Fremanezumab: a disease-specific option for the preventive treatment of migraine, including difficult-to-treat migraine.
ABSTRACT: Fremanezumab is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG2?a) that targets calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a key neuropeptide involved in the pathophysiology of migraine. Fremanezumab is approved for quarterly and monthly subcutaneous dosing for the preventive treatment of migraine in adults. The phase 3 clinical development program for fremanezumab aimed to evaluate the efficacy of this preventive treatment across different patient populations, including those with difficult-to-treat migraine. Two pivotal 12-week, phase 3, placebo-controlled studies investigated quarterly and monthly dosing of fremanezumab in participants with chronic migraine (HALO CM) and episodic migraine (HALO EM). The efficacy of fremanezumab was further explored in individuals with difficult-to-treat chronic or episodic migraine in the 12-week FOCUS study, which enrolled participants who had previously experienced an inadequate response to 2-4 pharmacological classes of migraine preventive medications. The long-term efficacy of fremanezumab was assessed in a 12-month long-term study (HALO LTS), which enrolled participants completing the 12-week HALO studies and new participants. Across these studies, treatment with fremanezumab dosed quarterly or monthly provided significant reductions in the frequency of migraine days, headache days of at least moderate severity, and migraine- and headache-related disability compared with placebo. Sustained improvements were seen with long-term fremanezumab treatment. Subgroup analyses of participants with difficult-to-treat migraine (those with comorbid depression, overuse of acute headache medications, and concomitant use of other migraine preventive medications) demonstrated the effectiveness of quarterly or monthly fremanezumab in these populations. Ongoing studies are further exploring the potential benefits of fremanezumab in difficult-to-treat migraine and other headache and pain disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We evaluated the efficacy of fremanezumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that selectively targets calcitonin gene-related peptide, in patients with chronic migraine (CM) with and without medication overuse (MO). METHODS:In a 12-week, phase 3 trial, patients with CM were randomized to fremanezumab quarterly (675?mg/placebo/placebo), monthly (675?mg/225?mg/225?mg), or placebo. Post hoc analyses assessed the impact of fremanezumab in patients with and without MO (monthly use of acute headache medication ?15?days, migraine-specific acute medication ?10?days, or combination medication ?10?days) on efficacy outcomes, including headache days of at least moderate severity (HDs), and six-item Headache Impact Test (HIT-6) and Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQoL) questionnaire scores. RESULTS:Of 1130 patients enrolled, 587 (51.9%) had baseline MO. Fremanezumab reduced placebo-adjusted least-squares mean (95% confidence interval) monthly HDs (-?2.2 [-?3.1 to -?1.2] and?-?2.7 [-?3.7 to -?1.8]; P?<?0.0001) in patients with MO and without MO (quarterly -?1.4 [-?2.3 to -?0.5], P?=?0.0026; monthly -?1.4 [-?2.3 to -?0.6], P?=?0.0017). Significantly more fremanezumab-treated patients had ? 50% reduction in HDs versus placebo, regardless of baseline MO (with: quarterly 70/201 [34.8%], monthly 78/198 [39.4%] vs placebo 26/188 [13.8%]; without: quarterly 71/174 [40.8%], monthly 75/177 [42.4%] vs placebo 41/183 [22.4%]). Fremanezumab improved HIT-6 and MSQoL scores. Significantly more fremanezumab-treated patients reverted to no MO (quarterly 111/201 [55.2%], monthly 120/198 [60.6%]) versus placebo (87/188 [46.3%]). CONCLUSIONS:Fremanezumab is effective for prevention of migraine in patients with CM, regardless of MO, and demonstrated a benefit over placebo in reducing MO. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02621931 (HALO CM), registered December 12, 2012.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Migraine preventive medications are used to reduce headache frequency, severity, and duration. In patients with chronic migraine (CM), reversion to episodic migraine (EM) is an important treatment goal.<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate the effect of fremanezumab on the rate of reversion from CM to EM.<h4>Methods</h4>This phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial included a 28-day pretreatment period and a 3-month treatment period. Patients with CM received subcutaneous fremanezumab quarterly (675 mg at baseline) or monthly (675 mg at baseline; 225 mg at Weeks 4 and 8), or placebo. Post hoc analyses evaluated the proportion of patients who reverted from CM to EM, defined as either a reduction to an average of <15 headache days per month during the 3-month treatment period or a reduction to <15 headache days per month in all 3 months of the treatment period.<h4>Results</h4>This analysis included data from 1088 CM patients (quarterly, n = 366; monthly, n = 365; placebo, n = 357). More fremanezumab-treated patients with CM reverted to EM using either the monthly average number of headache days criteria for reversion (quarterly: 50.5% [185/366], P = .108; monthly: 53.7% [196/365], P = .012; vs placebo: 44.5% [159/357]) or the monthly headache day count at Months 1, 2, and 3 criteria for reversion (quarterly: 31.2% [114/366], P = .008; monthly: 33.7% [123/365], P = .001; vs placebo: 22.4% [80/357]). Patients with CM who reported previous topiramate or onabotulinumtoxinA use, concomitant preventive medication use, or medication overuse were less likely to revert to EM.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Fremanezumab may offer the benefit of reversion from CM to EM, based on a reduction in the number of headache days over 3 months of treatment.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Exposure-response (E-R) models were developed to provide a description of the time-course of treatment effect for monthly and quarterly dosing regimens of fremanezumab. BACKGROUND:Fremanezumab is a monoclonal antibody for preventive treatment of episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM). In phase 2b and 3 clinical studies of fremanezumab, significant reductions in migraine and headache days and other clinical endpoints were observed for patients with EM and patients with CM. Development of E-R models relating individual-specific measures of drug exposure to clinical endpoints provides a more granular understanding of the expected effects of different doses on therapeutic outcomes by accounting for variability in pharmacokinetic (PK) properties. METHODS:Data from 2 phase 2b and 2 phase 3 studies of adults with EM or CM were used. Individual exposures were calculated from a population PK model and related to monthly migraine days in EM and moderate-severe (M/S) headache days in CM. Model-based stochastic simulations were performed to compare predicted responses for the various treatment regimens. RESULTS:The effect of average fremanezumab concentration compared to placebo on the reduction in migraine days and M/S headache days was predicted by the models to be similar for 225 mg monthly and 675 mg once quarterly over time for both EM and CM patients. Both regimens were associated with better response than placebo. A similar percent of EM and CM responders was predicted across the range of observed body weights. CONCLUSIONS:Exposure-response evaluations showed that both monthly (225 mg) and quarterly (675 mg) fremanezumab dosing regimens were appropriate in achieving clinical benefit in adult patients with EM or CM.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To evaluate whether quarterly or monthly administration of fremanezumab for migraine prevention exhibits a pattern of decreased efficacy toward the end of the dosing interval (wearing-off effect).<h4>Background</h4>The main goals of migraine preventive treatment are to reduce the frequency, severity, and duration of migraine attacks, and migraine-associated disability. Wearing-off refers to the phenomenon whereby clinical symptoms return or worsen before the next dose of a drug is due and has been reported previously with migraine preventive medications.<h4>Design and methods</h4>This was a long-term, 12-month, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, parallel-group phase 3 study (NCT02638103) that included chronic (CM) and episodic migraine (EM) patients who rolled over from the 12-week phase 3 HALO CM (NCT02621931) and EM trials (NCT02629861), as well as an additional subset of 312 new patients. Patients with CM or EM received fremanezumab either monthly or quarterly. In this post hoc analysis, for selected months, the difference in the average number of migraine days between weeks 1-2 and weeks 3-4, between weeks 1-3 and week 4, and between weeks 1-2 and weeks 11-12 were calculated.<h4>Results</h4>A total of 1890 patients (CM, 1110; EM, 780) were enrolled. At months 3, 6, 9, and 15, there were no substantial differences in mean weekly migraine days between weeks 1-2 and weeks 3-4 or between weeks 1-3 and week 4 with quarterly or monthly fremanezumab in the CM or EM subgroups. There were no substantial increases in mean weekly migraine days between weeks 1-2 and weeks 11-12 during the first quarter of treatment (months 1-3) or the second quarter of treatment (months 4-6) with quarterly or monthly fremanezumab in the CM or EM subgroups. Across both dosing subgroups in CM and EM patients, the mean weekly number of migraine days decreased substantially (30%-42%) during the first 2 weeks; decreases in weekly migraine days remained steady during the last 2 weeks of the first quarter, with a similar maintenance of response during the second quarter.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This analysis of data from a long-term, phase 3 study showed that patients receiving quarterly fremanezumab or monthly fremanezumab did not experience a wearing-off effect toward the end of the dosing interval.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The long-term safety and efficacy of fremanezumab were evaluated in a 52-week extension study (NCT02638103). Patient satisfaction with fremanezumab, dosing preferences, and patient-reported outcomes were assessed in a subpopulation who completed the extension study and consented to a follow-up questionnaire. METHODS:In the extension study (N?=?1842), adults with migraine were randomized to quarterly or monthly fremanezumab. After completing active treatment, patients answered a survey evaluating patient satisfaction, treatment and dosing preferences, and changes in patient-reported outcomes. RESULTS:Of the 557 patients who could have been contacted upon completing the extension study, 302 consented and 253 completed the survey. The mean (standard deviation) satisfaction rating for fremanezumab was 6.1 (1.4; 1?=?"extremely dissatisfied" to 7?=?"extremely satisfied"). Most patients (175 [69.2%]) preferred quarterly over monthly fremanezumab dosing. Among patients taking antiepileptics (most common class of prior preventive medication; n?=?130), 91.5% preferred fremanezumab. Patients reported improvements in anxiety (74 [67.9%]), sleep quality (143 [56.5%]), and quality of time spent with others (210 [83.0%]) with fremanezumab. CONCLUSION:In this study, treatment satisfaction with fremanezumab was high, most patients preferred quarterly fremanezumab dosing, and fremanezumab was generally preferred to prior preventive medications. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02638103 (HALO LTS), registered December 22, 2015.
Project description:Importance:Fremanezumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets calcitonin gene-related peptide, may be effective for treating episodic migraine. Objective:To assess the efficacy of fremanezumab compared with placebo for prevention of episodic migraine with a monthly dosing regimen or a single higher dose. Design and Setting:Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial conducted at 123 sites in 9 countries from March 23, 2016 (first patient randomized), to April 10, 2017, consisting of a screening visit, 28-day pretreatment period, 12-week treatment period, and final evaluation at week 12. Participants:Study participants were aged 18 to 70 years with episodic migraine (6-14 headache days, with at least 4 migraine days, during 28-day pretreatment period). Patients who had previous treatment failure with 2 classes of migraine-preventive medication were excluded. Interventions:Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to receive subcutaneous monthly dosing of fremanezumab (n?=?290; 225 mg at baseline, week 4, and week 8); a single higher dose of fremanezumab, as intended to support a quarterly dose regimen (n?=?291; 675 mg of fremanezumab at baseline; placebo at weeks 4 and 8); or placebo (n?=?294; at baseline, week 4, and week 8). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was mean change in mean number of monthly migraine days during the 12-week period after the first dose. Results:Among 875 patients who were randomized (mean age, 41.8 [SD, 12.1] years; 742 women [85%]), 791 (90.4%) completed the trial. From baseline to 12 weeks, mean migraine days per month decreased from 8.9 days to 4.9 days in the fremanezumab monthly dosing group, from 9.2 days to 5.3 days in the fremanezumab single-higher-dose group, and from 9.1 days to 6.5 days in the placebo group. This resulted in a difference with monthly dosing vs placebo of -1.5 days (95% CI, -2.01 to -0.93 days; P?<?.001) and with single higher dosing vs placebo of -1.3 days (95% CI, -1.79 to -0.72 days; P?<?.001). The most common adverse events that led to discontinuation were injection site erythema (n?=?3), injection site induration (n?=?2), diarrhea (n?=?2), anxiety (n?=?2), and depression (n?=?2). Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with episodic migraine in whom multiple medication classes had not previously failed, subcutaneous fremanezumab, compared with placebo, resulted in a statistically significant 1.3- to 1.5-day reduction in the mean number of monthly migraine days over a 12-week period. Further research is needed to assess effectiveness against other preventive medications and in patients in whom multiple preventive drug classes have failed and to determine long-term safety and efficacy. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT02629861.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate fremanezumab quarterly or monthly vs placebo on health-related quality of life, health status, patients' global impression of change, and productivity in patients with chronic migraine (CM). METHODS:HALO CM was a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in patients with CM. Patients were randomized 1:1:1 to treatment with fremanezumab quarterly (675 mg at baseline, placebo at weeks 4 and 8), fremanezumab monthly (225 mg at baseline, weeks 4 and 8), or placebo. This article assessed the effect of treatment with fremanezumab on health-related quality of life and productivity using the following prespecified assessments: the Migraine-Specific Quality of Life (MSQoL) questionnaire at baseline and weeks 4, 8, and 12; Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) questionnaire at weeks 4, 8, and 12; and EuroQoL 5-dimension, 5-response level (EQ-5D-5L) questionnaire and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment: General Health (WPAI:GH) questionnaire at baseline and week 12. RESULTS:The full analysis set included 1,121 patients: 375 patients with quarterly dosing, 375 with monthly dosing, and 371 with placebo. Fremanezumab quarterly and monthly was associated with significant improvements over placebo in change from baseline mean scores in MSQoL domains (all, p < 0.05) to week 12. At week 12, fremanezumab also showed significant improvements in EQ-5D-5L visual analog scale (p < 0.05) and PGIC scores (p < 0.0001) as well as significant reductions from baseline in WPAI:GH scores (p < 0.01) and presenteeism (impairment while working; p < 0.05) vs placebo. CONCLUSIONS:Fremanezumab quarterly or monthly was associated with improvement over placebo in migraine-specific quality of life, overall health status, patients' global impression of change with treatment, and productivity in patients with CM. CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER:NCT02621931. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class II evidence that in patients with CM, treatment with fremanezumab quarterly or monthly is associated with improvements in health-related quality of life and productivity.
Project description:Fremanezumab-vfrm (hereafter referred to as fremanezumab) [AJOVY™] is a fully humanized monoclonal antibody (IgG2Δa) developed by Teva Pharmaceuticals to selectively target calcitonin gene-related peptide (a vasodilatory neuropeptide involved in the pathophysiology of migraine). Its use has been associated with significant reductions in migraine frequency, the requirement for acute headache medication use and headache-related disability compared with placebo in multinational, phase III studies, and in September 2018 fremanezumab was approved by the US FDA for the preventive treatment of migraine in adults. A regulatory assessment for fremanezumab as a preventive treatment of migraine in adults is underway in the EU. Fremanezumab is also undergoing phase III development for the preventive treatment of cluster headache (although a phase III chronic cluster headache study has been suspended due to the results of a prespecified futility analysis) and phase II development for the preventive treatment of post-traumatic headache disorder. This article summarizes the milestones in the development of fremanezumab leading to this first approval in the USA for the preventive treatment of migraine in adults.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the effect of fremanezumab on the functional status on headache-free days in phase 2 episodic migraine (EM) and chronic migraine (CM) studies. METHODS:Functional status data were collected prospectively via the electronic headache diary on all headache-free days by patients answering questions regarding work/school/household chore performance, speed of work completion, concentration, and feeling of fatigue. Individuals with EM receiving monthly doses of fremanezumab 225 mg (n = 96) or 675 mg (n = 97) or placebo (n = 104) were compared. Individuals with CM receiving fremanezumab 675 mg followed by monthly 225 mg (n = 88) and 900 mg (n = 86) were also independently compared to those receiving placebo (n = 89). RESULTS:In patients with EM, compared to patients receiving placebo, those receiving fremanezumab experienced an increased number of headache-free days with normal function in work/school/household chore performance and concentration/mental fatigue measures compared to their baseline over the entire treatment period (all p < 0.005). An increased number of headache-free days with normal functional performance for some measures was also found in the CM group in those treated with fremanezumab. CONCLUSION:There was an increased number of headache-free days with normal functional performance on all measures for the patients with EM and some measures for patients with CM in the fremanezumab-treated groups. Further research is required to confirm these findings in a prospective study and to clarify the underlying mechanism(s). CLINICALTRIALSGOV IDENTIFIER:NCT02025556 and NCT02021773. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE:This study provides Class II evidence that for patients with migraine, fremanezumab increases normal functional performance on headache-free days.
Project description:Background: Fremanezumab (TEV-48125) is a fully-humanized immunoglobulin G isotype 2a selective monoclonal antibody that potently binds to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). It is one of the novel therapeutic drugs for the prevention of migraine, which is one of the most common neurological diseases worldwide. Several controlled trials have been conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of fremanezumab, however, there is no systematic review of the existing literature has been performed. Hence, in our study, we performed a meta-analysis to investigate the safety and efficacy of fremanezumab for the prevention of migraine. Method: Pubmed (MEDLINE), Embase, and Cochrane Library were searched from January 2001 to August 2019 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Five RCTs with 3,379 patients were finally included in our study. Result: We pooled 3,379 patients from 5 RCTs; the primary endpoints were mean monthly migraine and headache days, baseline to week 12. We found that fremanezumab led to a significant reduction in migraine days (P < 0.0001) and headache days (P < 0.0001) during 12 weeks compared with placebo. Moreover, after using fremanezumab, the risk of at least one adverse event (AE) (P = 0.001) and AE related to the trial regimen (P = 0.0005) significantly increased compared with the placebo. Conclusions: Fremanezumab showed good efficacy for the prevention of migraine. The administration of fremanezumab can cause some mild adverse events but no serious adverse events.