Alteration of gene expression in mice after glaucoma filtration surgery.
ABSTRACT: To clarify the early alterations of gene expression using a mouse model of glaucoma filtration surgery, we carried out microarray expression analysis. Using BALB/c mice, a filtration surgery model was made by incision of the limbal conjunctiva, followed by the insertion of a 33G needle tip into the anterior chamber, and 11-0 nylon sutures. Subgroups of mice were treated intraoperatively with 0.4 mg/ml mitomycin-C (MMC). At day 3 after surgery the bleb was maintained. The bleb region tissue was sampled 3 days after the filtration surgery, and gene expression analysis was carried out using a mouse Agilent 8?×?60 K array. We found 755 hyperexpressed transcripts in the bleb region compared to control conjunctiva. The hyperexpressed transcripts included epithelial cell metaplasia-related (Il1b, Krt16, Sprr1b), inflammation-related (Ccl2, Il6) and wound healing-related (Lox, Timp1) genes. We also found downregulation of a goblet cell marker gene (Gp2) in the bleb conjunctiva. MMC treatment suppressed elastin (Eln) gene expression and enhanced keratinization-related gene expression (Krt1, Lor) in the bleb region. Our results suggest the importance of epithelial wound healing after filtration surgery, and this filtration surgery model will be a useful tool for further pathophysiological analysis.
Project description:AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the outcome of adenovirus-mediated p27(KIP1) (Ad-p27) expression on wound healing after filtration surgery and to investigate the inhibition of cell proliferation induced by Ad-p27. METHODS: We constructed the adenovirus recombinant vector Ad-p27 and administered it to a rabbit model of glaucoma filtration surgery by subconjunctival injection; phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and mitomycin C (MMC) were used as controls. Intraocular pressure (IOP), bleb scores, and anterior chamber depths were observed during a 28-d period. Histological examinations, fluorescence observations and Western blot analyses were evaluated. RESULTS: Ad-p27 enhanced the surgical outcome and inhibited cell proliferation when compared with PBS. Bleb scores in the Ad-p27-treated eyes were higher than those in the PBS-treated eyes on d 7 (P<0.01), 14 (P<0.01) and 21 (P<0.05). On d 28, IOP remained significantly decreased in the Ad-p27 group compared with the PBS group (P<0.05). However, no differences in bleb scores or IOPs were observed between the Ad-p27 and MMC groups. Histological analysis showed that total cell numbers were markedly reduced, and less scar tissue was observed at the surgical site in eyes treated with Ad-p27. The number of fibroblasts was decreased in Tenon's capsule in Ad-p27-treated eyes; however, a marked and diffuse signal from the green fluorescent protein (GFP) was observed in fibroblasts. Western blot analysis revealed a high level of p27(KIP1) expression in conjunctival epithelium (P<0.01), relatively high expression in superficial scleral stroma (P<0.01), and low expression in corneal epithelium in the Ad-p27 group. CONCLUSIONS: Ad-p27 administration significantly improves the outcome of filtration surgery and inhibits postoperative proliferation in rabbit eyes. These findings suggest that p27(KIP1) is a potential adjunctive agent for inhibition of wound healing after filtration surgery.
Project description:PURPOSE: To investigate the efficacy and safety of cationic nano-copolymers CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG) mediated I?B kinase beta (IKK?) targeting siRNA in modulating wound healing in a monkey model of glaucoma filtration surgery. METHODS: The IKK? targeting siRNAs were chemically synthesized and screened in cultured monkey Tenon's fibroblasts in vitro. Fourteen monkeys underwent trabeculectomy and were randomly allocated to one of three treatment regimens: subconjunctival injection of either CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG)/IKK?-siRNA (six eyes, 50nM, at the time of surgery and 7 days post surgery) or phosphate buffered saline (four eyes), or treated with mitomycin C (MMC; four eyes, 0.2 mg/ml). Bleb survival and characteristics, and intraocular pressure, were evaluated over a 60-day period. Histology of the surgical eyes was performed to evaluate ocular scarring and fibrosis in each group. RESULTS: Subconjunctival injection of CS-g-(PEI-b-mPEG)/IKK?-siRNA was well tolerated in this model. Both siRNA and MMC significantly prolonged bleb survival compared with the PBS group (the medians for survival days were 45.5, 60, and 29.5 in the siRNA, MMC, and PBS groups, respectively, p<0.01). Higher blebs were observed in the siRNA group than in the PBS group (p<0.01), while the MMC group showed the highest blebs among three groups (p<0.01). The surgical eyes in both the siRNA and MMC groups had significantly larger bleb area compared with the PBS group (p<0.01), but there was no significant difference between the siRNA and MMC groups (p=0.214). There were no significant differences in IOP readings among the three groups on the designated days after surgery (all p>0.05). The histologic examination demonstrated that the eyes treated with siRNA showed a marked reduction in subconjunctival scar tissue compared with the eyes in the PBS group. The conjunctival epithelium appeared healthy without the acellularity that was present in the MMC group. CONCLUSIONS: Subconjunctival injection of cationic nano-copolymers mediated IKK? targeting siRNA is associated with improved surgical outcome in a monkey model of trabeculectomy. This novel approach may potentially be a more controlled alternative as an anti-scarring agent in glaucoma filtration surgery.
Project description:Excessive subconjunctival scarring is the main reason of failure of glaucoma filtration surgery. We analyzed conjunctival and systemic gene expression patterns after non penetrating deep sclerectomy (NPDS). To find expression patterns related to surgical failure and their correlation with the clinical outcomes. This study consisted of two consecutive stages. The first was a prospective analysis of wound-healing gene expression profile of six patients after NPDS. Conjunctival samples and peripheral blood samples were collected before and 15, 90,180, and 360 days after surgery. In the second stage, we conducted a retrospective analysis correlating the late conjunctival gene expression and the outcome of the NPDS for 11 patients. We developed a RT-qPCR Array for 88 key genes associated to wound healing. RT-qPCR Array analysis of conjunctiva samples showed statistically significant differences in 29/88 genes in the early stages after surgery, 20/88 genes between 90 and 180 days after surgery, and only 2/88 genes one year after surgery. In the blood samples, the most important changes occurred in 12/88 genes in the first 15 days after surgery. Correspondence analyses (COA) revealed significant differences between the expression of 20/88 genes in patients with surgical success and failure one year after surgery. Different expression patterns of mediators of the bleb wound healing were identified. Examination of such patterns might be used in surgery prognosis. RT-qPCR Array provides a powerful tool for investigation of differential gene expression wound healing after glaucoma surgery.
Project description:To determine if sequential treatment with Bevacizumab (Avastin), a monoclonal, VEGF antibody that blocks angiogenesis; Saratin, a 12 kD polypeptide with anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic properties; and Ilomastat, a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor, prolongs bleb life following glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS) in a rabbit model. Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits (eight rabbits per group) underwent GFS in the left eye. Group 1 received a perioperative injection of both Saratin and Bevacizumab, and later, subconjuctival injections of Ilomastat on days 8 and 15. Group 2 received only Saratin perioperatively, and also received Ilomastat injections on days 8 and 15. Group 3, the negative control, received a single perioperative injection of Balanced Saline Solution (BSS) along with post-operative BSS injections on days 8 and 15. Group 4, the positive control, received topical treatment with Mitomycin-C (MMC) at the time of surgery with no further treatment. Blebs were evaluated by an observer masked to treatment every third day. Histology was obtained on two eyes in each group on post-op day twelve as well as all eyes following bleb failure. Eyes in group 1 had a mean bleb survival time of 29 ± 2.7 days, whereas those in group 2 that received the experimental treatment without Bevacizumab had a mean survival time of 25.5 ± 2.7 days. An ANOVA test showed that the Saratin/Ilomastat/Bevacizumab group demonstrated a significant prolongation of bleb survival compared to the BSS control-mean survival time of 19.7 ±2.7 days-(p = 0.0252) and was not significantly different from the MMC positive control group (p = 0.4238)-mean survival time of 32.5 ± 3.3. From tissue histology at day 12, the four different groups showed marked differences in the cellularity and capsule fibrosis. The MMC eyes showed minimal cellularity, were avascular and had minimal fibrous tissue. BSS group showed high cellularity, moderate to high fibrosis, and thicker and more defined capsules than either of the treatment groups and the positive control. Both the Saratin/Ilomastat/Bevacizumab and Saratin/Ilomastat only eyes showed moderate cellularity with minimal fibrosis, with less cellularity and fibrosis present in the triple treatment group. Sequential therapy with multiple agents, including Bevacizumab, prolonged bleb function following GFS in the rabbit model and were significantly better than the negative BSS control. The experimental group did not show the same surface tissue histological thinning and side effects associated with MMC treatment.
Project description:Treatments for refractory glaucoma include trabeculectomy, in which a filtering bleb is created to reduce aqueous pressure. Mitomycin C (MMC) is often used as an adjuvant to reduce post-trabeculectomy bleb scarring and consequent failure. However, scarring sometimes still occurs. Thus, we searched for more effective trabeculectomy adjuvants with high-throughput screening (HTS) of a library of 1,165 off-patent drug compounds. This revealed that amsacrine (AMSA), a DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2) inhibitor, was the top candidate. Compared to MMC, rabbits that underwent trabeculectomy with 10% AMSA had lower IOP at 42, 56, and 70 days (P?<?0.01 at all measurement points) and a higher bleb score at 28, 42, 56, and 70 days (P?=??<?0.01, 0.04, 0.04, and?<?0.01, respectively). Compared to saline, rabbits that received 1% AMSA also had lower IOP and better bleb score at all time points, without a sharp drop in IOP just after surgery (all P?<?0.01). Both effects were milder than MMC at 7 days (P?=?0.02 and <0.01, respectively). Thus, this study showed that HTS may help identify new, promising uses for off-patent drugs. Furthermore, trabeculectomy with AMSA at a suitable concentration may improve the prognosis after trabeculectomy compared to MMC.
Project description:Purpose:To present long-term results of modified bleb-limiting conjunctivoplasty as a successful treatment for intractable bleb dysesthesia and to review the literature on the surgical management of dysesthetic bleb. Methods:Consecutive case series and literature review. We present four cases of surgically reduced painful blebs. Our technique consisted of the following steps: (1) conjunctival, radial incision to the bare sclera in the desired limit of the bleb; (2) suturing with buried, interrupted sutures at the nearest edge of the filtering bleb; (3) lower limbal peritomy including unwanted area of the extended bleb; (4) dissection and removal of the underlying fibrous tissue when present; (5) conjunctival and resorbable sutures. In addition, a systematic literature review was performed. Only reports presenting outcomes of surgical treatment of bleb dysesthesia after filtering procedure were included in review. Results:Four eyes were included consecutively in the study in a period of 4?years. On average, they developed circumferential bleb dysesthesia 9.3?±?4.7 months after uneventful combined phacotrabeculectomy with Mitomycin C as primary procedure. Surgical reduction was decided after failure of lubricants in controlling ocular discomfort. Two cases showed a dense fibrous tissue beneath the conjunctiva that was excised to ensure filtration. In all cases, a rapid disappearance of symptoms with very good aesthetic and functional outcome was observed. After 12-month follow-up, patients remained asymptomatic and maintained intraocular pressure of 10.7?±?1.2?mmHg without treatment. A systematic review of the literature obtained 15 eligible case series (n?=?123) with rates of success within 46-100%, favoring less aggressive approaches to reduce bleb size. Conclusion:Bleb dysesthesia is a rare complication of filtering glaucoma surgery. This modified bleb-limiting conjunctivoplasty technique (with removal of subjacent fibrous tissue if present) is able to target the underlying etiology providing ocular discomfort relief while maintaining bleb function and may be considered as first-choice surgical treatment.
Project description:PURPOSE:To evaluate the efficacy of subconjunctival bevacizumab (ScB) as adjuvant therapy to primary trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC) in primary open-angle glaucoma. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Forty-six eyes of primary open-angle glaucoma patients were randomized to receive ScB (1.25 mg/0.05 mL) injections (the MMC+ScB group) at the end of the operations, or sham-treated controls (the MMC group). Intraocular pressure (IOP) was the primary outcome and secondary outcomes included bleb appearance, visual acuity, number of medications, complications, and proportion of eyes achieving successful outcomes at the 12-month follow-up. RESULTS:Of 39 eyes, 20 eyes from the MMC+ScB group, and 19 eyes from the MMC group completed the follow-up. The mean postoperative IOP was 15.5±4.1 mm Hg in the MMC+ScB group (P<0.01; 40% reduction), and 14.7±4.3 mm Hg in the MMC group (P<0.01; 44% reduction). The differences in IOPs, at all follow-up visits, were not significant (P>0.05). The mean bleb vascularity score, at 1 month, in the MMC+ScB group was lower than the MMC group (1.55±0.51 vs. 2.26±0.6, respectively, P=0.01), but was not retained at follow-ups. The success rates at 12 months after surgery were 85% in the MMC+ScB group and 89.5% in the MMC group (P=0.53). The cumulative probabilities of surgical success were 80% and 73.7% in the MMC+ScB and in the MMC group, respectively (P=0.52). CONCLUSION:Single adjunctive ScB injection did not appear to have an additive benefit on outcomes of MMC trabeculectomy, in terms of IOPs and success rates.
Project description:Transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) activity has been implicated in subconjunctival scarring in eyes following glaucoma filtration surgery (GFS). The purpose of this study is to determine whether an inhibitor for activin receptor-like kinase (ALK) 5 (also known as TGF-? receptor type I) could suppress TGF-? activity and thereby promote filtering bleb survival after GFS in a rabbit model.An ALK-5 inhibitor, SB-505124, was used. A docking study was performed to investigate the interaction between the inhibitor and the receptor. Immunofluorescence for connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA) was performed in cultured rabbit subconjunctival fibroblasts. Immunoblotting for phosphorylated Smad2 (pSmad2), CTGF, and ?-SMA was also performed. In an in vivo rabbit GFS model, SB-505124 was delivered in a lactose tablet during surgery. Eyes were examined by slit-lamp and intraocular pressure (IOP) was measured until the time of bleb failure or up to 28 days after surgery. Tissue sections on day 5 after surgery were histologically evaluated after staining with hematoxylin and eosin. The sections were also immunostained for CTGF and ?-SMA. In addition, cell outgrowth from dissected subconjunctival tissues placed in a cell culture flask with media was investigated.The docking study indicated hydrogen bond interactions between SB-505124 and amino acids His-283 and Ser-280 of ALK-5. Suppression of pSmad2, CTGF, and ?-SMA by SB-505124 was observed in cultured fibroblasts. Filtering blebs in the GFS with SB-505124 group were maintained for more than 10 days, and the period of bleb survival was significantly longer than that in controls. IOP levels after surgery seemed to be related to bleb survival. Histologically, subconjunctival cell infiltration and scarring at the surgical site in the GFS with SB-505124 and mitomycin C (MMC) groups were much subsided compared to controls. Suppression of CTGF and ?-SMA by SB-505124 was also observed by immunofluorescence. Cell outgrowth from explants dissected from eyes to which SB-505124 was applied during GFS was robust while outgrowth was poor from those treated with MMC.The ALK-5 inhibitor SB-505124 was efficacious both in vitro and in vivo in suppressing the TGF-? action. The inhibitor may provide a novel therapy for preventing ocular inflammation and scarring.
Project description:Squamous metaplasia of the ocular surface epithelium in severe Sjögren syndrome (SS) dry eye has been implicated to be associated with chronic engagement of immune-mediated inflammation. While the detailed immunopathological mechanism underlying keratinization of the ocular muco-epithelium in this setting remains unclear, mice deficient in the autoimmune regulator gene (Aire) demonstrate SS-like pathological changes in the exocrine organs and ocular surface including squamous metaplasia. Using this murine model, we sought to determine the specific immune events that predict squamous metaplasia of the cornea in Aire deficiency.Lissamine green staining, goblet cell density, and corneal small proline-rich protein 1B (SPRR1B) were compared in Aire-sufficient and -deficient mice at 4, 8, and 16 weeks of age. Corneal, limbal and conjunctival infiltration of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells as well as CD11c(+) and MHC class II (I-A(d+)) dendritic cells (DCs) were examined at the same time points. Ordinary least squares regression was used to model SPRR1B's relationship with lissamine green staining, goblet cell density, and immune cell infiltration.Lissamine green staining was present in Aire-deficient mice by four weeks of age and increased over time. Compared to Aire-sufficient controls, conjunctival goblet cell density (GCD) decreased and corneal SPRR1B increased in Aire-deficient mice with significant differences noted at both 8 and 16 weeks. Immune-mediated CD4(+) T cell infiltration of the conjunctiva and limbus peaked at eight weeks and then decreased. In contrast, corneal T cell infiltration continued to increase over time, reaching a maximum cell number at 16 weeks. CD11c(+) myeloid-derived DCs were found in the conjunctiva and limbus at all time points. As the mice aged, there was a notable increase in corneal CD11c(+) cell counts. Interestingly, the dynamic of activated MHC class II(+) DCs was nearly identical to that of CD4(+) T cells, peaking first in the limbus at eight weeks with maximum infiltration of the cornea by 16 weeks. Regression analysis showed that squamous metaplasia biomarker, SPRR1B, is strongly related to the lissamine green staining of the ocular surface. Corneal infiltration of activated DCs was most prognostic of corneal SPRR1B expression while the presence of precursor DCs, activated DCs, and CD4(+) T cells in the limbus were also significant predictors of SPRR1B.Aire-deficient mice represent a useful model to study Sjögren-like autoimmune-mediated ocular surface disease. Results of the current study suggest that squamous cell precursor protein, SPRR1B, provides an important readout to evaluate ocular surface damage and specific events related to immune-mediated inflammation. Results also define an appropriate time frame for interventional studies to develop more effective therapies for keratinizing ocular surface disease.
Project description:PURPOSE:To investigate the potential of colchicine to improve bleb function after trabeculectomy. METHODS:To find the maximum usable colchicine concentration, an ocular irritation study was performed with the Draize test at concentrations of 0.001%, 0.01% and 0.1%. Additionally, the synergistic effect of topical colchicine instillation and MMC application to surgical site was evaluated in a rabbit model by measuring changes after trabeculectomy in intraocular pressure (IOP) and bleb morphology score at 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, and 49 days. RESULTS:Experiments with a rabbit model of trabeculectomy showed that 0.04% MMC plus 0.01% colchicine was more effective than saline and 0.04% MMC alone in maintaining IOP reduction at days 7-49 (P < 0.01 at all time points) and day 49 (P < 0.05), respectively, while 0.04% MMC alone was more effective than saline only at days 7-35 (P < 0.05 at all time points). 0.04% MMC plus 0.01% colchicine and 0.04% MMC alone were more effective than saline at preserving bleb score at days 7-21 and 35-49 (P < 0.05 at all time points) and at days 7-35 (P < 0.05 at all time points), respectively. CONCLUSION:Colchicine may be a promising adjuvant for strengthening the effect of MMC and improving the survival of the filtering bleb in trabeculectomy.