Evaluation of the osteogenic potential of rat adipose-derived stem cells with different polycaprolactone/alginate-based nanofibrous scaffolds: an in vitro study.
ABSTRACT: Background:Bone tissue engineering is a widely growing field that requires the combination of cells, scaffolds and signaling molecules. Adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) are an accessible and abundant source of mesenchymal stem cells with high plasticity. Polycaprolactone/alginate (PCL/Alg) composite scaffolds have been used in bone regeneration and nano-hydroxyapatite (n-HA) is used as a reinforcing, osteoconductive component in scaffold fabrication. This study was conducted to assess the ability of three different PCL/Alg based scaffolds to induce osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs and to compare between them. Methods:The study comprised 5 groups; negative control group with ADSCs cultured in complete culture media, positive control group with ADSCs cultured in osteogenic differentiation media, and 3 experimental groups with ADSCs seeded onto 3 scaffolds: S1 (PCL/Alg), S2 (PCL/Alg/Ca) and S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) respectively and cultured in osteogenic media. Mineralization and gene expression were assessed by Alizarin red S (ARS) staining and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Evaluation was done at 7, 14 and 21 days. Results:ARS staining reflected a time dependent increase through days 7, 14 and 21, with S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) group showing the highest mineralization levels. RT-qPCR detected upregulation of ALP gene expression at day 7 and decline thereafter. S2 (PCL/Alg/Ca) and S3 (PCL/Alg/Ca/n-HA) groups showed significantly higher gene expression levels than S1 (PCL/Alg). Conclusions:ADSCs and PCL/Alg-based scaffolds compose a good tissue engineering complex for bone regeneration. Addition of n-HA to PCL/Alg scaffolds and crosslinking with CaCl2 efficiently improve the osteogenic potential of ADSCs.
Project description:In this study, we developed poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) 3D scaffolds using a solid free form fabrication (SFF) technique. β-cyclodextrin (βCD) was grafted to hydroxyapatite (HAp) and this βCD grafted HAp was coated onto the PCL scaffold surface, followed by drug loading through an inclusion complex interaction between the βCD and adamantane (AD) or between βCD and simvastatin (SIM). The scaffold structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The release profile of simvastatin in the β-CD grafted HAp was also evaluated. Osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) was examined using an alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) assay. The results suggest that drug loaded PCL-HAp 3-D scaffolds enhances osteogenic differentiation of ADSCs.
Project description:Surface topography and chemical characteristics can regulate stem cell proliferation and differentiation, and decrease the bone-healing time. However, the synergetic function of the surface structure and chemical cues in bone-regeneration repair was rarely studied. Herein, a strontium ion (Sr2+)-substituted surface hydroxyapatite (HA) hexagon-like microarray was successfully constructed on 3D-plotted HA porous scaffold through hydrothermal reaction to generate topography and chemical dual cues. The crystal phase of the Sr2+-substituted surface microarray was HA, while the lattice constant of the Sr2+-substituted microarray increased with increasing Sr2+-substituted amount. Sr2+-substituted microarray could achieve the sustainable release of Sr2+, which could effectively promote osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) even without osteogenic-induced media. Osteogenic characteristics were optimally enhanced using the higher Sr2+-substituted surface microarray (8Sr-HA). Sr2+-substituted microarray on the scaffold surface could future improve the osteogenic performance of HA porous scaffold. These results indicated that the Sr2+-substituted HA surface hexagon-like microarray on 3D-plotted HA scaffolds had promising biological performance for bone-regeneration repair scaffold.
Project description:Tissue engineering, based on a combination of 3D printing, biomaterials blending and stem cell technology, offers the potential to establish customized, transplantable autologous implants using a patient's own cells. Graphene, as a two-dimensional (2D) version of carbon, has shown great potential for tissue engineering. Here, we describe a novel combination of graphene with 3D printed alginate (Alg)-based scaffolds for human adipose stem cell (ADSC) support and osteogenic induction. Alg printing was enabled through addition of gelatin (Gel) that was removed after printing, and the 3D structure was then coated with graphene oxide (GO). GO was chemically reduced with a biocompatible reductant (ascorbic acid) to provide electrical conductivity and cell affinity sites. The reduced 3D graphene oxide (RGO)/Alg scaffold has good cytocompatibility and can support human ADSC proliferation and osteogenic differentiation. Our finding supports the potential for the printed scaffold's use for in vitro engineering of bone and other tissues using ADSCs and potentially other human stem cells, as well as in vivo regenerative medicine.
Project description:In this study, we sought to assess the osteogenic potential of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) on three different polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. The backbone structure of the scaffolds was manufactured by fused deposition modeling (PCL scaffold). The composition and morphology was functionalized in two of the scaffolds. The first underwent thermal induced phase separation of PCL infused into the pores of the PCL scaffold. This procedure resulted in a highly variable micro- and nanostructured porous (NSP), interconnected, and isotropic tubular morphology (NSP-PCL scaffold). The second scaffold type was functionalized by dip-coating the PCL scaffold with a mixture of hyaluronic acid and ?-TCP (HT-PCL scaffold). The scaffolds were cylindrical and measured 5?mm in height and 10?mm in diameter. They were seeded with 1×10(6) human DPSCs, a cell type known to express bone-related markers, differentiate into osteoblasts-like cells, and to produce a mineralized bone-like extracellular matrix. DPSCs were phenotypically characterized by flow cytometry for CD90(+), CD73(+), CD105(+), and CD14(-). DNA, ALP, and Ca(2+) assays and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction for genes involved in osteogenic differentiation were analyzed on day 1, 7, 14, and 21. Cell viability and distribution were assessed on day 1, 7, 14, and 21 by fluorescent-, scanning electron-, and confocal microscopy. The results revealed that the DPSCs expressed relevant gene expression consistent with osteogenic differentiation. The NSP-PCL and HT-PCL scaffolds promoted osteogenic differentiation and Ca(2+) deposition after 21 days of cultivation. Different gene expressions associated with mature osteoblasts were upregulated in these two scaffold types, suggesting that the methods in which the scaffolds promote osteogenic differentiation, depends on functionalization approaches. However, only the HT-PCL scaffold was also able to support cell proliferation and cell migration resulting in even cell dispersion throughout the scaffold. In conclusion, DPSCs could be a possible alternate cell source for bone tissue engineering. The HT-PCL scaffold showed promising results in terms of promoting cell migration and osteogenic differentiation, which warrants future in vivo studies.
Project description:A thiol-acrylate-based copolymer synthesized via an amine-catalyzed Michael addition was studied in vitro and in vivo to assess its potential as an in situ polymerizing graft or augment in bone defect repair. The blends of hydroxyapatite (HA) with pentaerythritol triacrylate-co-trimethylolpropane (PETA), cast as solids or gas foamed as porous scaffolds, were evaluated in an effort to create a biodegradable osteogenic material for use as a bone-void-filling augment. Osteogenesis experiments were conducted with human adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (hASCs) to determine the ability of the material to serve as an osteoinductive substrate. Poly(?-caprolactone) (PCL) composites PCL:HA (80:20) (wt/wt%) served as the control scaffold, while the experimental scaffolds included PETA:HA (100:0), (85:15), (80:20), and (75:25) composites (wt/wt%). The results indicate that PETA:HA (80:20) foam composites had higher mechanical strength than the corresponding porous PCL:HA (80:20) scaffolds made by thermo-precipitation method, and in the case of foamed composites, increasing HA content directly correlated with increased yield strength. For cytotoxicity and osteogenesis experiments, hASCs cultured for 21 days on PETA:HA scaffolds in stromal medium displayed the greatest number of live cells compared with PCL:HA composites. Moreover, hASCs cultured on foamed PETA:HA (80:20) scaffolds resulted in the greatest mineralization, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) expression, and the highest osteocalcin (OCN) expression after 21 days. Overall, the PETA:HA (80:20) and PETA:HA (85:15) scaffolds, with 66.38% and 72.02% porosity, respectively, had higher mechanical strength and cytocompatibility compared with the PCL:HA control. The results of the 6-week in vivo biocompatibility study using a posterior lumbar spinal fusion model demonstrate that PETA:HA can be foamed in vivo without serious adverse effects at the surgical site. Additionally, it was demonstrated that cells migrate into the interconnected pore volume and are found within centers of ossification.
Project description:Although adipose-derived stromal cells (ADSCs) have been a major focus as an alternative to autologous bone graft in orthopedic surgery, bone formation potential of ADSCs is not well known and cytokines as osteogenic inducers on ADSCs are being investigated. This study aimed at isolating ADSCs from ovine adipose tissue (AT) and optimizing osteogenic differentiation of ovine ADSCs (oADSC) by culture medium and growth factors. Four AT samples were harvested from two female ovine (Texel/Gotland breed), and oADSCs were isolated and analyzed by flow cytometry for surface markers CD29, CD44, CD31, and CD45. Osteogenic differentiation was made in vitro by seeding oADSCs in osteogenic induction medium (OIM) containing fibroblast growth factor basic (FGFb), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), or NEL-like molecule 1 (NELL1) in 4 different dosages (1, 10, 50, and 100?ng/ml, respectively). Basic medium (DMEM) was used as control. Analysis was made after 14 days by Alizarin red staining (ARS) and quantification. This study successfully harvested AT from ovine and verified isolated cells for minimal criteria for adipose stromal cells which suggests a feasible method for isolation of oADSCs. OIM showed significantly higher ARS to basic medium, and FGFb 10?ng/ml revealed significantly higher ARS to OIM alone after 14 days.
Project description:The treatment of osteochondral defects remains a challenge. Four scaffolds were produced using Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved polymers to investigate their therapeutic potential for the regeneration of the osteochondral unit. Polycaprolactone (PCL) and poly(vinyl-pyrrolidone) (PVP) scaffolds were made by electrohydrodynamic techniques. Hydroxyapatite (HAp) and/or sodium hyaluronate (HA) can be then loaded to PCL nanofibers and/or PVP particles. The purpose of adding hydroxyapatite and sodium hyaluronate into PCL/PVP scaffolds is to increase the regenerative ability for subchondral bone and joint cartilage, respectively. Human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBM-MSCs) were seeded on these biomaterials. The biocompatibility of these biomaterials in vitro and in vivo, as well as their potential to support MSC differentiation under specific chondrogenic or osteogenic conditions, were evaluated. We show here that hBM-MSCs could proliferate and differentiate both in vitro and in vivo on these biomaterials. In addition, the PCL-HAp could effectively increase the mineralization and induce the differentiation of MSCs into osteoblasts in an osteogenic condition. These results indicate that PCL-HAp biomaterials combined with MSCs could be a beneficial candidate for subchondral bone regeneration.
Project description:The regeneration of functional tissue in osseous defects is a formidable challenge in orthopedic surgery. In the present study, a novel biomimetic composite scaffold, here called nano-hydroxyapatite (HA)/poly-?-caprolactone (PCL) was fabricated using a selective laser sintering technique. The macrostructure, morphology, and mechanical strength of the scaffolds were characterized. Scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) showed that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds exhibited predesigned, well-ordered macropores and interconnected micropores. The scaffolds have a range of porosity from 78.54% to 70.31%, and a corresponding compressive strength of 1.38 MPa to 3.17 MPa. Human bone marrow stromal cells were seeded onto the nano-HA/PCL or PCL scaffolds and cultured for 28 days in vitro. As indicated by the level of cell attachment and proliferation, the nano-HA/PCL showed excellent biocompatibility, comparable to that of PCL scaffolds. The hydrophilicity, mineralization, alkaline phosphatase activity, and Alizarin Red S staining indicated that the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds are more bioactive than the PCL scaffolds in vitro. Measurements of recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2 (rhBMP-2) release kinetics showed that after nano-HA was added, the material increased the rate of rhBMP-2 release. To investigate the in vivo biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the composite scaffolds, both nano-HA/PCL scaffolds and PCL scaffolds were implanted in rabbit femur defects for 3, 6, and 9 weeks. The wounds were studied radiographically and histologically. The in vivo results showed that both nano-HA/PCL composite scaffolds and PCL scaffolds exhibited good biocompatibility. However, the nano-HA/PCL scaffolds enhanced the efficiency of new bone formation more than PCL scaffolds and fulfilled all the basic requirements of bone tissue engineering scaffolds. Thus, they show large potential for use in orthopedic and reconstructive surgery.
Project description:Three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting technologies have shown great potential in the fabrication of 3D models for different human tissues. Stem cells are an attractive cell source in tissue engineering as they can be directed by material and environmental cues to differentiate into multiple cell types for tissue repair and regeneration. In this study, we investigate the viability of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) in alginate-gelatin (Alg-Gel) hydrogel bioprinted with or without bioactive glass. Highly angiogenic borate bioactive glass (13-93B3) in 50 wt% is added to polycaprolactone (PCL) to fabricate scaffolds using a solvent-based extrusion 3D bioprinting technique. The fabricated scaffolds with 12 × 12 × 1 mm3 in overall dimensions are physically characterized, and the glass dissolution from PCL/glass composite over a period of 28 days is studied. Alg-Gel composite hydrogel is used as a bioink to suspend ASCs, and scaffolds are then bioprinted in different configurations: Bioink only, PCL+bioink, and PCL/glass+bioink, to investigate ASC viability. The results indicate the feasibility of the solvent-based bioprinting process to fabricate 3D cellularized scaffolds with more than 80% viability on day 0. The decrease in viability after 7 days due to glass concentration and static culture conditions is discussed. The feasibility of modifying Alg-Gel with 13-93B3 glass for bioprinting is also investigated, and the results are discussed.
Project description:Tissue-engineered approaches to regenerate bone in the craniomaxillofacial region utilize biomaterial scaffolds to provide structural and biological cues to stem cells to stimulate osteogenic differentiation. Bioactive scaffolds are typically comprised of natural components but often lack the manufacturability of synthetic materials. To circumvent this trade-off, we 3D printed materials comprised of decellularized bone (DCB) matrix particles combined with polycaprolactone (PCL) to create novel hybrid DCB:PCL scaffolds for bone regeneration. Hybrid scaffolds were readily printable at compositions of up to 70% bone by mass and displayed robust mechanical properties. Assessments of surface features revealed both collagenous and mineral components of bone were present. Qualitative and quantitative assessments showed increased surface roughness relative to that of pure PCL scaffolds. These findings correlated with enhanced cell adhesion on hybrid surfaces relative to that on pure surfaces. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) cultured in DCB:PCL scaffolds without soluble osteogenic cues exhibited significant upregulation of osteogenic genes in hybrid scaffolds relative to pure PCL scaffolds. In the presence of soluble phosphate, hybrid scaffolds resulted in increased calcification. The hASC-seeded scaffolds were implanted into critical-sized murine calvarial defects and yielded greater bone regeneration in DCB:PCL scaffolds compared to that in PCL-only at 1 and 3 months post-transplantation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that 3D printed DCB:PCL scaffolds might be effective for stimulating bone regeneration.