Cognition and motor function: The gait and cognition pooled index.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:There is a need for outcome measures with improved responsiveness to changes in pre-dementia populations. Both cognitive and motor function play important roles in neurodegeneration; motor function decline is detectable at early stages of cognitive decline. This proof of principle study used a Pooled Index approach to evaluate improved responsiveness of the predominant outcome measure (ADAS-Cog: Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale) when assessment of motor function is added. METHODS:Candidate Pooled Index variables were selected based on theoretical importance and pairwise correlation coefficients. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests assessed baseline discrimination. Standardized response means assessed responsiveness to longitudinal change. RESULTS:Final selected variables for the Pooled Index include gait velocity, dual-task cost of gait velocity, and an ADAS-Cog-Proxy (statistical approximation of the ADAS-Cog using similar cognitive tests). The Pooled Index and ADAS-Cog-Proxy scores had similar ability to discriminate between pre-dementia syndromes. The Pooled Index demonstrated trends of similar or greater responsiveness to longitudinal decline than ADAS-Cog-Proxy scores. CONCLUSION:Adding motor function assessments to the ADAS-Cog may improve responsiveness in pre-dementia populations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) is widely used in AD, but may be less responsive to change when used in people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). METHODS:Participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative were administered a neuropsychological battery and 1.5 T MRI scans over 2-3 years. Informants were queried regarding functional impairments. Some participants had lumbar punctures to obtain cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We added executive functioning (EF) and functional ability (FA) items to the ADAS-Cog to generate candidate augmented measures. We calibrated these candidates using baseline data (n?=?811) and selected the best candidate that added EF items alone and that added EF and FA items. We selected candidates based on their responsiveness over three years in a training sample of participants with MCI (n?=?160). We compared traditional ADAS-Cog scores with the two candidates based on their responsiveness in a validation sample of participants with MCI (n?=?234), ability to predict conversion to dementia (n?=?394), strength of association with baseline MRI (n?=?394) and CSF biomarkers (n?=?193). RESULTS:The selected EF candidate added category fluency (ADAS Plus EF), and the selected EF and FA candidate added category fluency, Digit Symbol, Trail Making, and five items from the Functional Assessment Questionnaire (ADAS Plus EF&FA). The ADAS Plus EF& FA performed as well as or better than traditional ADAS-Cog scores. CONCLUSION:Adding EF and FA items to the ADAS-Cog may improve responsiveness among people with MCI without impairing validity.
Project description:The Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale (ADAS-Cog) was developed in the 1980s to assess the level of cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Advancements in the research field have shifted focus toward pre-dementia populations, and use of the ADAS-Cog has extended into these pre-dementia studies despite concerns about its ability to detect important changes at these milder stages of disease progression. If the ADAS-Cog cannot detect important changes, our understanding of pre-dementia disease progression may be compromised and trials may incorrectly conclude that a novel treatment approach is not beneficial. The purpose of this review was to assess the performance of the ADAS-Cog in pre-dementia populations, and to review all modifications that have been made to the ADAS-Cog to improve its measurement performance in dementia or pre-dementia populations. The contents of this review are based on bibliographic searches of electronic databases to locate all studies using the ADAS-Cog in pre-dementia samples or subsamples, and to locate all modified versions. Citations from relevant articles were also consulted. Overall, our results suggest the original ADAS-Cog is not an optimal outcome measure for pre-dementia studies; however, given the prominence of the ADAS-Cog, care must be taken when considering the use of alternative outcome measures. Thirty-one modified versions of the ADAS-Cog were found. Modification approaches that appear most beneficial include altering scoring methodology or adding tests of memory, executive function, and/or daily functioning. Although modifications improve the performance of the ADAS-Cog, this is at the cost of introducing heterogeneity that may limit between-study comparison.
Project description:The Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) and Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) are frequently used indices of cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The goal of this study was to compare FDG-PET and clinical measurements in a large sample of elderly subjects with memory disturbance. We examined relationships between glucose metabolism in FDG-PET regions of interest (FDG-ROIs), and ADAS-cog and FAQ scores in AD and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) patients enrolled in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Low glucose metabolism at baseline predicted subsequent ADAS-cog and FAQ decline. In addition, longitudinal glucose metabolism decline was associated with concurrent ADAS-cog and FAQ decline. Finally, a power analysis revealed that FDG-ROI values have greater statistical power than ADAS-cog to detect attenuation of cognitive decline in AD and MCI patients. Glucose metabolism is a sensitive measure of change in cognition and functional ability in AD and MCI, and has value in predicting future cognitive decline.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Currently available pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments have shown only modest effects in slowing the progression of dementia. Our objective was to assess the impact of a long-term non-pharmacological group intervention on cognitive function in dementia patients and on their ability to carry out activities of daily living compared to a control group receiving the usual care.<h4>Methods</h4>A randomized, controlled, single-blind longitudinal trial was conducted with 98 patients (follow-up: n = 61) with primary degenerative dementia in five nursing homes in Bavaria, Germany. The highly standardized intervention consisted of motor stimulation, practice in activities of daily living, and cognitive stimulation (acronym MAKS). It was conducted in groups of ten patients led by two therapists for 2 hours, 6 days a week for 12 months. Control patients received treatment as usual. Cognitive function was assessed using the cognitive subscale of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale (ADAS-Cog), and the ability to carry out activities of daily living using the Erlangen Test of Activities of Daily Living (E-ADL test) at baseline and after 12 months.<h4>Results</h4>Of the 553 individuals screened, 119 (21.5%) were eligible and 98 (17.7%) were ultimately included in the study. At 12 months, the results of the per protocol analysis (n = 61) showed that cognitive function and the ability to carry out activities of daily living had remained stable in the intervention group but had decreased in the control patients (ADAS-Cog: adjusted mean difference: -7.7, 95% CI -14.0 to -1.4, P = 0.018, Cohen's d = 0.45; E-ADL test: adjusted mean difference: 3.6, 95% CI 0.7 to 6.4, P = 0.015, Cohen's d = 0.50). The effect sizes for the intervention were greater in the subgroup of patients (n = 50) with mild to moderate disease (ADAS-Cog: Cohen's d = 0.67; E-ADL test: Cohen's d = 0.69).<h4>Conclusions</h4>A highly standardized, non-pharmacological, multicomponent group intervention conducted in a nursing-home setting was able to postpone a decline in cognitive function in dementia patients and in their ability to carry out activities of daily living for at least 12 months.<h4>Trial registration</h4>http://www.isrctn.com Identifier: ISRCTN87391496.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Oxidative stress is one of the causative factors in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases including mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and dementia. We previously reported that molecular hydrogen (H2) acts as a therapeutic and preventive antioxidant.<h4>Objective</h4>We assess the effects of drinking H2-water (water infused with H2) on oxidative stress model mice and subjects with MCI.<h4>Methods</h4>Transgenic mice expressing a dominant-negative form of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 were used as a dementia model. The mice with enhanced oxidative stress were allowed to drink H2-water. For a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical study, 73 subjects with MCI drank ~300 mL of H2-water (H2-group) or placebo water (control group) per day, and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog) scores were determined after 1 year.<h4>Results</h4>In mice, drinking H2-water decreased oxidative stress markers and suppressed the decline of memory impairment and neurodegeneration. Moreover, the mean lifespan in the H2-water group was longer than that of the control group. In MCI subjects, although there was no significant difference between the H2- and control groups in ADAS-cog score after 1 year, carriers of the apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) genotype in the H2-group were improved significantly on total ADAS-cog score and word recall task score (one of the sub-scores in the ADAS-cog score).<h4>Conclusion</h4>H2-water may have a potential for suppressing dementia in an oxidative stress model and in the APOE4 carriers with MCI.
Project description:We tested the a priori hypothesis that older participants differ in rates of decline on cognitive outcomes compared with younger participants, and examined the potential effect of age distributions on individual clinical trial outcomes.From a meta-database of 18 studies from the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we included a cohort of 2,793 participants for whom there were baseline demographic data and at least one postbaseline cognitive assessment on the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog), Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB), or Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). We used mixed-effects models (random coefficient models) to estimate change on the outcomes across 7 age groups ranging from younger than 61 years to older than 85 years after adjusting for education.Significant worsening occurred in all age groups on all outcomes over time. The 4 older groups, aged 71 years and older, showed slower rates of decline on the ADAS-cog than the younger groups (p = 0.001). The older groups scored 2-3, 2-5, and 4-6 points better than the younger groups at 12, 18, and 24 months, respectively. There were similar differences across age groups for the MMSE, but not for the CDR-SB.The differences in change on the ADAS-cog between older and younger participants are substantially greater than differences expected between experimental drugs and placebo in current trials or differences between marketed cholinesterase inhibitors and placebo. The clinical interpretation of change on the ADAS-cog or MMSE differs depending on age. Until predictors of decline are better understood, considering effects of age on rates of change is particularly important regarding clinical practice and outcomes of trials.
Project description:<i>Introduction</i>: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurological disease. The genetics and molecular mechanisms underpinning differential cognitive decline in AD are not well understood; the genetics of AD risk have been studied far more assiduously. <i>Materials and Methods</i>: Two phase III clinical trials measuring cognitive decline over 48 weeks using Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale (ADAS-cog, <i>n</i> = 2060) and Clinical Dementia Rating-Sum of Boxes (CDR-SB, <i>n</i> = 1996) were retrospectively genotyped. A Genome-Wide Association Study (GWAS) was performed to identify and replicate genetic variants associated with cognitive decline. The relationship between polygenic risk score (PRS) and cognitive decline was tested to investigate the predictive power of aggregating many variants of individually small effect. <i>Results</i>: No loci met candidate gene or genome-wide significance. PRS explained a very small percentage of variance in rates of cognitive decline (ADAS-cog: 0.54%). <i>Conclusions</i>: These results suggest that incorporating genetic information in the prediction of cognitive decline in AD currently appears to have limited utility in clinical trials, consistent with small effect sizes estimated elsewhere. If AD progression is more heritable soon after disease onset, genetics may have more clinical utility.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Aerobic exercise has shown inconsistent cognitive effects in older adults with Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia.<h4>Objective</h4>To examine the immediate and longitudinal effects of 6-month cycling on cognition in older adults with AD dementia.<h4>Methods</h4>This randomized controlled trial randomized 96 participants (64 to cycling and 32 to stretching for six months) and followed them for another six months. The intervention was supervised, moderate-intensity cycling for 20-50 minutes, 3 times a week for six months. The control was light-intensity stretching. Cognition was assessed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months using the AD Assessment Scale-Cognition (ADAS-Cog). Discrete cognitive domains were measured using the AD Uniform Data Set battery.<h4>Results</h4>The participants were 77.4±6.8 years old with 15.6±2.9 years of education, and 55% were male. The 6-month change in ADAS-Cog was 1.0±4.6 (cycling) and 0.1±4.1 (stretching), which were both significantly less than the natural 3.2±6.3-point increase observed naturally with disease progression. The 12-month change was 2.4±5.2 (cycling) and 2.2±5.7 (control). ADAS-Cog did not differ between groups at 6 (p = 0.386) and 12 months (p = 0.856). There were no differences in the 12-month rate of change in ADAS-Cog (0.192 versus 0.197, p = 0.967), memory (-0.012 versus -0.019, p = 0.373), executive function (-0.020 versus -0.012, p = 0.383), attention (-0.035 versus -0.033, p = 0.908), or language (-0.028 versus -0.026, p = 0.756).<h4>Conclusion</h4>Exercise may reduce decline in global cognition in older adults with mild-to-moderate AD dementia. Aerobic exercise did not show superior cognitive effects to stretching in our pilot trial, possibly due to the lack of power.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Development of new treatments for Alzheimer's disease (AD) has broadened into early interventions in individuals with modest cognitive impairment and a slow decline. The 11-item version of the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive subscale (ADAS-Cog) was originally developed to measure cognition in patients with mild to moderate AD. Attempts to improve its properties for early AD by removing items prone to ceiling and/or by adding cognitive measures known to be impaired early have yielded a number of ADAS-Cog variants. Using Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative data, we compared the performance of the 3-, 5-, 11- and 13-item ADAS-Cog variants in subjects with early AD. Given the interest in enrichment strategies, we also examined this aspect with a focus on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) markers. METHODS:Subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild AD with available ADAS-Cog 13 and CSF data were analysed. The decline over time was defined by change from baseline. Direct cross-comparison of the ADAS-Cog variants was performed using the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), with higher values reflecting increased sensitivity to detect change over time. RESULTS:The decline over time on any of the ADAS-Cog variants was minimal in subjects with MCI. Approximately half of subjects with MCI fulfilled enrichment criteria for positive AD pathology. The impact of enrichment was detectable but subtle in MCI. The annual decline in mild AD was more pronounced but still modest. More than 90 % of subjects with mild AD had positive AD pathology. SNRs were low in MCI but greater in mild AD. The numerically largest SNRs were seen for the ADAS-Cog 5 in MCI and for both the 5- and 13-item ADAS-Cog variants in mild AD, although associated confidence intervals were large. CONCLUSIONS:The possible value of ADAS-Cog expansion or reduction is less than compelling, particularly in MCI. In mild AD, adding items known to be impaired at early stages seems to provide more benefit than removing items on which subjects score close to ceiling.
Project description:There are currently no Food and Drug Administration-approved treatments for frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). The objectives of this study were to explore the tolerability of memantine treatment in FTLD and to monitor for possible effects on behavior, cognition, and function. Forty-three individuals who met clinical criteria for FTLD [21 with frontotemporal dementia (FTD), 13 with semantic dementia (SD), and 9 with progressive nonfluent aphasia (PA)] received 26 weeks of open-label treatment with memantine at a target dose of 20 mg daily. Concurrent treatment with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors was prohibited. Cognitive and functional outcome measures included the Mini Mental State Examination, Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive (ADAS-cog), clinical dementia rating-sum of boxes, Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI), Frontal Behavior Inventory, Executive Interview (EXIT25), Texas Functional Living Scale (TFLS), Geriatric Depression Scale, and Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-motor scale. Most subjects were able to tolerate the target dose of memantine. A transient improvement was observed on the total NPI score primarily in the FTD group. Variable declines were observed on the ADAS-cog, EXIT25, Frontal Behavior Inventory, NPI, TFLS, and UPDRS scores. The FTD and SD groups declined on most of the cognitive and behavioral outcome measures, but remained stable on the UPDRS, whereas the progressive nonfluent aphasia group remained relatively stable on the ADAS-cog, NPI, and TFLS, but declined on the UPDRS. Memantine was well-tolerated in these subjects. Future placebo-controlled trials of memantine in FTLD are warranted and may have greater power to detect behavioral and cognitive effects if focused on the FTD and SD clinical syndromes.