Organochlorine pesticides, brominated flame retardants, synthetic musks and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in shrimps. An overview of occurrence and its implication on human exposure.
ABSTRACT: Shrimps are widely distributed in coastal areas, estuaries and rivers. Although this shellfish is a good source of nutrients, it can also accumulate environmental contaminants, such as organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), synthetic musks (SMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Due to their bioaccumulative properties, these pollutants are endocrine disruptors. In this review, an overview of the world's shrimp market, pollutants legislation and values found in shrimp samples will be discussed. Shrimps analysed from all continents showed the presence of contaminants, Asia being the continent with the highest values reported. The concentration values reached a maximum of 26100 ng/g wet weight (ww) for OCPs, of 226.45 ng/g ww for BFRs, of 12.1 ng/g ww for SMs and of 50650 ng/g ww for PAHs. Exposure data and risk, taken from different studies, are very variable and indicate that shrimp's consumption may represent a risk especially in certain geographic areas.
Project description:Fish consumption is an important route of exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in dolphins as well as humans. In order to assess the potential risks associated with these contaminants, 39 whole fish and 37 fillets from fish representing species consumed by dolphins and humans captured from Charleston Harbor and tributaries, South Carolina, USA, were measured for a suite of POPs. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were the predominant contaminant with concentrations ranging from 5.02 to 232.20?ng/g in whole fish and 5.42-131.95?ng/g in fillets (weight weight ww) followed by total organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Total POPs levels varied by location and species with general trends indicating significantly higher levels in fish from the Cooper (93.4?ng/g ww) and Ashley Rivers (56.2?ng/g ww) compared to Charleston Harbor (31.6?ng/g ww). Mullet and spot were found to have significantly higher PCBs, OCPs and total POPs, 2-3 times higher than red drum; mullet were also significantly higher in OCPs compared to seatrout. PCB concentrations in whole fish and fillets exceeded EPA human screening values for cancer risk in all fish sampled. For PCBs in fillets, all samples had values of maximum allowable meals per month that were less than the EPA, FDA guidelines for recommended fish meals per month, suggesting lower (more stringent) allowable fish meals per month. All fish exceeded PBDE wildlife values and all fish except two exceeded the level where 95% of the dolphin population would have tissue levels below the health effect threshold. Considering that POP concentrations in fish potentially consumed by humans exceed human health effect thresholds levels, consumption advisories should be considered as a prudent public health measure.
Project description:Sediment profile and mud shrimp (Austinogebia edulis) from the coastal wetland of central Taiwan in 2017 and 2018 were analyzed for concentration, source, and composition of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs; DDT and HCB), and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Sediment profiling indicated PAH concentrations reaching 254.38 ng/g dw in areas near industrial areas and PAH concentrations of 41.8 and 58.42 ng/g dw in sampling areas further from industrial areas, suggesting that the determining factor for spatial distribution of POPs might be proximity to contaminant sources in industrial zones. Based on molecular indices, PAHs were substantially of both pyrolytic and petrogenic origins. The main sources for PCBs were Aroclor 1016 and 1260 and the congener BDE-209 was the dominant component among PBDE congeners. While we were unable to obtain live mud shrimp samples from the heavily contaminated areas, in samples from less contaminated areas, the risk assessment on mud shrimp still illustrated a borderline threat, with DDT concentrations almost reaching standardized values of Effects Range-Low (ERL). Bioaccumulation factors for DDTs and PCBs (17.33 and 54.59, respectively) were higher than other POPs in this study. Further study is essential to assess and understand the impact of these chemicals on the wetland ecosystem near this heavily industrialized area.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) are ubiquitous and toxic contaminants. Their atmospheric deposition fluxes on the regional scale were quantified based on simultaneous sampling during 1 to 5 years at 1 to 6 background/rural sites in the Czech Republic and Austria. The samples were extracted and analysed by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. For all seasons and sites, total deposition fluxes for Σ15PAHs ranged 23-1100 ng m-2 d-1, while those for Σ6PCBs and Σ12OCPs ranged 64-4400 and 410-7800 pg m-2 d-1, respectively. Fluoranthene and pyrene were the main contributors to the PAH deposition fluxes, accounting on average for 19% each, while deposition fluxes of PCBs and OCPs were dominated by PCB153 (26%) and γ-hexachlorobenzene (30%), respectively. The highest deposition flux of Σ15PAHs was generally found in spring, while no seasonality was found for PCB deposition. For deposition fluxes for Σ12OCPs, no clear spatial trend was found, confirming the perception of long-lived regional pollutants. Although most OCPs and PCBs hardly partition to the particulate phase in ambient air, on average, 42% of their deposition fluxes were found on filters, confirming the perception that particle deposition is more efficient than dry gaseous deposition. Due to methodological constraints, fluxes derived from bulk deposition samplers should be understood as lower estimates, in particular with regard to those substances which in ambient aerosols mostly partition to the particulate phase.
Project description:Aiming to comprehensively survey the potential pollution of an alpine cryoconite (Jamtalferner glacier, Austria), and its bacterial community structure along with its biodegrading potential, first chemical analyses of persistent organic pollutants, explicitly polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), revealed a significant contamination. In total, 18 PCB congeners were detected by high resolution gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with a mean concentration of 0.8 ng/g dry weight; 16 PAHs with an average concentration of 1,400 ng/g; and 26 out of 29 OCPs with a mean concentration of 2.4 ng/g. Second, the microbial composition was studied using 16S amplicon sequencing. The analysis revealed high abundances of Proteobacteria (66%), the majority representing ?-Proteobacteria (87%); as well as Cyanobacteria (32%), however high diversity was due to 11 low abundant phyla comprising 75 genera. Biodegrading potential of cryoconite bacteria was further analyzed using enrichment cultures (microcosms) with PCB mixture Aroclor 1242. 16S rDNA analysis taxonomically classified 37 different biofilm-forming and PCB-degrading bacteria, represented by Pseudomonas, Shigella, Subtercola, Chitinophaga, and Janthinobacterium species. Overall, the combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods identified degrading bacteria that can be potential candidates to develop novel bioremediation strategies.
Project description:Sediments were sampled from different surface water bodies in Tianjin coastal area, China, and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were measured using GC/MS or GC/ECD. The purposes were to investigate the concentration levels of the POPs and to assess their ecological risks. The results showed that all the 16 priority PAHs were detected from the 10 sediments sampled with the total concentrations of the 16?PAHs ranging from 274.06??g/kg to 2656.65??g/kg, while the concentrations of the halogenated POPs were generally low except in the Dagu waste discharging river where the total concentrations of 24?OCPs, 35?PCBs, and 14?PBDEs were 3103.36??g/kg, 87.31??g/kg, and 13.88??g/kg, respectively. In the studied sediments, PAHs exhibited risks to benthonic organisms; particularly the concentrations of naphthalene and/or acenaphthene exceeded their probable effect concentrations in several locations. In comparison, only in the Dagu waste discharging river, OCPs exhibited risks with the concentrations of heptachlor epoxide and lindane exceeding their probable effect concentrations. PCBs and PBDEs posed rare risks in the studied area.
Project description:IMPORTANCE:Persistent environmental pollutants may represent a modifiable risk factor involved in the gene-time-environment hypothesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the association of occupational exposures and environmental toxins on the odds of developing ALS in Michigan. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS:Case-control study conducted between 2011 and 2014 at a tertiary referral center for ALS. Cases were patients diagnosed as having definitive, probable, probable with laboratory support, or possible ALS by revised El Escorial criteria; controls were excluded if they were diagnosed as having ALS or another neurodegenerative condition or if they had a family history of ALS in a first- or second-degree blood relative. Participants completed a survey assessing occupational and residential exposures. Blood concentrations of 122 persistent environmental pollutants, including organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated flame retardants (BFRs), were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Multivariable models with self-reported occupational exposures in various exposure time windows and environmental toxin blood concentrations were separately fit by logistic regression models. Concordance between the survey data and pollutant measurements was assessed using the nonparametric Kendall ? correlation coefficient. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES:Occupational and residential exposures to environmental toxins, and blood concentrations of 122 persistent environmental pollutants, including OCPs, PCBs, and BFRs. RESULTS:Participants included 156 cases (mean [SD] age, 60.5 [11.1] years; 61.5% male) and 128 controls (mean [SD] age, 60.4 [9.4] years; 57.8% male); among them, 101 cases and 110 controls had complete demographic and pollutant data. Survey data revealed that reported pesticide exposure in the cumulative exposure windows was significantly associated with ALS (odds ratio [OR]?=?5.09; 95% CI, 1.85-13.99; P?=?.002). Military service was also associated with ALS in 2 time windows (exposure ever happened in entire occupational history: OR?=?2.31; 95% CI, 1.02-5.25; P?=?.046; exposure ever happened 10-30 years ago: OR?=?2.18; 95% CI, 1.01-4.73; P?=?.049). A multivariable model of measured persistent environmental pollutants in the blood, representing cumulative occupational and residential exposure, showed increased odds of ALS for 2 OCPs (pentachlorobenzene: OR?=?2.21; 95% CI, 1.06-4.60; P?=?.04; and cis-chlordane: OR?=?5.74; 95% CI, 1.80-18.20; P?=?.005), 2 PCBs (PCB 175: OR?=?1.81; 95% CI, 1.20-2.72; P?=?.005; and PCB 202: OR?=?2.11; 95% CI, 1.36-3.27; P?=?.001), and 1 BFR (polybrominated diphenyl ether 47: OR?=?2.69; 95% CI, 1.49-4.85; P?=?.001). There was modest concordance between survey data and the measurements of persistent environmental pollutants in blood; significant Kendall ? correlation coefficients ranged from -0.18 (Dacthal and "use pesticides to treat home or yard") to 0.24 (trans-nonachlor and "store lawn care products in garage"). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE:In this study, persistent environmental pollutants measured in blood were significantly associated with ALS and may represent modifiable ALS disease risk factors.
Project description:Notothenioid fish and invertebrate samples from Antarctica were collected in the austral summer of 2009, and analyzed for persistent organic pollutants (POPs), including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), as well as ?13C and ?15N stable isotopes for trophic level determination. In this study, the POP levels in the Antarctic biota samples were found to be ranked in the following order: OCPs > PAHs >> PBDEs. The POP levels in notothenioid fish and krill correlate to trophic levels; however, the POP concentrations in intertidal benthic invertebrates are higher than in notothenioid fish implying that specific biogeochemical factors may affect bioaccumulation in the Antarctica ecosystem. Biomagnification of POPs may have a smaller role than bioconcentration in Antarctica environment. In addition to the source, transport, exposure, and absorption for each group of POPs in the short food chain in Antarctica, the biological variation among species, interaction habitats, diet and metabolism are also factors for future studies on contaminant bioaccumulation.
Project description:Background:Surface waters receive a variety of organic pollutants via wastewater discharge, and sediment represents a sink for hydrophobic contaminants. In this study, we used in vitro yeast-based reporter gene assays and a Bacillus subtilis Rec-assay to examine the occurrence of endocrine disrupting activities and genotoxic potentials in samples collected from three Taiwanese rivers. Levels of 51 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in muscles of fish captured from same rivers were also analyzed to assess in vivo pollution of PAHs. Results:Antagonist activities for androgen receptor and retinoid X receptor (RXR) were detected in river water extracts at environmentally relevant concentrations., and sediment extracts exhibited RXR agonist, RXR antagonist, and genotoxic potentials concurrently. ?16 PAHs in fish muscles ranged from 44.9-242.4?ng?g-?1 dry weight, representing 38 to 59% of the total 51 PAHs concentrations, and methylated PAHs of low molecular weight PAHs were often detected as well. Conclusion:Taiwanese river sediment samples concomitantly exhibited RXR disrupting potentials and genotoxic activities, whereas RXR agonist and antagonist activities were simultaneously detected in several dry-season sediment extracts. PAH levels in fish muscles were categorized as minimally polluted by aromatic compounds, nonetheless, the presence of methylated PAHs in muscles samples may be of concern owing to the higher toxic potentials than their parent compounds.
Project description:Once chemical contaminants are released into the environment, there are a number of concerns that arise regarding the environmental persistence of the contaminants, their known and suspected toxicities, and their potential disruption to the ecosystem. One class of contaminants that is of continuing concern is polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), persistent organic pollutants that are significant components of oil spills. PAHs have been found in the breast milk of nursing mothers living in oil spill affected regions, and can harm the nursing children. We report herein the sensitive and selective detection of 10 PAHs and PAH metabolites in human breast milk using fluorescence energy transfer from the PAH to a high quantum yield fluorophore, and array-based statistical analyses of the resulting fluorescence responses. This detection system was able to separate and identify the PAHs with 100% success in human breast milk and at concentrations as low as 0.17 ?M. These results have significant implications in public health and in the monitoring and mitigation of environmental disasters.
Project description:Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are highly teratogenic, persistent carcinogens, and ubiquitous environmental pollutants. To determine the impact of rapid urbanization on sediment/soil PAHs, we collected 30 cm soil cores in ditch wetlands, riverine wetlands, and agricultural lands along the lower reaches of the Shiwuli River feeding Chaohu Lake, China. Ecological risk effects were evaluated by two models based upon Benzo[a]pyrene toxic equivalency (TEQ-BaP) and total toxic units (TUs). The presence of PAHs, such as BbF, BkF, InP, and BgP, that are known pollutants of concern, suggests certain ecological risks. The concentration of PAHs in the surface layer followed in the order of: ditch wetlands (617.2 ng/g average), riverine wetlands (282.1 ng/g average), agricultural lands (103.7 ng/g average). PAHs in ditch sediments were vertically distributed evenly, and PAHs in agricultural soils were concentrated in the surface soil. In riverine wetland sediments, the 2-, 3-, and 4-ring PAHs had a uniform distribution, whereas the 5- and 6-ring PAHs were concentrated in the surface soil. Redundancy analysis (RDA) explored the correlation between the environmental properties and the occurrence of PAHs. Total organic carbon (p = 0.010), percent clay (p = 0.020), and distance (p = 0.020) were the primary factors in ditch wetlands. Depth (p = 0.010) and distance (p = 0.006) were the main factors in agricultural lands. There were no significant correlations in riverine wetlands. The correlation between the distance from the built-up urban areas and pollutant concentration showed that the closer the distance, the greater the concentration of PAHs.