performed for the best hits, and the final complex structures for four complexes were subjected to 400 ns molecular dynamics simulations for stability testing. We found two natural origin inhibitors for the S protein: human ACE2 complex (Andrographolide and Pterostilbene) which displayed better inhibition potential for ACE2 receptor and its binding with the S protein of SARS-CoV-2. Comparative studies were also performed to test and verify that these two drug candidates are also better than hydroxychloroquine which is known to inhibit this complex. However, we needed better potential drug candidates to overcome the side effects of hydroxychloroquine. Supplementary experimental studies need to be carried forward to corroborate the viability of these two new inhibitors for ACE2: S protein complex so as to curb down COVID-19.
Project description:COVID-19 affects vulnerable populations including elderly individuals and patients with cancer. Natural Killer (NK) cells and innate-immune TRAIL suppress transformed and virally-infected cells. ACE2, and TMPRSS2 protease promote SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, while inflammatory cytokines IL-6, or G-CSF worsen COVID-19 severity. We show MEK inhibitors (MEKi) VS-6766, trametinib and selumetinib reduce ACE2 expression in human cells. Chloroquine or hydroxychloroquine increase cleaved active SP-domain of TMPRSS2, and this is potentiated by MEKi. In some human cells, remdesivir increases ACE2-promoter luciferase-reporter expression, ACE2 mRNA and protein, and ACE2 expression is attenuated by MEKi. We show elevated cytokines in COVID-19- (+) patient plasma (N=9) versus control (N=11). TMPRSS2, inflammatory cytokines G-CSF, M- CSF, IL-1a, IL-6 and MCP-1 are suppressed by MEKi alone or in combination with remdesivir. MEKi enhance NK cell (but not T-cell) killing of target-cells, without suppressing TRAIL-mediated cytotoxicity. We generated a pseudotyped SARS-CoV-2 virus with a lentiviral core but with the SARS-CoV-2 D614 or G614 SPIKE (S) protein on its envelope and used VSV-G lentivirus as a negative control. Our results show infection of human bronchial epithelial cells or lung cancer cells and that MEKi suppress infectivity of the SARS-CoV-2-S pseudovirus following infection. We show a drug class-effect with MEKi to promote immune responses involving NK cells, inhibit inflammatory cytokines and block host-factors for SARS-CoV-2 infection leading also to suppression of SARS-CoV-2-S pseudovirus infection of human cells in a model system. MEKi may attenuate coronavirus infection to allow immune responses and antiviral agents to control COVID-19 disease progression and severity.
Project description:SARS-CoV-2 has devastated the world with its rapid spread and fatality. The researchers across the globe are struggling hard to search a drug to treat this infection. Understanding the time constraint, the best approach is to study clinically approved drugs for control of this deadly pandemic of COVID 19. The repurposing of such drugs can be supported with the study of molecular interactions to enhance the possibility of application. The present work is a molecular docking study of proteins responsible for viral propagation namely 3Clpro, Nsp10/16, Spike protein, SARS protein receptor binding domain, Nsp 9 viral single strand binding protein and viral helicase. The protein through virus enters the host cell-human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, is also used as a target for molecular docking. The docking was done with most discussed drugs for SARS-CoV-2 like Ritonavir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), routine antiviral drugs like Oseltamivir and Ribavirin. In addition, small molecules with anti-inflammatory actions like Mycophenolic acid (MPA), Pemirolast, Isoniazid and Eriodictyol were also tested. The generated data confirms the potential of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir as a therapeutic candidate against SARS-CoV-2. It is observed that Eriodictyol binds to almost all selected target proteins with good binding energy, suggesting its importance in treatment of COVID 19. Molecular interactions of Ritonavir, Lopinavir and Remdesivir against SARS-CoV-2 proteins enhanced their potential as a candidate drug for treatment of COVID-19. Eriodictyol had emerged as a new repurposing drug that can be used in COVID-19.
Project description:Recently Chloroquine and its derivative Hydroxychloroquine have garnered enormous interest amongst the clinicians and health authorities' world over as a potential treatment to contain COVID-19 pandemic. The present research aims at investigating the therapeutic potential of Chloroquine and its potent derivative Hydroxychloroquine against SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins. At the same time screening was performed for some chemically synthesized derivatives of Chloroquine and compared their binding efficacy with chemically synthesized Chloroquine derivatives through in silico approaches. For the purpose of the study, some essential viral proteins and enzymes were selected that are implicated in SARS-CoV-2 replication and multiplication as putative drug targets. Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, and some of their chemically synthesized derivatives, taken from earlier published studies were selected as drug molecules. We have conducted molecular docking and related studies between Chloroquine and its derivatives and SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins, and the findings show that both Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine can bind to specific structural and non-structural proteins implicated in the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 infection with different efficiencies. Our current study also shows that some of the chemically synthesized Chloroquine derivatives can also potentially inhibit various SARS-CoV-2 viral proteins by binding to them and concomitantly effectively disrupting the active site of these proteins. These findings bring into light another possible mechanism of action of Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine and also pave the way for further drug repurposing and remodeling.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:The global health emergency of novel COVID-19 is due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Currently there are no approved drugs for the treatment of coronaviral disease (COVID-19), although some of the drugs have been tried. Chloroquine is being widely used in treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Hydroxychloroquine, the derivative of Chloroquine shows better inhibition than Chloroquine and has in vitro activity against SARS-CoV-2 also used to treat COVID-19. To study the interactions of Chloroquine and derivatives of Chloroquine with SARS-CoV-2, series of computational approaches like pharmacophore model, molecular docking, MM_GBSA study and ADME property analysis are explored. The pharmacophore model and molecular docking study are used to explore the structural properties of the compounds and the ligand-receptor (PDB_ID: 6LU7) interactions respectively. MM_GBSA study gives the binding free energy of the protein-ligand complex and ADME property analysis explains the pharmacological property of the compounds. The resultant best molecule (CQD15) further subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulation study which explains the protein stability (RMSD), ligand properties as well as protein-ligand contacts. Outcomes of the present study conclude with the molecule CQD15 which shows better interactions for the inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 in comparison to Chloroquine and Hydroxychloroquine.Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
Project description:There is increasing evidence that ACE2 gene polymorphism can modulate the interaction between ACE2 and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein affecting the viral entry into the host cell, and/or contribute to lung and systemic damage in COVID-19. Here we used in silico molecular docking to predict the effects of ACE2 missense variants on the interaction with the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2. HDOCK and FireDock simulations identified 6 ACE2 missense variants (I21T, A25T, K26R, E37K, T55A, E75G) with higher affinity for SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein receptor binding domain (RBD) with respect to wild type ACE2, and 11 variants (I21V, E23K, K26E, T27A, E35K, S43R, Y50F, N51D, N58H, K68E, M82I) with lower affinity. This result supports the hypothesis that ACE2 genetic background may represent the first "genetic gateway" during the disease progression.
Project description:The repurposing of FDA approved drugs is presently receiving attention for COVID-19 drug discovery. Previous studies revealed the binding potential of several FDA-approved drugs towards specific targets of SARS-CoV-2; however, limited studies are focused on the structural and molecular basis of interaction of these drugs towards multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2. The present study aimed to predict the binding potential of six FDA drugs towards fifteen protein targets of SARS-CoV-2 and propose the structural and molecular basis of the interaction by molecular docking and dynamic simulation. Based on the literature survey, fifteen potential targets of SARS-CoV-2, and six FDA drugs (Chloroquine, Hydroxychloroquine, Favipiravir, Lopinavir, Remdesivir, and Ritonavir) were selected. The binding potential of individual drug towards the selected targets was predicted by molecular docking in comparison with the binding of the same drugs with their usual targets. The stabilities of the best-docked conformations were confirmed by molecular dynamic simulation and energy calculations. Among the selected drugs, Ritonavir and Lopinavir showed better binding towards the prioritized targets with minimum binding energy (kcal/mol), cluster-RMS, number of interacting residues, and stabilizing forces when compared with the binding of Chloroquine, Favipiravir, and Hydroxychloroquine, later drugs demonstrated better binding when compared to the binding with their usual targets. Remdesvir showed better binding to the prioritized targets in comparison with the binding of Chloroquine, Favipiravir, and Hydroxychloroquine, but showed lesser binding potential when compared to the interaction between Ritonavir and Lopinavir and the prioritized targets. The structural and molecular basis of interactions suggest that the FDA drugs can be repurposed towards multiple targets of SARS-CoV-2, and the present computational models provide insights on the scope of repurposed drugs against COVID-19.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a highly transmissible viral infection caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Clinical trials have reported improved outcomes resulting from an effective reduction or absence of viral load when patients were treated with chloroquine (CQ) or hydroxychloroquine (HCQ). In addition, the effects of these drugs were improved by simultaneous administration of azithromycin (AZM). The receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein binds to the cell surface angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, allowing virus entry and replication in host cells. The viral main protease (Mpro) and host cathepsin L (CTSL) are among the proteolytic systems involved in SARS-CoV-2 S protein activation. Hence, molecular docking studies were performed to test the binding performance of these three drugs against four targets. The findings showed AZM affinity scores (?G) with strong interactions with ACE2, CTSL, Mpro and RBD. CQ affinity scores showed three low-energy results (less negative) with ACE2, CTSL and RBD, and a firm bond score with Mpro. For HCQ, two results (ACE2 and Mpro) were firmly bound to the receptors, however CTSL and RBD showed low interaction energies. The differences in better interactions and affinity between HCQ and CQ with ACE2 and Mpro were probably due to structural differences between the drugs. On other hand, AZM not only showed more negative (better) values in affinity, but also in the number of interactions in all targets. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to investigate the antiviral properties of these drugs against SARS-CoV-2.
Project description:The global outbreak of COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) caused by SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome caused by Coronavirus 2) began in December 2019. Its closest relative, SARS-CoV-1, has a slightly mutated Spike (S) protein, which interacts with ACE2 receptor in human cells to start the infection. So far, there are no vaccines or drugs to treat COVID-19. So, research groups worldwide are seeking new molecules targeting the S protein to prevent infection by SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 establishment. We performed molecular docking analysis of eight synthetic peptides against SARS-CoV-2 S protein. All interacted with the protein, but Mo-CBP3-PepII and PepKAA had the highest affinity with it. By binding to the S protein, both peptides led to conformational alterations in the protein, resulting in incorrect interaction with ACE2. Therefore, given the importance of the S protein-ACE2 interaction for SARS-CoV-2 infection, synthetic peptides could block SARS-CoV-2 infection. Moreover, unlike other antiviral drugs, peptides have no toxicity to human cells. Thus, these peptides are potential molecules to be tested against SARS-CoV-2 and to develop new drugs to treat COVID-19.