Improved grip myotonia in a patient with myotonic dystrophy type 1 following electroacupuncture therapy: A CARE-compliant case report.
ABSTRACT: RATIONALE:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is an autosomal-dominant disorder associated with a short life expectancy and various symptoms, including grip myotonia. Even though grip myotonia decreases quality of life, activities of daily living (ADLs), and work performance, very few interventions provide symptomatic relief. PATIENT CONCERNS:In this case report, we present a patient with DM1 and gradually worsening grip myotonia. A 35-year-old woman developed grip myotonia at age 27. She had no underlying diseases or family history of relevant conditions, including DM1. She was unresponsive to medication for several years. DIAGNOSIS:Her symptoms gradually worsened, and she was finally diagnosed with DM1 via genetic, neurologic, and laboratory testing in a tertiary hospital at age 32. She tried several medication therapies; however, she stopped medication at age 34 due a perceived poor response and several adverse events. INTERVENTION:At the age of 35, she underwent 29 sessions (10?minutes per session) of electroacupuncture therapy on TE9 acupuncture point with 120?Hz electrical stimulation over 3 months. OUTCOMES:After 3 months, relaxation time after maximal voluntary isometric contraction decreased from 59 to 2?seconds with treatment. Her Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire score improved (total score, 66.6-75.9; ADL sub-score, 59.7-73.6; function sub-score, 70-90; satisfaction sub-score, 75-91.7). Her Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile 2 score also improved from 4.33 to 2. There were no serious adverse events. LESSONS:Electroacupuncture is a potential treatment modality and produced an immediate antimyotonic effect, and cumulative long-term treatment effect, in a patient with DM1 and grip myotonia. Other notable treatment outcomes included improving relaxation time, hand function, ADLs, and overall satisfaction. Electroacupuncture is a potential treatment modality for patients with DM1 and grip myotonia. Further prospective clinical studies are warranted to confirm this hypothesis.
Project description:To determine if mexiletine is safe and effective in reducing myotonia in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1).Myotonia is an early, prominent symptom in DM1 and contributes to decreased dexterity, gait instability, difficulty with speech/swallowing, and muscle pain. A few preliminary trials have suggested that the antiarrhythmic drug mexiletine is useful, symptomatic treatment for nondystrophic myotonic disorders and DM1.We performed 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trials, each involving 20 ambulatory DM1 participants with grip or percussion myotonia on examination. The initial trial compared 150 mg of mexiletine 3 times daily to placebo, and the second trial compared 200 mg of mexiletine 3 times daily to placebo. Treatment periods were 7 weeks in duration separated by a 4- to 8-week washout period. The primary measure of myotonia was time for isometric grip force to relax from 90% to 5% of peak force after a 3-second maximum grip contraction. EKG measurements and adverse events were monitored in both trials.There was a significant reduction in grip relaxation time with both 150 and 200 mg dosages of mexiletine. Treatment with mexiletine at either dosage was not associated with any serious adverse events, or with prolongation of the PR or QTc intervals or of QRS duration. Mild adverse events were observed with both placebo and mexiletine treatment.Mexiletine at dosages of 150 and 200 mg 3 times daily is effective, safe, and well-tolerated over 7 weeks as an antimyotonia treatment in DM1.This study provides Class I evidence that mexiletine at dosages of 150 and 200 mg 3 times daily over 7 weeks is well-tolerated and effective in reducing handgrip relaxation time in DM1.
Project description:Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have demonstrated that patients with myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) exhibit gray and white matter abnormalities that are correlated with various genetic and neuropsychological measures. However, few MRI studies have focused on the correlations between brain abnormalities and overall motor function including gait performance. Here, we investigated the correlations between brain abnormalities, as assessed with MRI including diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and motor performance, as assessed with the Medical Research Council sum score (MRCSS), 6-minute walk test (6MWT), and hand grip power, in patients with DM1. Eighteen patients with DM1 and twenty healthy controls participated in this study. The MRCSS and 6MWT reflect patients' general motor performance, particularly gait, while hand grip reflects the presence of myotonia. We found significant relationships between DTI parameters in the corticospinal tract (CST) and genetic factors and motor performance in patients with DM1. These findings suggest that CST involvement reflecting deterioration of the motor tracts may play a significant role in clinical myotonia. Further, a direct relationship between the cortical gray matter volume and DTI measures in the CST suggests that white matter abnormalities in the CST are strongly associated with volume reductions in the sensorimotor cortex of patients with DM1.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a chronically debilitating, rare genetic disease that originates from an expansion of a noncoding CTG repeat in the dystrophia myotonica protein kinase (DMPK) gene. The expansion becomes pathogenic when DMPK transcripts contain 50 or more repetitions due to the sequestration of the muscleblind-like (MBNL) family of proteins. Depletion of MBNLs causes alterations in splicing patterns in transcripts that contribute to clinical symptoms such as myotonia and muscle weakness and wasting. We previously found that microRNA (miR)-23b directly regulates MBNL1 in DM1 myoblasts and mice and that antisense technology ("antagomiRs") blocking this microRNA (miRNA) boosts MBNL1 protein levels. Here, we show the therapeutic effect over time in response to administration of antagomiR-23b as a treatment in human skeletal actin long repeat (HSALR) mice. Subcutaneous administration of antagomiR-23b upregulated the expression of MBNL1 protein and rescued splicing alterations, grip strength, and myotonia in a dose-dependent manner with long-lasting effects. Additionally, the effects of the treatment on grip strength and myotonia were still slightly notable after 45 days. The pharmacokinetic data obtained provide further evidence that miR-23b could be a valid therapeutic target for DM1.
Project description:Phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligonucleotide (PMO)-mediated control of the alternative splicing of the chloride channel 1 (CLCN1) gene is a promising treatment for myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) because the abnormal splicing of this gene causes myotonia in patients with DM1. In this study, we optimised a PMO sequence to correct Clcn1 alternative splicing and successfully remedied the myotonic phenotype of a DM1 mouse model, the HSALR mouse. To enhance the efficiency of delivery of PMO into HSALR mouse muscles, Bubble liposomes, which have been used as a gene delivery tool, were applied with ultrasound exposure. Effective delivery of PMO led to increased expression of Clcn1 protein in skeletal muscle and the amelioration of myotonia. Thus, PMO-mediated control of the alternative splicing of the Clcn1 gene must be important target of antisense therapy of DM1.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a multi-systemic disease that presents with clinical symptoms including myotonia, cardiac dysfunction and cognitive impairment. DM1 is caused by a CTG expansion in the 3' UTR of the DMPK gene. The transcribed expanded CUG repeat RNA sequester the muscleblind-like (MBNL) and up-regulate the CUG-BP Elav-like (CELF) families of RNA-binding proteins leading to global mis-regulation of RNA processing and altered gene expression. Currently, there are no disease-targeting treatments for DM1. Given the multi-step pathogenic mechanism, combination therapies targeting different aspects of the disease mechanism may be a viable therapeutic approach. Here, as proof-of-concept, we studied a combination of two previously characterized small molecules, erythromycin and furamidine, in two DM1 models. In DM1 patient-derived myotubes, rescue of mis-splicing was observed with little to no cell toxicity. In a DM1 mouse model, a combination of erythromycin and the prodrug of furamidine (pafuramidine), administered orally, displayed both additive and synergistic mis-splicing rescue. Gene expression was only modestly affected and over 40 % of the genes showing significant expression changes were rescued back toward WT expression levels. Further, the combination treatment partially rescued the myotonia phenotype in the DM1 mouse. This combination treatment showed a high degree of mis-splicing rescue coupled with low off-target gene expression changes. These results indicate that combination therapies are a promising therapeutic approach for DM1.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is caused by the expansion of a CTG repeat in the 3' untranslated region of DMPK. The transcripts containing an expanded CUG repeat (CUG (exp)) result in a toxic gain-of-function by forming ribonuclear foci that sequester the alternative splicing factor muscleblind-like 1 (MBNL1). Although several small molecules reportedly ameliorate RNA toxicity, none are ready for clinical use because of the lack of safety data. Here, we undertook a drug-repositioning screen to identify a safe and effective small molecule for upcoming clinical trials of DM1.We examined the potency of small molecules in inhibiting the interaction between CUG (exp) and MBNL1 by in vitro sequestration and fluorescent titration assays. We studied the effect of lead compounds in DM1 model cells by evaluating foci reduction and splicing rescue. We also tested their effects on missplicing and myotonia in DM1 model mice.Of the 20 FDA-approved small molecules tested, erythromycin showed the highest affinity to CUG (exp) and a capacity to inhibit its binding to MBNL1. Erythromycin decreased foci formation and rescued missplicing in DM1 cell models. Both systemic and oral administration of erythromycin in the DM1 model mice showed splicing reversal and improvement of myotonia with no toxicity. Long-term oral administration of erythromycin at the dose used in humans also improved the splicing abnormality in the DM1 model mice.Oral erythromycin treatment, which has been widely used in humans with excellent tolerability, may be a promising therapy for DM1.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is a complex neuromuscular disease characterized by skeletal muscle wasting, weakness, and myotonia. DM1 is caused by the accumulation of CUG repeats, which alter the biological activities of RNA-binding proteins, including CUG-binding protein 1 (CUGBP1). CUGBP1 is an important skeletal muscle translational regulator that is activated by cyclin D3-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4). Here we show that mutant CUG repeats suppress Cdk4 signaling by increasing the stability and activity of glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?). Using a mouse model of DM1 (HSA(LR)), we found that CUG repeats in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of human skeletal actin increase active GSK3? in skeletal muscle of mice, prior to the development of skeletal muscle weakness. Inhibition of GSK3? in both DM1 cell culture and mouse models corrected cyclin D3 levels and reduced muscle weakness and myotonia in DM1 mice. Our data predict that compounds normalizing GSK3? activity might be beneficial for improvement of muscle function in patients with DM1.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is the most common muscular dystrophy in adults and as yet no cure for DM1. Here, we report the potential of manumycin A for a novel DM1 therapeutic reagent. DM1 is caused by expansion of CTG repeat. Mutant transcripts containing expanded CUG repeats lead to aberrant regulation of alternative splicing. Myotonia (delayed muscle relaxation) is the most commonly observed symptom in DM1 patients and is caused by aberrant splicing of the skeletal muscle chloride channel (CLCN1) gene. Identification of small-molecule compounds that correct aberrant splicing in DM1 is attracting much attention as a way of improving understanding of the mechanism of DM1 pathology and improving treatment of DM1 patients. In this study, we generated a reporter screening system and searched for small-molecule compounds. We found that manumycin A corrects aberrant splicing of Clcn1 in cell and mouse models of DM1.
Project description:Progressive supranuclear palsy with predominant cerebellar ataxia (PSP-C) has been reported as a rare clinical subtype, but the underlying pathology of its cerebellar ataxia remains unclear. Here, we report a patient with the coexistence of PSP with pontocerebellar atrophy and myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1). A 73-year-old man who was an asymptomatic carrier of DM1 (66 CTG repeats) started developing ataxic gait with multiple falls, visual blurring, double vision, and word finding difficulty at age 62 and was initially diagnosed with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Subsequently, the diagnosis was changed to PSP due to hypometric downward gaze, reduced blink frequency, symmetric bradykinesia, rigidity, and the absence of autonomic dysfunction. He eventually developed delayed grip opening with percussion myotonia at age 72. At autopsy, severe neuronal degeneration and astrogliosis in the pontocerebellar structures suggested MSA, but immunohistochemistry for ?-synuclein did not reveal neuronal or glial cytoplasmic inclusions. Immunohistochemistry for phospho-tau and 4-repeat tau confirmed a neuropathological diagnosis of PSP with exceptionally numerous coiled bodies and threads in the pontine base and cerebellar white matter. This unusual distribution of 4-repeat tau pathology and neuronal degeneration with astrogliosis is a plausible clinicopathological substrate of PSP-C.
Project description:Myotonic dystrophy (DM) is the most common adult muscular dystrophy, characterized by autosomal dominant progressive myopathy, myotonia and multiorgan involvement. To date two distinct forms caused by similar mutations have been identified. Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1, Steinert's disease) was described more than 100 years ago and is caused by a (CTG)n expansion in DMPK, while myotonic dystrophy type 2 (DM2) was identified only 18 years ago and is caused by a (CCTG)n expansion in ZNF9/CNBP. When transcribed into CUG/CCUG-containing RNA, mutant transcripts aggregate as nuclear foci that sequester RNA-binding proteins, resulting in spliceopathy of downstream effector genes. Despite clinical and genetic similarities, DM1 and DM2 are distinct disorders requiring different diagnostic and management strategies. DM1 may present in four different forms: congenital, early childhood, adult onset and late-onset oligosymptomatic DM1. Congenital DM1 is the most severe form of DM characterized by extreme muscle weakness and mental retardation. In DM2 the clinical phenotype is extremely variable and there are no distinct clinical subgroups. Congenital and childhood-onset forms are not present in DM2 and, in contrast to DM1, myotonia may be absent even on EMG. Due to the lack of awareness of the disease among clinicians, DM2 remains largely underdiagnosed. The delay in receiving the correct diagnosis after onset of first symptoms is very long in DM: on average more than 5 years for DM1 and more than 14 years for DM2 patients. The long delay in the diagnosis of DM causes unnecessary problems for the patients to manage their lives and anguish with uncertainty of prognosis and treatment.