Adverse events reporting in stage III NSCLC trials investigating surgery and radiotherapy.
ABSTRACT: Background:Current treatment options for stage III non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) consist of different combinations of chemotherapy, surgery, radiotherapy and immunotherapy. Treatment choices are highly individual decisions, in which adverse events (AEs) are relevant for decision-making. This study aims to analyse reporting of AEs in prospective stage III NSCLC trials, focussing on trials including radiotherapy and/or surgery. Methods:PubMed was searched for prospective studies dealing with stage III NSCLC from January 1987 to April 2019. Meta-analyses were screened as a positive control. Pearson's Chi-squared test and smooth kernel distribution were used to estimate distributions. Data was resampled using bootstrapping. Results:Out of 1193 initially identified studies, 119 met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 31 had a surgical procedure in any study arm. Grade 3 and 4 AEs were reported in 94.12% and 92.44% of the included studies, respectively. Reporting of grade 5 AEs was provided in 87.39% of cases. Grade 1 and 2 AEs were less commonly reported at 53.78% and 63.03%, respectively. One study did not mention any AEs. Of the 31 treatment arms including any form of surgery, AEs were not reported in 10. Overall, 231 different AE items were reported, only 18 of them were included in at least 20% of the analysed studies. Conclusion:Overall, AE reporting in stage III NSCLC was inconsistent and inhomogeneous. Studies including surgical study arms often reported only treatment-related deaths in regards of surgical AEs. Underreporting of AEs prohibits the extraction of patient-relevant information for decision-making and represents a suboptimal use of invested resources.
Project description:Severe (grade?3) adverse events (AEs) to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy regimens can result in treatment delays or cessation, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening complications. Current genetic biomarkers for 5-FU toxicity prediction, however, account for only a small proportion of toxic cases. In the current study, we assessed DPYD variants suggested to correlate with 5-FU toxicity, a deep intronic variant (c.1129-5923 C>G), and four variants within a haplotype (hapB3) in 1953 stage III colon cancer patients who received adjuvant FOLFOX±cetuximab. Logistic regression was used to assess multivariable associations between DPYD variant status and AEs common to 5-FU (5FU-AEs). In our study cohort, 1228 patients (62.9%) reported any grade?3 AE (overall AE), with 638 patients (32.7%) reporting any grade?3 5FU-AE. Only 32 of 78 (41.0%) patients carrying DPYD c.1129-5923 C>G and the completely linked hapB3 variants c.1236 C>G and c.959-51 T>C showed at least one grade?3 5FU-AE, resulting in no statistically significant association (adjusted odds ratio=1.47, 95% confidence interval=0.90-2.43, P=0.1267). No significant associations were identified between c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 and overall grade?3 AE rate. Our results suggest that c.1129-5923 C>G/hapB3 have limited predictive value for severe toxicity to 5-FU-based combination chemotherapy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Standard therapy for stage III non-small cell lung cancer with chemotherapy and conventional radiation has suboptimal outcomes. We hypothesized that a combination of surgery followed by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) would be a safe alternative. METHODS:Patients with stage IIIA (multistation N2) or IIIB non-small cell lung cancer were enrolled from March 2013 to December 2015. The protocol included transcervical extended mediastinal lymphadenectomy (TEMLA) followed by surgical resection, 10 Gy SBRT directed to the involved mediastinum/hilar stations and/or positive surgical margins, and adjuvant systemic therapy. Patients not suitable for anatomic lung resection were treated with 30 Gy to the primary tumor. The primary efficacy end-point was the proportion of patients with grade 3 or higher adverse events (AE) or toxicities. RESULTS:Of 10 patients, 7 patients underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy. All patients had TEMLA. Nine of 10 patients underwent surgical resection. The remaining patient had an unresectable tumor and received 30 Gy SBRT to the primary lesion. All patients had post-operative SBRT. Median follow-up was 18 months. There were no perioperative mortalities. Six patients had any grade 3 AEs with no grade 4-5 AEs. Of these, 4 were not attributable to radiation. Pulmonary-related grade 3 AEs were experienced by 2 patients. There were no failures within the 10 Gy volume. Overall survival and progression-free survival rates at 2 years were 68% (90% CI 36-86) and 40% (90% CI 16-63), respectively. CONCLUSIONS:In carefully selected patients with locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer, combining surgery with SBRT was well tolerated with no local failure. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov identifying number NCT01781741 . Registered February 1, 2013.
Project description:PURPOSE:Mild-to-moderate bone pain is a commonly reported adverse event (AE) associated with pegfilgrastim. We evaluated the effect of prophylactic naproxen or loratadine vs no prophylactic treatment on pegfilgrastim-associated bone pain. METHODS:In this open-label study (NCT01712009), women ??18 years of age with newly diagnosed stage I-III breast cancer and an ECOG performance status ??2 who were planning ??4 cycles of adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy with pegfilgrastim support starting in cycle 1 were randomized 1:1:1 to receive naproxen, loratadine, or no treatment to prevent pegfilgrastim-associated bone pain. The primary endpoint was all-grade bone pain in cycle 1 from AE reporting. Secondary endpoints included bone pain in cycles 2-4 and across all cycles from AE reporting and patient-reported bone pain by cycle and across all cycles. RESULTS:Six hundred patients were enrolled. Most patients (83.0%) were white, and mean (SD) age was 54.2 (11.1) years. The percentage of patients with all-grade bone pain in cycle 1 from AE reporting in the naproxen, loratadine, and no prophylaxis groups was 40.3, 42.5, and 46.6%, respectively; differences between the treatment groups were not statistically significant. Maximum, mean, and area under the curve for patient-reported bone pain were consistently lower in the naproxen and loratadine groups than in the no prophylaxis group; some of these differences were significant. Loratadine was associated with fewer treatment-related AEs and discontinuations than naproxen. CONCLUSIONS:Given its tolerability, its ease of administration, and its potential benefit, treatment with loratadine should be considered to help prevent bone pain in patients receiving chemotherapy and pegfilgrastim. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov ; NCT01712009.
Project description:To describe the level, preventability and categories of adverse events (AEs) identified by medical record review using the Global Trigger Tool (GTT). To estimate when the AE occurred in the course of the hospital stay and to compare voluntary AE reporting with medical record reviewing.Two-stage retrospective record review.650-bed university hospital.20 randomly selected medical records were reviewed every month from 2009 to 2012.AE/1000 patient-days. Proportion of AEs found by GTT found also in the voluntary reporting system. AE categorisation. Description of when during hospital stay AEs occur.A total of 271 AEs were detected in the 960 medical records reviewed, corresponding to 33.2 AEs/1000 patient-days or 20.5% of the patients. Of the AEs, 6.3% were reported in the voluntary AE reporting system. Hospital-acquired infections were the most common AE category. The AEs occurred and were detected during the hospital stay in 65.5% of cases; the rest occurred or were detected within 30?days before or after the hospital stay. The AE usually occurred early during the hospital stay, and the hospital stay was 5?days longer on average for patients with an AE.Record reviewing identified AEs to a much larger extent than voluntary AE reporting. Healthcare organisations should consider using a portfolio of tools to gain a comprehensive picture of AEs. Substantial costs could be saved if AEs were prevented.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Apatinib is an oral small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor targeting vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR-2). Some clinical trials have demonstrated that apatinib is efficacious against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. OBJECTIVE:This study aimed to probe efficacy and safety of apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, in advanced nonsquamous NSCLC. DESIGN:Multicenter, prospective, single arm study. SETTING:Three teaching hospitals centers in the Sichuan. PARTICIPANTS:Fourteen patients with stage IVA/B nonsquamous NSCLC had previously received at least 1 platinum-based chemotherapy regimen. INTERVENTION:Patients who were enrolled between November 2016 and January 2018 were given docetaxel (75?mg/m, i.v., d1) plus oral apatinib (250?mg/d), 4 weeks as one cycle, until disease progression or intolerance to adverse events (AE). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary endpoint was progression-free survival (PFS). The secondary endpoints comprised objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), and AE incidence rate. RESULTS:All patients carried adenocarcinoma by pathological type. The median follow-up duration was 9.76 months. Out of 14 cases, 12 were evaluable, showing ORR of 33.33%, DCR of 66.67%, DCR of 50% in cases with brain metastasis, median PFS of 2.92 months (95% CI: 1.38-4.48), and 6-month OS of 80%. Primary AEs encompassed: leukopenia in 7 cases (58.33%), hand-foot skin reaction in 5 cases (41.67%), and diarrhea in 4 cases (33.33%). Among them, grade 3 AEs were: leukopenia in 4 cases (33.33%), and hand-foot skin reaction in 1 case (8.33%). No grade 4/5 AEs were reported. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted respectively for PFS and OS. These factors encompassed: gender, age, gene mutations, clinical stage, ECOG scores, quantity of metastatic foci, brain metastasis, and hand-foot skin reaction. Results demonstrated zero risk factors for PFS or OS. CONCLUSION:Apatinib plus docetaxel, as the second or above line treatment, is effective and safe against advanced nonsquamous NSCLC, with good tolerance profile. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT03416231.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Dislocation, periprosthetic fracture and infection are serious complications of total hip replacement (THR) and which negatively impact on patients' outcomes including satisfaction, quality of life, mental health and function. The accuracy with which patients report adverse events (AEs) after surgery varies. The impact of patient self-reporting of AEs on patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) after THR is yet to be investigated. Our aim was to determine the effect of confirmed and perceived AEs on PROMs after primary THR.<h4>Methods</h4>A prospective single-centre cohort study of patients undergoing primary THR, with one-year follow-up, was performed. Participants completed forms pre-operatively and 3, 6, 9 and 12?months post-operatively, including Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI), Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), EuroQol-5D-3?L (EQ5D), Self-Administered Patient Satisfaction (SAPS) and AE reporting questionnaires. Results were reported in three groups: No AE, reported but not confirmed AE and confirmed AE. A generalised linear model was used to compare among groups using robust standard errors (SE).<h4>Results</h4>Forty-one AEs were reported in a cohort of 417 patients (234 females), with 30 AEs reported by 3?months. Eleven (27 reported) infections, two (six reported) periprosthetic fractures and two (eight reported) dislocations were confirmed. Those in the no AE group reported significantly better outcomes that the reported AE group as measured by WOMAC Co-Eff 14.27 (p?=?0.01), EQ5D -?0.128 (p?=?0.02) and SAPS -?9.926 (p?=?0.036) and the combined reported and confirmed AE groups as measured by WOMAC Co-Eff 13.72 (p?=?0.002), EQ5D -?0.129 (p?=?0.036) and SAPS -?11.512 (p?=?0.004). No significant differences were seen in WPAI among groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Patients who report AEs have worse outcomes than those who do not, regardless of whether the AEs can be confirmed by standard medical record review methods. The observed negative trends suggest that patient perception of AEs may influence patient outcome in a similar way to those with confirmed AEs.
Project description:With the development of systemic treatments with high response rates, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune checkpoint inhibitors, some patients with unresectable lung cancer now have a chance to undergo radical resection after primary treatment. Although there is no general consensus regarding the definition of "unresectable" in lung cancer, the term "resectable" refers to technically resectable and indicates that resection can provide a favorable prognosis to some extent. Unresectable lung cancer is typically represented by stage III and IV disease. Stage III lung cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and in some patients with technically resectable non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), multimodality treatments, including induction chemoradiotherapy followed by surgery, are the treatments of choice. The representative surgical intervention for unresectable stage III/IV NSCLC is salvage surgery, which refers to surgical treatment for local residual/recurrent lesions after definitive non-surgical treatment. Surgical intervention is also used for an oligometastatic stage IV NSCLC. In this review, we highlight the role of surgical intervention in patients with unresectable NSCLC, for whom an initial complete resection is technically difficult. We further describe the history of and new findings on salvage surgery for unresectable NSCLC and surgery for oligometastatic NSCLC.
Project description:Background:The development of minimally invasive surgical approaches has revolutionized surgical care and greatly improved surgical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of a powered vascular stapler (PVS) during video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy. Methods:This prospective, multi-center, post-market clinical study in China enrolled 50 patients with either a suspected or formal diagnosis of clinical stage IA to IIB non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) scheduled for VATS lobectomy. The clinical effectiveness of the PVS for successful pulmonary artery (PA)/pulmonary vein (PV) transection was evaluated. In addition, the surgeon's stress, device usability, and surgeon satisfaction were measured using multiple questionnaires. Results:A total of 167 PAs/PVs were transected with 3 (1.8%) requiring intra-operative intervention. Fourteen of the 50 patients (28.0%) experienced at least one adverse event (AE), among whom 5 (10.0%) suffered from serious AEs. There were no postoperative hemorrhagic complications related to transection of the PA/PV with PVS. Surgeon satisfaction was surveyed by questionnaire after each of the 50 procedures resulting in a 96% reported satisfaction with device usability, specifically related to a low stress load and an increase in work efficiency. Conclusions:For VATS lobectomy, the PVS demonstrated a positive surgical effectiveness and value in cognitive and physical distress reduction. Complications following VATS lobectomy to treat NSCLC were generally low and as expected. Intraoperative complications were few and there were no postoperative complications related to the transection of the PA and PV during VATS lobectomy. Favorable results were reported on the surgeon satisfaction questionnaire regarding usability and surgeon stress.
Project description:Introduction: Data on the efficacy and risk of curative-intent chemoradiotherapy in patients with inoperable stage III non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and interstitial lung disease (ILD) are limited. The aim of this study was to explore the impact of ILD classification on acute exacerbation (AE) of ILD and prognosis in patients with stage III NSCLC and ILD treated with chemoradiotherapy. Materials and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with stage III NSCLC and ILD treated with curative-intent chemoradiotherapy as the first-line treatment at the Shizuoka Cancer Center between June 2009 and May 2014. Results: Of 37 patients, 17 (46%) developed AE of ILD worse than grade 3 within 1 year after the last irradiation. In univariate analysis, the incidence rate of AE of ILD was lower in patients with a non-usual interstitial pneumonia (UIP) pattern than in those with a UIP pattern. Multivariate analysis showed that ILD classification was significantly associated with the incidence of AE of ILD. The median overall survival (OS) durations in patients with a non-UIP pattern and a UIP pattern were 16.5 and 9.3 months, respectively. In univariate analysis, patients with a non-UIP pattern showed better survival. Multivariate analysis showed that ILD classification was a significant independent prognostic factor. Conclusion: The incidence of AE of ILD was high in patients with stage III NSCLC and ILD treated with chemoradiotherapy as the first-line treatment. However, diagnosis of a non-UIP pattern could predict lower risk of AE of ILD and longer OS durations.
Project description:Adverse events (AEs) related to medical treatments in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) are frequent and need an appropriate costing in health economic models. Nevertheless, data on costs associated with AEs in NSCLC are scarce, particularly since the development of immunotherapy with specific immune-related AEs.To estimate the costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to NSCLC treatments including immunotherapy in France.Grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment and reported in at least 1% of patients in Phase III clinical trials for erlotinib, ramucirumab plus docetaxel, docetaxel, pemetrexed plus carboplatin plus bevacizumab, platinum-based chemotherapies, nivolumab and pembrolizumab were identified. When no cost evaluation was reported in literature, estimates on standard treatments and medical resource use for each AE were obtained thanks to an expert panel. Total cost per AE was calculated from a French national health insurance perspective and updated in 2017 Euros. Hospital stay costs were estimated based on public and private weighted tariffs and data from the French Medical Information System (Programme de Médicalisation des Systèmes d'Information). Costs of tests, consultations and treatments were calculated based on national reimbursement tariffs.Overall, costs of grades 3 and 4 AEs related to treatment ranged from €46 per event to €7,742 per year. Fourteen out of 24 AEs identified had a mean estimated cost over €2,000. The highest mean costs were related to type 1 diabetes (€7,742 per year) followed by pneumonitis (€5,786 per event), anemia (€5,752 per event), dehydration (€5,207 per event) and anorexia (€4,349 per event). Costs were mostly driven by hospitalization costs.Among the AEs identified, a majority appeared to have an important economic impact, with a management cost of at least €2,000 per event mainly driven by hospitalization costs. This study may be of interest for economic evaluations of new interventions in NSCLC.