Effectiveness of a health-social partnership program for discharged non-frail older adults: a pilot study.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:Previous studies supporting discharged patients are hospital-based which admission criteria tend to include mainly those with complex needs and/or specific disease conditions. This study captured the service gap where these non-frail older patients might have no specific medical problem upon discharge but they might encounter residual health and social issues when returning home. METHODS:Discharged community-dwelling non-frail older adults from an emergency medical ward were recruited and randomized into either intervention (n =?37) or control (n =?38) group. The intervention group received a 12-week complex interventions that included structured assessment, health education, goal empowerment, and care coordination supported by a health-social team. The control group received usual discharge care and monthly social call. The primary outcome was health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Secondary outcomes included activities of daily living (ADL), the presence of depressive symptoms, and the use of health services. The outcomes were measured at pre-intervention (T1) and at three months post-intervention (T2). The independent t-test or the Mann-Whitney U test was used to analyze the group differences in HRQoL, ADL, and presence of depressive symptoms according to the normality of data. RESULTS:Analysis showed that the intervention group experienced a statistically significantly improvement in the mental component scale of quality of life (p =?.036), activities of daily living (p =?.005), and presence of depressive symptoms (p =?.035) at T2 compared with at T1. No significant differences were found in the control group. CONCLUSIONS:Supporting self-care is necessary to enable community-dwelling non-frail older adults to be independent to the fullest extent possible in the community. The promising results found in this pilot study suggested that the integration of the health-social partnership into transitional care practice is effective and can be sustained in the community. Future studies can draw on these findings and maximize the integrated care quality during the transition phase. TRIAL REGISTRATION:NCT04434742 (date: 17 June 2020, retrospectively registered).
Project description:The aim of the study is to evaluate the effects of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment (CGA) for frail older people in Swedish acute hospital settings - the CGA-Swed study. In this study protocol, we present the study design, the intervention and the outcome measures as well as the baseline characteristics of the study participants. The study is a randomised controlled trial with an intervention group receiving the CGA and a control group receiving medical assessment without the CGA. Follow-ups were conducted after 1, 6 and 12 months, with dependence in activities of daily living (ADL) as the primary outcome measure. The study group consisted of frail older people (75 years and older) in need of acute medical hospital care. The study design, randomisation and process evaluation carried out were intended to ensure the quality of the study. Baseline data show that the randomisation was successful and that the sample included frail older people with high dependence in ADL and with a high comorbidity. The CGA contributed to early recognition of frail older people's needs and ensured a care plan and follow-up. This study is expected to show positive effects on frail older people's dependence in ADL, life satisfaction and satisfaction with health and social care.
Project description:Frail elderly people need an integrated and coordinated care. The two-armed study "Continuum of care for frail elderly people" is a multi-professional and multidimensional intervention for frail community-dwelling elderly people. It was designed to evaluate whether the intervention programme for frail elderly people can reduce the number of visits to hospital, increase satisfaction with health and social care and maintain functional abilities. The implementation process is explored and analysed along with the intervention. In this paper we present the study design, the intervention and the outcome measures as well as the baseline characteristics of the study participants.The study is a randomised two-armed controlled trial with follow ups at 3, 6 and 12 months. The study group includes elderly people who sought care at the emergency ward and discharged to their own homes in the community. Inclusion criteria were 80 years and older or 65 to 79 years with at least one chronic disease and dependent in at least one activity of daily living. Exclusion criteria were acute severely illness with an immediate need of the assessment and treatment by a physician, severe cognitive impairment and palliative care. The intention was that the study group should comprise a representative sample of frail elderly people at a high risk of future health care consumption. The intervention includes an early geriatric assessment, early family support, a case manager in the community with a multi-professional team and the involvement of the elderly people and their relatives in the planning process.The design of the study, the randomisation procedure and the protocol meetings were intended to ensure the quality of the study. The implementation of the intervention programme is followed and analysed throughout the whole study, which enables us to generate knowledge on the process of implementing complex interventions. The intervention contributes to early recognition of both the elderly peoples' needs of information, care and rehabilitation and of informal caregivers' need of support and information. This study is expected to show positive effects on frail elderly peoples' health care consumption, functional abilities and satisfaction with health and social care.ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01260493.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) designed to manage frail older people requiring acute medical care, is responsible for diagnostics, assessment, treatment, and planning while addressing a person's medical, psychological, social, and functional capabilities. The aim was to investigate if CGA had an impact on frail older people's activities of daily living (ADL) status, self-rated health, and satisfaction with hospital care.<h4>Methods</h4>A two-armed design with frail people aged 75 or older who required an unplanned hospital admission were randomized to either the CGA ward or to an acute medical ward. Analyses were made based on the intention-to-treat principle (ITT). The primary outcome was ADL. Data were analyzed using Chi-square and odds ratio. A subgroup analysis was performed due to non-adherence and contamination.<h4>Results</h4>One-hundred and fifty-five people participated in the study; 78 in the intervention and 77 in the control. Participants in the intervention group had a higher odds ratio of reporting having received written information and felt that care met their needs during their hospital stay. No additional statistically significant results for the primary or secondary outcomes in the ITT analysis were achieved.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Participants felt that the care they received with the CGA ward met their needs. The lack of additional results supporting the CGA could be due to difficulties performing pragmatic intervention trials in clinical hospital settings, and because a CGA during one hospital stay is probably not enough to have long-term effects.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Frailty is highly prevalent in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is associated with adverse health outcomes including falls, poorer health-related quality of life (HRQOL), hospitalisation and mortality. Low physical activity and muscle wasting are important contributors to physical frailty in adults with CKD. Exercise training may improve physical function and frailty status leading to associated improvements in health outcomes, including HRQOL. The EX-FRAIL CKD trial aims to inform the design of a definitive randomised controlled trial (RCT) that investigates the effectiveness of a progressive, multicomponent home-based exercise programme in prefrail and frail older adults with CKD. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:The EX-FRAIL CKD trial is a two-arm parallel group pilot RCT. Participants categorised as prefrail or frail, following Frailty Phenotype (FP) assessment, will be randomised to receive exercise or usual care. Participants randomised to the intervention arm will receive a tailored 12-week exercise programme, which includes weekly telephone calls to advise on exercise progression. Primary feasibility outcome measures include rate of recruitment, intervention adherence, outcome measure completion and participant attrition. Semistructured interviews with a purposively selected group of participants will inform the feasibility of the randomisation procedures, outcome measures and intervention. Secondary outcome measures include physical function (walking speed and Short Physical Performance Battery), frailty status (FP), fall concern (Falls Efficacy Scale-International tool), activities of daily living (Barthel Index), symptom burden (Palliative care Outcome Scale-Symptoms RENAL) and HRQOL (Short Form-12v2). ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:Ethical approval was granted by a National Health Service (NHS) Regional Ethics Committee and the NHS Health Research Authority. The study team aims to publish findings in a peer-reviewed journal and presents the results at relevant national and international conferences. A summary of findings will be provided to participants, a local kidney patient charity and the funding body. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER:ISRCTN87708989.
Project description:A randomized controlled trial was performed to compare the effects of a home-based physical and nutritional intervention program carried out by lay-volunteers to home visits with social support alone. Buddies visited 80 prefrail or frail older persons at home twice a week for 12 weeks. The physical training and nutrition group (PTN, n = 39) performed two sets of six strength exercises, discussed nutritional topics and received social support. The social support group (SoSu, n = 41) received home visits with social support only. In the PTN group, handgrip strength increased significantly by 2.4 kg (95% CI: 1.0-3.8). In the SoSu group we did not see a significant improvement. However, no significant between-group difference was found. Physical performance increased in both groups, although with a higher increase of 1.0 point (95% CI: 0.1-2.0) in the PTN group. In none of the groups muscle mass changed. Further results showed that frail individuals benefit more from the intervention than prefrail individuals (OR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.01-7.66). Handgrip strength in the intervention group increased by a clinically relevant value and this effect is comparable to that obtained by health-care professionals. Therefore, home visits with a physical training and nutritional program could offer a new perspective in the care of community-dwelling prefrail and frail older persons.
Project description:The increasing incidence of frailty is a health and social care challenge. Social prescription is advocated as an important approach to allow health professionals to link patients with sources of support in the community. This study aimed to determine the current evidence on the effectiveness of social prescribing programmes, to delay or reduce frailty in frail older adults living in the community. A systematic literature review of published (DARE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, NICE and SCIE, National Health Service (NHS) Economic Evaluation Database) and unpublished databases (OpenGrey; WHO Clinical Trial Registry; ClinicalTrials.gov) were searched to July 2019. Studies were eligible if they reported health, social or economic outcomes on social prescribing, community referral, referral schemes, wellbeing programmes or interventions when a non-health link worker was the intervention provider, to people who are frail living in the community. We screened 1079 unique studies for eligibility. No papers were eligible. There is therefore a paucity of evidence reporting the effectiveness of social prescribing programmes for frail older adults living in the community. Given that frailty is a clinical priority and social prescribing is considered a key future direction in the provision of community care, this is a major limitation.
Project description:The detection of incipient functional decline in elderly persons is not an easy task. Here, we propose the self-reporting Functional Ability Index (FA index) suitable to screen functional competence in senior citizens in the community setting. Its prognostic validity was investigated in the Longitudinal Urban Cohort Ageing Study (LUCAS).This index is based equally on both, resources and risks/functional restrictions which precede ADL limitations. Since 2001, the FA index was tested in the LUCAS cohort without any ADL restrictions at baseline (n?=?1,679), and followed up by repeated questionnaires in Hamburg, Germany.Applying the index, 1,022 LUCAS participants were initially classified as Robust (60.9%), 220 as postRobust (13.1%), 172 as preFrail (10.2%) and 265 as Frail (15.8%). This classification correlated with self-reported health, chronic pain and depressive mood (rank correlations 0.42, 0.26, 0.21; all p?<?.0001). Survival analyses showed significant differences between these classes as determined by the FA index: the initially Robust survived longest, the Frail shortest (p?<?.0001). Analyses of the time to need of nursing care revealed similar results. Significant differences persisted after adjustment for age, sex and self-reported health.Disability free lifetime and its development over time are important topics in public health. In this context, the FA index presented here provides answers to two questions. First, how to screen the heterogeneous population of community-dwelling senior citizens, i.e. for their functional ability/competence, and second, how far away they are from disability/dependency. Furthermore, the index provides a tool to address the urgent question whether incipient functional decline/incipient frailty can be recognized early to be influenced positively. The FA index predicted change in functional status, future need of nursing care, and mortality in an unselected population of community-dwelling seniors. It implies an operational specification of the classification into Robust, postRobust, preFrail and Frail. Based on a self-administered questionnaire, the FA index allows easy screening of elderly persons for declining functional competence. Thereby, incipient functional decline is recognized, e.g. in GPs' practices and senior community health centers, to initiate early appropriate preventive action.
Project description:There is a paucity of evidence supporting the effectiveness of diabetes self-management education (DSME) in improving mental health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for African American and Latinos. Also, among studies supporting the favorable effects of DSME on mental HRQoL, the direct effect of DSME that is independent of improved glycemic control has never been investigated. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of community-based DSME intervention targeting empowerment on mental HRQoL and to determine whether the effect is direct or mediated by glycemic control.We conducted secondary analyses of data from the Diabetes Self-Care Study, a randomized controlled trial of a community-based DSME intervention. Study participants (n?=?516) were African Americans and Latinos 55 years or older with poorly controlled diabetes (HbA1c???8.0%) recruited from senior centers and churches in Los Angeles. The intervention group received six weekly small-group self-care sessions based on the empowerment model. The control group received six lectures on unrelated geriatrics topics. The primary outcome variable in this secondary analysis was the change in Mental Component Summary score (MCS-12) from the SF-12 Health Survey between baseline and six-month follow-up. We used the change in HbA1c during the study period as the main mediator of interest in our causal mediation analysis. Additionally, possible mediations via social support and perceived empowerment attributable to the program were examined.MCS-12 increased by 1.4 points on average in the intervention group and decreased by 0.2 points in the control group (difference-in-change: 1.6 points, 95% CI: 0.1 to 3.2). In the causal mediation analysis, the intervention had a direct effect on MCS-12 improvement (1.7 points, 95% CI: 0.2 to 3.2) with no indirect effects mediated via HbA1c change (-0.1 points, 95% CI: -0.4 to 0.1), social support (0.1 points), and perception of empowerment (0.1 points).This Diabetes Self-Care Study empowerment intervention had a modest positive impact on mental HRQoL not mediated by the improvement in glycemic control, as well as social support and perception of empowerment. This favorable effect on mental HRQoL may be a separate clinical advantage of this DSME intervention.ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00263835.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The aim of this study was to evaluate the long term effects after discharge of a hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention to prevent postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients treated with an elective surgical procedure for a solid tumour. In addition, the effect of a postoperative delirium on long term outcomes was examined. METHODS:A three month follow-up was performed in participants of the Liaison Intervention in Frail Elderly study, a multicentre, prospective, randomized, controlled trial. Patients were randomized to standard treatment or a geriatric liaison intervention. The intervention consisted of a preoperative geriatric consultation, an individual treatment plan targeted at risk factors for delirium and daily visits by a geriatric nurse during the hospital stay. The long term outcomes included: mortality, rehospitalisation, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) functioning, return to the independent pre-operative living situation, use of supportive care, cognitive functioning and health related quality of life. RESULTS:Data of 260 patients (intervention n = 127, Control n = 133) were analysed. There were no differences between the intervention group and usual-care group for any of the outcomes three months after discharge. The presence of postoperative delirium was associated with: an increased risk of decline in ADL functioning (OR: 2.65, 95% CI: 1.02-6.88), an increased use of supportive assistance (OR: 2.45, 95% CI: 1.02-5.87) and a decreased chance to return to the independent preoperative living situation (OR: 0.18, 95% CI: 0.07-0.49). CONCLUSIONS:A hospital-based geriatric liaison intervention for the prevention of postoperative delirium in frail elderly cancer patients undergoing elective surgery for a solid tumour did not improve outcomes 3 months after discharge from hospital. The negative effect of a postoperative delirium on late outcome was confirmed. TRIAL REGISTRATION:Nederlands Trial Register, Trial ID NTR 823.
Project description:A high percentage of individuals treated in specialized acute care wards are frail and elderly. Our aim was to study whether the acute care of such patients in a comprehensive geriatric assessment (CGA) unit is superior to care in a conventional acute medical care unit when it comes to activities of daily living (ADLs), frailty, and use of municipal help services.A clinical, prospective, controlled trial with two parallel groups was conducted in a large county hospital in West Sweden and included 408 frail elderly patients, age 75 or older (mean age 85.7 years; 56% female). Patients were assigned to the intervention group (n=206) or control group (n=202). Primary outcome was decline in functional activity ADLs assessed by the ADL Staircase 3 months after discharge from hospital. Secondary outcomes were degree of frailty and use of municipal help services.After adjustment by regression analyses, treatment in a CGA unit was independently associated with lower risk of decline in ADLs [odds ratio (OR) 0.093; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.052-0.164; P<0.0001], and with a less prevalent increase in the degree of frailty (OR 0.229; 95% CI 0.131-0.400; P<0.0001). When ADLs were classified into three strata (independence, instrumental ADL-dependence, and personal ADL-dependence), changes to a more dependence-associated stratum were less prevalent in the intervention group (OR 0.194; 95% CI 0.085-0.444; P=0.0001). There was no significant difference between the groups in increased use of municipal help services (OR 0.682; 95% CI 0.395-1.178; P=0.170).Acute care of frail elderly patients in a CGA unit was independently associated with lesser loss of functional ability and lesser increase in frailty after 3 months.