In situ apolipoprotein E-enriched corona guides dihydroartemisinin-decorating nanoparticles towards LDLr-mediated tumor-homing chemotherapy.
ABSTRACT: The therapeutic efficiency of active targeting nanoparticulate drug delivery systems (nano-DDS) is highly compromised by the plasma proteins adsorption on nanoparticles (NPs) surface, which significantly hinders cell membrane receptors to recognize the designed ligands, and provokes the off-target toxicity and rapid clearance of NPs in vivo. Herein, we report a novel dihydroartemisinin (DHA)-decorating nano-DDS that in situ specifically recruits endogenous apolipoprotein E (apoE) on the NPs surface. The apoE-anchored corona is able to prolong PLGA-PEG2000-DHA (PPD) NPs circulation capability in blood, facilitate NPs accumulating in tumor cells by the passive enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect and low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr)-mediated target transport, and ultimately improve the in vivo antitumor activity. Our findings demonstrate that the strategy of in situ regulated apoE-enriched corona ensures NPs an efficient LDLr-mediated tumor-homing chemotherapy.
Project description:Colloidal nanoparticles (NPs) are a versatile potential platform for in vivo nanomedicine. Inside blood circulation, NPs may undergo drastic changes, such as by formation of a protein corona. The in vivo corona cannot be completely emulated by the corona formed in blood. Thus, in situ detection in complex media, and ultimately in vivo, is required. Here we present a methodology for determining protein corona formation in complex media. NPs are labeled with 19F and their diffusion coefficient measured using 19F diffusion-ordered nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 19F diffusion NMR measurements of hydrodynamic radii allow for in situ characterization of NPs in complex environments by quantification of protein adsorption to the surface of NPs, as determined by increase in hydrodynamic radius. The methodology is not optics based, and thus can be used in turbid environments, as in the presence of cells.
Project description:Background: The limitations of conventional treatment modalities in cancer, especially in breast cancer, facilitated the necessity for developing a safer drug delivery system (DDS). Inorganic nano-carriers based on calcium phosphates such as hydroxyapatite (HA) and carbonate apatite (CA) have gained attention due to their biocompatibility, reduced toxicity, and improved therapeutic efficacy. Methods: In this study, the potential of goose bone ash (GBA), a natural derivative of HA or CA, was exploited as a pH-responsive carrier to successfully deliver doxorubicin (DOX), an anthracycline drug into breast cancer cells (e.g., MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells). GBA in either pristine form or in suspension was characterized in terms of size, morphology, functional groups, cellular internalization, cytotoxicity, pH-responsive drug (DOX) release, and protein corona analysis. Results: The pH-responsive drug release study demonstrated the prompt release of DOX from GBA through its disintegration in acidic pH (5.5-6.5), which mimics the pH of the endosomal and lysosomal compartments as well as the stability of GBA in physiological pH (pH 7.5). The result of DOX binding with GBA indicated an increment in binding affinity with increasing concentrations of DOX. Cell viability and cytotoxicity analysis showed no innate toxicity of GBA particles. Both qualitative and quantitative cellular uptake analysis in both cell lines displayed an enhanced cellular internalization of DOX-loaded GBA compared to free DOX molecules. The protein corona spontaneously formed on the surface of GBA particles exhibited its affinity toward transport proteins, structural proteins, and a few other selective proteins. The adsorption of transport proteins could extend the circulation half-life in biological environment and increase the accumulation of the drug-loaded NPs through the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect at the tumor site. Conclusion: These findings highlight the potential of GBA as a DDS to successfully deliver therapeutics into breast cancer cells.
Project description:Physiochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) play a vital role in nano-bio interactions, which are critical for nanotoxicity and nanomedicine research. To understand the effects of NP hydrophobicity on the formation of the protein corona, we synthesized four gold NPs with a continuous change in hydrophobicity ranging from -2.6 to 2.4. Hydrophobic NPs adsorbed 2.1-fold proteins compared to hydrophilic ones. Proteins with small molecular weights (<50 kDa) and negatively charge (PI < 7) constituted the majority of the protein corona, especially for hydrophobic NPs. Moreover, proteins preferred binding to hydrophilic NPs (vitronectin and antithrombin III), hydrophobic NPs (serum albumin and hemoglobin fetal subunit beta), and medium hydrophobic NPs (talin 1 and prothrombin) were identified. Besides, proteins such as apolipoprotein bound to all NPs, did not show surface preference. We also found that there was a dynamic exchange between hard protein corona and solution proteins. Because of such dynamic exchanges, protein-bound NPs could expose their surface in biological systems. Hydrophilic NPs exhibited higher protein exchange rate than hydrophobic NPs. Above understandings have improved our capabilities to modulate protein corona formation by controlling surface chemistry of NPs. These will also help modulate nanotoxicity and develop better nanomedcines.
Project description:Nanoparticles (NPs) which enter physiological fluids are rapidly coated by proteins, forming a so-called corona which may strongly modify their interaction with tissues and cells relative to the bare NPs. In this work the interactions between a living cell and a nano-object, and in particular the effect on this of the adsorption of serum proteins, are directly examined by measuring the forces arising as an Atomic Force Microscope tip (diameter 20?nm) - simulating a nano-object - approaches and contacts a cell. We find that the presence of a serum protein corona on the tip strongly modifies the interaction as indicated by pronounced increase in the indentation, hysteresis and work of adhesion compared to a bare tip. Classically one expects an AFM tip interacting with a cell surface to be repelled due to cell elastic distortion, offset by tip-cell adhesion, and indeed such a model fits the bare-tip/cell interaction, in agreement with earlier work. However, the force plots obtained with serum-modified tips are very different, indicating that the cell is much more compliant to the approaching tip. The insights obtained in this work may promote better design of NPs for drug delivery and other nano-medical applications.
Project description:Wherever nanoparticles (NPs) come in contact with a living organism, physical and chemical interactions take place between the surfaces of the NPs and biomatter, in particular proteins. When NP are exposed to biological fluids, an adsorption layer of proteins, a "protein corona" forms around the NPs. Consequently, living systems interact with the protein-coated NP rather than with a bare NP. To anticipate biological responses to NPs, we thus require comprehensive knowledge of the interactions at the bio-nano interface. In recent years, a wide variety of biophysical techniques have been employed to elucidate mechanistic aspects of NP-protein interactions. In this brief review, we present the latest findings regarding the composition of the protein corona as it forms on NPs in the blood stream. We also discuss molecular aspects of this adsorption layer and its time evolution. The current state of knowledge is summarized, and issues that still need to be addressed to further advance our understanding of NP-protein interactions are identified.
Project description:In biological environments, nanoparticles are enshrouded by a layer of biomolecules, predominantly proteins, mediating its subsequent interactions with cells. Detecting this protein corona, understanding its formation with regards to nanoparticle (NP) and protein properties, and elucidating its biological implications were central aims of bio-related nano-research throughout the past years. Here, we discuss the mechanistic parameters that are involved in the protein corona formation and the consequences of this corona formation for both, the particle, and the protein. We review consequences of corona formation for colloidal stability and discuss the role of functional groups and NP surface functionalities in shaping NP-protein interactions. We also elaborate the recent advances demonstrating the strong involvement of Coulomb-type interactions between NPs and charged patches on the protein surface. Moreover, we discuss novel aspects related to the complexity of the protein corona forming under physiological conditions in full serum. Specifically, we address the relation between particle size and corona composition and the latest findings that help to shed light on temporal evolution of the full serum corona for the first time. Finally, we discuss the most recent advances regarding the molecular-scale mechanistic role of the protein corona in cellular uptake of NPs.
Project description:The commercially available rebamipide ophthalmic suspension (CA-REB) was approved for clinical use in patients with dry eye; however, the residence time on the ocular surface for the traditional formulations is short, since the drug is removed from the ocular surface through the nasolacrimal duct. In this study, we designed a novel sustained-release drug delivery system (DDS) for dry eye therapy by rebamipide nanoparticles. The rebamipide solid nanoparticle-based ophthalmic formulation (REB-NPs) was prepared by a bead mill using additives (2-hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin and methylcellulose) and a gel base (carbopol). The rebamipide particles formed are ellipsoid, with a particle size in the range of 40-200 nm. The rebamipide in the REB-NPs applied to eyelids was delivered into the lacrimal fluid through the meibomian glands, and sustained drug release was observed in comparison with CA-REB. Moreover, the REB-NPs increased the mucin levels in the lacrimal fluid and healed tear film breakup levels in an N-acetylcysteine-treated rabbit model. The information about this novel DDS route and creation of a nano-formulation can be used to design further studies aimed at therapy for dry eye.
Project description:Nanoparticles (NPs) in contact with protein-containing media such as biological fluids rapidly acquire a surface layer of proteins, known as the protein corona. The protein composition and structural properties of the protein corona are crucial for NP interactions with living cells. Although much has been learned about the protein corona phenomenon, further elucidation could benefit from extensive quantitative proteomics analysis. Herein we report a comprehensive quantitative characterization (>350 proteins) of the corona that formed on 60 nm silver NPs via interaction with human blood plasma, as a function of pH and temperature. By varying the pH and temperature one can access different conformational spaces and charge localizations of the plasma proteins, which in turn provide knowledge pertinent to how the proteome corresponds to binding affinity. Thirty-eight percent of the quantified proteins bind at all temperatures, 47% at all pH values, and of these most persistent proteins, approximately 60% do not significantly change in abundance within the protein corona. Evaluation of 544 protein properties (present in the Kyoto databank) suggests that binding of these proteins to NPs is determined by the extent of hydrophobicity, ?-sheet propensity, ?-helical structure (and turns), and amino acid composition. Protein binding is promoted by a larger amount of ?-sheets, higher hydrophobicity, and a smaller amount of ?-helices. Our work enhances researchers' knowledge of a long-standing, vexing aspect of the nano-bio interface.
Project description:The importance of apolipoprotein E (apoE) in the central nervous system (CNS) became increasingly clear since the descovery that apoE ?4 allele is a major risk factor for Alzheimer's disease. ApoE is one of the major apolipoproteins that acts as a ligand for the cellular uptake of lipoproteins via apoE receptors, members of low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) family, in the CNS. Recently, LDLR family has been shown to have new functions that modulate intracellular signalling and affect neuronal and glial functions, survival and regeneration. However, the pattern of expression of apoE receptors in the CNS has not been fully clarified yet. The LDLR, very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), LDLR-related protein (LRP), and apolipoprotein E receptor 2 (apoER2) are known to bind to and internalize apoE-containing lipoproteins. Here we summarize the expression of apoE receptors in the CNS and demonstrate additional our original data on cell type specific expression and regulation of those receptors in the CNS, using in situ hybridization and RT-PCR. The cells used in our study were highly enriched cultures of neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes isolated from rat brain and neuroblastoma cell line, Neuro2a. All of these four types of receptors were shown to be expressed in neurons, astrocytes, microglia and oligodendrocytes, while LDLR and LRP were expressed in Neuro2a cells. We further examined the regulation of the expression of these receptors by altering the cholesterol content of the cells, and found that only the LDLR expression was downregulated following internalization of lipoprotein cholesterol and upregulated by cholesterol deprivation, in neuronal and astroglial cells. These data together with previous studies suggest that LDLR, VLDL, LRP, and apoER2 may be involved in apoE-mediated lipid uptake and/or intracellualr signalling in the cells of the CNS cells, i.e., neurons, astrocytes, microglia, and oligodendrocytes.
Project description:Physiochemical properties of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) play a vital role in nano-bio interactions, which are critical for nanotoxicity and nanomedicine research. To understand the effects of NP hydrophobicity on the formation of the protein corona, we synthesized four gold NPs with a continuous change in hydrophobicity ranging from -2.6 to 2.4. Hydrophobic NPs adsorbed 2.1-fold proteins compared to hydrophilic ones. Proteins with small molecular weights (< 50 kDa) and negatively charge (PI < 7) constituted the majority of the protein corona, especially for hydrophobic NPs. Moreover, proteins preferred binding to hydrophilic NPs (vitronectin and antithrombin III), hydrophobic NPs (serum albumin and hemoglobin fetal subunit beta), and medium hydrophobic NPs (talin 1 and prothrombin) were identified. Besides, proteins such as apolipoprotein bound to all NPs, did not show surface preference. We also found that there was a dynamic exchange between hard protein corona and solution proteins. Because of such dynamic exchanges, protein-bound NPs could expose their surface in biological systems. Hydrophilic NPs exhibited higher protein exchange rate than hydrophobic NPs. Above understandings have improved our capabilities to modulate protein corona formation by controlling surface chemistry of NPs. These will also help modulate nanotoxicity and develop better nanomedcines.