Complex Mixtures of Chlorinated Paraffins Found in Hand Wipes of a Norwegian Cohort.
ABSTRACT: Up to 18000 ng of total chlorinated paraffins (CPs) was found in hand wipes of individual adult participants in a Norwegian cohort study (n = 60), with a geometric mean (SD) value of 870 (2700) ng. The CPs covered a wide range of alkane chain lengths from C7 to C48 with variable chlorine substitution. Complex mixtures of very-short-chain (vSCCPs, C<10), short-chain (SCCPs, C10-13), medium-chain (MCCPs, C14-17), and long-chain (LCCPs, C>17) CPs were found, contributing on average 0.3%, 20%, 58%, and 22%, respectively, of the total CPs. Significant positive correlations were found between CP levels and factors related to the indoor environment and product use, including living in a house/apartment built before the ban of SCCPs, having a sofa, the number of TVs in the home, and owning a car, which mirrors CP usage as flame retardants and/or plasticizers in consumer products. Compared to previous studies of other organic contaminants in hand wipe samples from the same cohort, CPs were the most abundant flame retardants. This is the first report of CPs in hand wipes, and dermal exposure based on these data suggested that hand contact could be an important human exposure pathway for LCCPs.
Project description:To simultaneously quantify and profile the complex mixture of short-, median-, and long-chain CPs (SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs) in Australian sewage sludge, we applied and further validated a recently developed novel instrumental technique, using quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry running in the negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode (APCI-qTOF-HRMS). Without using an analytical column the cleaned extracts were directly injected into the qTOF-HRMS followed by quantification of the CPs by a mathematical algorithm. The recoveries of the four SCCP, MCCP and LCCP-spiked sewage sludge samples ranged from 86 to 123%. This APCI-qTOF-HRMS method is a fast and promising technique for routinely measuring SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in sewage sludge. Australian sewage sludge was dominated by MCCPs with concentrations ranging from 542 to 3645 ng/g dry weight (dw). Lower SCCPs concentrations (<57-1421 ng/g dw) were detected in the Australian sewage sludge, which were comparable with the LCCPs concentrations (116-960 ng/g dw). This is the first time that CPs were reported in Australian sewage sludge. The results of this study gives a first impression on the distribution of the SCCPs, MCCPs, and LCCPs in Australia wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs).
Project description:Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are highly complex technical mixtures, and the short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are classed as persistent and have been included in the Stockholm Convention. However, there have been few studies of SCCPs and medium chain chlorinated paraffins (MCCPs) and their bioaccumulation and biomagnification in different species of fish. The present study investigated the levels, congener group profiles, bioaccumulation, and biomagnification of SCCPs and MCCPs in different species of fish from Liaodong Bay, North China. The ranges for the ?SCCP and ?MCCP concentrations were 376.3-8596?ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 22.37-5097?ng/g lw, respectively. The logarithms of bioaccumulation factors of ?SCCPs ranged from 4.69 to 6.05, implying that SCCPs bioaccumulated in the fish. The trophic magnification factor of ?SCCPs was 2.57, indicating that SCCPs could biomagnify in fish. Carbon chain length, the numbers of chlorine atoms, and octanol/water partition coefficients of the SCCPs and MCCPs might be important factors affecting the bioaccumulation of these chemicals in fish. The risk posed to human health by consumption of fish containing SCCPs was low. New SCCPs with nine carbons (C9) were detected in fish in this study.
Project description:The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of chlorinated paraffins in feed and food. The data for experimental animals were reviewed and the CONTAM Panel identified the liver, kidney and thyroid as the target organs for the SCCP and MCCP mixtures tested in repeated dose toxicity studies. Decreased pup survival and subcutaneous haematoma/haemorrhage were also identified as critical effects for an MCCP mixture. For the LCCP mixtures tested, the liver was identified as the target organ. The Panel selected as reference points a BMDL 10 of 2.3 mg/kg bw per day for increased incidence of nephritis in male rats, and of 36 mg/kg bw per day for increased relative kidney weights in male and female rats for SCCPs and MCCPs, respectively. For LCCPs, a reference point relevant for humans could not be identified. Due to the limitations in the toxicokinetic and toxicological database, the Panel concluded that derivation of a health-based guidance value was not appropriate. Only limited data on the occurrence of SCCPs and MCCPs in some fish species were submitted to EFSA. No data were submitted for LCCPs. Thus, a robust exposure assessment and consequently a complete risk characterisation could not be performed. A preliminary risk characterisation based only on the consumption of fish was performed, and the calculated margins of exposure suggested no health concern for this limited scenario. The Panel noted that dietary exposure will be higher due to the contribution of CPs from other foods. The Panel was not able to identify reference points for farm animals, horses and companion animals. No occurrence data for feed were submitted to EFSA. Therefore, no risk characterisation could be performed for any of these animal species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been largely replaced by organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) and alternative brominated flame retardants (Alt-BFRs) to meet flammability requirements. Humans are ubiquitously exposed to some variety of flame retardants through contact with consumer products directly or through household dust. OBJECTIVES:To evaluate the effectiveness of house cleaning and hand washing practices to reduce exposure to flame retardants, we measured concentrations in dermal hand wipes and urinary metabolites before and after assignment to two consecutive interventions. METHODS:We selected 32 mother and child dyads from an existing cohort. This analysis focuses on mothers. Participants provided baseline measurements (urine, hand wipes, and questionnaires) and were then assigned for 1 week to either a house cleaning (including instruction on proper technique and cleaning supplies) or hand washing (including instruction on proper technique and soaps) intervention arm. For the second week, participants were assigned to the second intervention in addition to their initial assignment, thus all subjects both washed their hands and cleaned according to the intervention guidelines during week 2. We collected measurements at the end of weeks 1 and 2. RESULTS:We found reductions in urinary analytes after week 1 of house cleaning (BCIPHIPP and ip-DPHP), week 1 of hand washing (BCIPP, BCIPHIPP, and tbutyl-DPHP), and week 2 of combined interventions (BCIPHIPP and tbutyl-DPHP), compare to baseline. We found no significant decline in hand wipes in the entire sample but did find reductions after week 1 of house cleaning (BDE 209), week 1 of hand washing (TCEP), and week 2 of combined interventions (TDCIPP and BDE 209) in women with exposure above the median at baseline (verified through simulations). CONCLUSIONS:Exposure to individual flame retardants was reduced by about half, in some cases, by 1 week of increased hand washing, house cleaning to reduce dust, or combined activities.
Project description:Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are used in various products to improve their physicochemical characteristics. Due to recycling, CPs may end up in "new" recycled products. In this study we investigated CPs present in end-of-life car tires that are recycled to rubber granulates used on artificial soccer fields, and playground tiles. The ?CP(C10-C30) concentrations ranged from 1.5 to 67 ?g/g in car tires, 13-67 ?g/g in rubber granulates, and 16-74 ?g/g in playground tiles. MCCPs were the dominant CP group with an average contribution of 72%. LCCPs up to C30, were detected for the first time in car tires, rubber granulates, and playground tiles. The CPs application in tires is unclear, the low CP concentrations found in this study (<0.007%) could possibly indicate contamination during the manufacturing process. The presence of CPs in the granulates and tiles, in addition to the multiple chemicals already detected, emphasizes the need to further investigate the migration and leaching behavior, in order to assess potential risks of CPs for humans and the environment. The presence of CPs in car tires may be another source of CPs for the environment. The CP volume brought into the environment by tire wear particles (TWP) from car tires in the European Union, is estimated at 2.0-89 tons annually.
Project description:Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are high-volume chemicals used worldwide in various industries as plasticizers, lubricants, and flame retardants. CPs are produced by chlorination of alkane mixtures which leads to complex products of thousands of homologs and congeners. Classic mass spectrometric analyses of CPs allow determining carbon chain lengths and degrees of chlorination while information on the substitution patterns cannot be derived. Therefore, we performed different one- and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) experiments, elemental analysis (EA), and gas chromatography coupled with electron capture negative ion mass spectrometry (GC/ECNI-MS) for the analysis of ten technical CP products with 42%, 52%, and 70% chlorine content from four producers. Slight differences in chlorine content but varying chain length compositions were observed for similarly labeled products from different manufacturers. Two-dimensional heteronuclear spectral quantum coherence (HSQC) measurements helped to evaluate ten structural elements in the products and confirmed the presence of geminal chlorine atoms in primary and secondary carbons in products with 70% chlorine. The variation of signal groups increased with increasing chlorine content of the products. Two-dimensional heteronuclear multiple bond coherence (HMBC) analysis of one sample and GC/ECNI-MS measurements indicated the presence of impurities (e.g., C9-CPs, iso-alkanes) in different technical CP products. These methods could in future allow for better distinction of CP mixtures, and an improved trace-back of environmental CPs to the source, based on specific structural features. Additionally, further structural characterization could help in the development of more accurate analysis processes. Graphical Abstract.
Project description:Short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are a group of complex emerging persistent organic pollutants. In this study, the uptake, translocation, and transformation of four constitutionally defined SCCP isomers were studied using whole pumpkin ( Cucurbita maxima × C. moschata) and soybean ( Glycine max L. Merrill) seedlings via hydroponic exposure. Results showed that the daughter SCCPs were C10Cl5-8 and C11-13Cl5-6. The metabolic transformation of all tested isomers included dechlorination and chlorine rearrangement. In addition, carbon chain decomposition products were found for isomers with trichlorinated carbon atoms (CCl3-groups) in both pumpkin and soybean seedlings. This study provides the first evidence of carbon chain decomposition of SCCPs in whole plants, and it suggests new metabolism pathways of SCCPs in the environment. The influence of carbon chain length and degree of chlorination of SCCPs on their fate and behavior within different plant species were also investigated. Bioaccumulation of SCCPs in pumpkin and soybean increased with increasing carbon chain length and degree of chlorination. In comparison, soybean translocated and degraded parent SCCPs faster and to a greater extent than pumpkin, but pumpkin accumulated parent SCCPs to a greater extent than soybean. After 10 days exposure, less than 4% of the initial mass of exposed chemicals remained in solution of exposure groups. The parent chemicals accumulated in roots ranging from 23.6% to 59.9% for pumpkin and 1.98% to 54.5% for soybean and in stems ranging from 0.7% to 3.81% for pumpkin and 0.50% to 2.54% for soybean. These results give new perspectives on the transport, transformation, and fate of SCCPs in the environment.
Project description:In this study, to develop an organic/inorganic synergistic flame retardant and to reduce the dosage and cost of flame retardants, organic/inorganic synergistic flame retardants, hexakis(4-boronic acid-phenoxy)-cyclophosphazene (CP-6B), and magnesium hydroxide (MH) were chosen. The flame retardant properties of CP-6B/MH in epoxy resin (EP) were discussed. EP/CP-6B/MH had better flame retardancy and heat resistance compared with EP/CP-6B and EP/MH. A limiting oxygen index of EP/3.0%CP-6B/0.5%MH of 31.9% was achieved, and vertical burning V-0 rating was achieved. Compared with EP, the cone calorimeter dates of EP/CP-6B/MH decreased. CP-6B/MH inhibited combustion and did little to damage mechanical properties. Besides, the flame retardant mechanism was studied by scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. CP-6B/MH exerted good synergistic effects.
Project description:Organophosphate flame retardants (PFRs) are becoming popular replacements for the phased-out polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) mixtures, and they are now commonly detected in indoor environments. However, little is known about human exposure to PFRs because they cannot be easily measured in blood or serum.To investigate relationships between the home environment and internal exposure, we assessed associations between two PFRs, tris(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), in paired hand wipe and dust samples and concentrations of their metabolites in urine samples (n = 53). We also assessed short-term variation in urinary metabolite concentrations (n = 11 participants; n = 49 samples).Adult volunteers in North Carolina, USA, completed questionnaires and provided urine, hand wipe, and household dust samples. PFRs and PBDEs were measured in hand wipes and dust, and bis(1,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate (BDCIPP) and diphenyl phosphate (DPHP), metabolites of TDCIPP and TPHP, were measured in urine.TDCIPP and TPHP were detected frequently in hand wipes and dust (> 86.8%), with geometric mean concentrations exceeding those of PBDEs. Unlike PBDEs, dust TDCIPP and TPHP levels were not associated with hand wipes. However, hand wipe levels were associated with urinary metabolites. Participants with the highest hand wipe TPHP mass, for instance, had DPHP levels 2.42 times those of participants with the lowest levels (95% CI: 1.23, 4.77). Women had higher levels of DPHP, but not BDCIPP. BDCIPP and DPHP concentrations were moderately to strongly reliable over 5 consecutive days (intraclass correlation coefficients of 0.81 and 0.51, respectively).PFR exposures are widespread, and hand-to-mouth contact or dermal absorption may be important pathways of exposure.
Project description:This study was conducted with the aim of achieving the simultaneous screening of various additives in polymer materials by utilizing a solvent-free pyrolyzer/thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry (Py/TD-GC-MS) method. As a first step to achieve this goal, simultaneous screening has been examined by selecting major substances representing plasticizers and flame retardants, such as short chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs), decabromodiphenyl ether (DecaBDE), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD), and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). A quantitative MS analysis was performed to check for the peak areas and sensitivities. Since Py/TD-GC-MS is fraught with the risk of thermal degradation of the sample, temperatures during the analytical process were finely tuned for securing reliable results. The instrumental sensitivity was confirmed by the S/N ratio on each component. The detection limits of all components were less than 50 mg/kg, which are sufficiently lower than the regulatory criteria. With regard to reproducibility, a relative standard deviation (RSD) of about 5% was confirmed by employing a spike recovery test on a polystyrene polymer solution containing mixed standard solution (ca. 1000 mg/kg). In conclusion, the results obtained in this study indicate that Py/TD-GC-MS is applicable for the screening of major flame retardants and plasticizers in real samples with sufficient reproducibility at regulatory levels.