HSPA12B Secreted by Tumor-Associated Endothelial Cells Might Induce M2 Polarization of Macrophages via Activating PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling.
ABSTRACT: Purpose:The intratumoral microenvironment of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSC) is highly immunosuppressive. In this study, we explored the potential functional role of HSPA12B secreted by tumor-associated endothelial cells (TECs) in M2 polarization of macrophages. Materials and Methods:Bulk-seq data from TCGA-HNSC and single-cell RNA-seq data from GSE103322 (with over 5000 cells from 18 primary HNSC cases) were used for bioinformatic analysis. RAW264.7 cell line was used for in vitro studies. Results:TECs in HNSC had significantly higher expression and secretion of HSPA12B, compared to normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exogenous HSPA12B treatment increased the expression of M2 macrophage marker CD163 and CD206 on RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner but had no significant influence on CD86, an M1 macrophage marker. OLR1, a known receptor of HSP70 proteins, was specifically expressed in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) in HNSC. OLR1 knockdown significantly impaired HSPA12B uptake by RAW264.7 cells and weakened HSPA12B-induced CD163 and CD206 upregulation. HSPA12B treatment increased the expression of p-PI3K, p-Akt and p-mTOR in a dose-dependent manner in RAW264.7 cells. OLR1 inhibition and LY294002 treatment significantly weakened the effects HSPA12B on activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling and M2 marker expression. Conclusion:Based on these findings, we speculated that aberrantly expressed and secreted HSPA12B by TECs could be taken by macrophages partly via OLR1, leading to subsequent activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and elevated expression of M2 markers. This mechanism shows a novel cross-talk between TECs and TAMs, which contributes to the intratumoral immunosuppressive microenvironment.
Project description:Malignant fibrous histiocytoma amplified sequence 1 (MFHAS1) is a predicted oncoprotein that demonstrates tumorigenic activity in vivo; however, the mechanisms involved are unknown. Macrophages are divided into the pro-inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory/protumoral M2 subtypes. Tumor cells can induce M2 polarization of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) to promote metastasis; but the underlying pathways require to be elucidated. In this study, we detected a positive association between MFHAS1 expression in TAMs and human colorectal cancer (CRC) TNM stage. Supernatant of CT26 murine CRC cells induced MFHAS1 expression in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Additionally, CT26 supernatant induced the M2 marker CD206 and activated the pro-M2 STAT6 and KLF4 signaling in control but not MFHAS1-silenced RAW264.7 macrophages. Moreover, supernatant of control, but not MFHAS1-silenced macrophages promoted CT26 cell proliferation, migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Compared with control macrophages, MFHAS1-silenced macrophages showed significantly reduced protumoral effects in vivo. Together, these results suggested that CRC cells induce M2 polarization of TAMs through MFHAS1 induction and subsequent STAT6 and KLF4 activation to promote CRC progress. Finally, similar to CT26 supernatant stimulation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) activation by rosiglitazone induced M2 polarization of RAW264.7 macrophages through MFHAS1-dependent pathway. Our results highlight the role of MFHAS1 as a regulator of macrophages polarization and CRC progress.
Project description:Endothelial damage is a critical mediator of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. HSPA12B is an endothelial-cell-specifically expressed heat shock protein. However, the roles of HSPA12B in acute myocardial I/R injury is unknown. Here we reported that myocardial I/R upregulated HSPA12B expression in ventricular tissues, and endothelial overexpression of HSPA12B in transgenic mice (Tg) limited infarct size, attenuated cardiac dysfunction and improved cardiomyocyte survival compared with their wild type littermates. These improvements were accompanied with the diminished myocardial no-reflow phenomenon, decreased microvascular leakage, and better maintained endothelial tight junctions. The I/R-evoked neutrophil infiltration was also suppressed in Tg hearts compared with its wild type (WT) littermates. Moreover, Tg hearts exhibited the enhanced activation of PI3K/Akt//mTOR signaling following I/R challenge. However, pharmacological inhibition of PI3K abolished the HSPA12B-induced cardioprotection against myocardial I/R injury. The data demonstrate for the first time that the endothelial HSPA12B protected hearts against myocardial I/R injury. This cardioprotective action of HSPA12B was mediated, at least in part, by improving endothelial integrity in a PI3K/Akt/mTOR-dependent mechanism. Our study suggests that targeting endothelial HSPA12B could be an alternative approach for the management of patients with myocardial I/R injury.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), the most abundant infiltrating immune cells in tumor microenvironment, have distinct functions in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) progression. CD68? TAMs represent multiple polarized immune cells mainly containing CD86? antitumoral M1 macrophages and CD206? protumoral M2 macrophages. TAMs expression and density were assessed by immunohistochemical staining of CD68, CD86, and CD206 in tissue microarrays from 253 HCC patients. Clinicopathologic features and prognostic value of these markers were evaluated. We found that CD68? TAMs were not associated with clinicopathologic characteristics and prognosis in HCC. Low presence of CD86? TAMs and high presence of CD206? TAMs were markedly correlated with aggressive tumor phenotypes, such as multiple tumor number and advanced tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage; and were associated with poor overall survival (OS) (p = 0.027 and p = 0.024, respectively) and increased time to recurrence (TTR) (p = 0.037 and p = 0.031, respectively). In addition, combined analysis of CD86 and CD206 provided a better indicator for OS (p = 0.011) and TTR (p = 0.024) in HCC than individual analysis of CD86 and CD206. Moreover, CD86?/CD206? TAMs predictive model also had significant prognosis value in ?-fetoprotein (AFP)-negative patients (OS: p = 0.002, TTR: p = 0.005). Thus, these results suggest that combined analysis of immune biomarkers CD86 and CD206 could be a promising HCC prognostic biomarker.
Project description:Solid tumors elicit a detectable immune response including the infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Unfortunately, this immune response is co-opted into contributing toward tumor growth instead of preventing its progression. We seek to reestablish an antitumor immune response by selectively targeting surface receptors and endogenous signaling processes of the macrophage subtypes driving cancer progression. RP-182 is a synthetic 10-mer amphipathic analog of host defense peptides that selectively induces a conformational switch of the mannose receptor CD206 expressed on TAMs displaying an M2-like phenotype. RP-182-mediated activation of this receptor in human and murine M2-like macrophages elicits a program of endocytosis, phagosome-lysosome formation, and autophagy and reprograms M2-like TAMs to an antitumor M1-like phenotype. In syngeneic and autochthonous murine cancer models, RP-182 suppressed tumor growth, extended survival, and was an effective combination partner with chemo- or immune checkpoint therapy. Antitumor activity of RP-182 was also observed in CD206<sup>high</sup> patient-derived xenotransplantation models. Mechanistically, via selective reduction of immunosuppressive M2-like TAMs, RP-182 improved adaptive and innate antitumor immune responses, including increased cancer cell phagocytosis by reprogrammed TAMs.
Project description:Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are M2-polarized macrophages that infiltrate the tumor microenvironment and promote tumorigenesis. However, the mechanisms by which TAMs modulate prostate cancer (PCa) growth are poorly understood. Here, we found that expression of Nephroblastoma Overexpressed (NOV/CCN3) is upregulated in PCa cells and correlated with M2 macrophage infiltration. RAW264.7 macrophage migration was induced by conditioned media (CM) from various PCa cells in proportion to the cellular level of CCN3 expression and was inhibited by an anti-CCN3 neutralizing antibody. CCN3 and PCaCM treatment skewed RAW264.7 cell differentiation from an M1 phenotype to an M2 phenotype. PCa-derived CCN3 induced focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Akt/NF-?B signaling in RAW264.7 cells, which resulted in VEGF expression and subsequently increased tube formation in endothelial progenitor cells. Finally, PCa-secreted CCN3 stimulated RAW264.7 cells and promoted angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay (CAM), and increased tumor growth and tumor-associated angiogenesis in a PCa xenograft mouse model. Our results indicate that PCa-secreted CCN3 can recruit macrophages and skew their differentiation to an M2 phenotype. In turn, CCN3-stimulated macrophages contribute to VEGF-dependent angiogenesis. This study reveals a novel mechanism by which TAMs enhance PCa angiogenesis and identifies a potential therapeutic target for PCa.
Project description:M2-type tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) infiltration contributes to cancer malignant progression. However, the mechanisms for controlling recruitment and M2 polarization of macrophages by cancer cells are largely unclear. NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) is abundantly expressed in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and mediates cancer progression. NOXs are in close relation with cancer-related inflammation, nevertheless, whether tumoral NOXs influence microenvironmental macrophages remains undentified. This study found that there was a close association between NOX4 expression and macrophage chemotaxis in patients with NSCLC analyzed using TCGA RNA-sequencing data. NOX4 in NSCLC cells (A549 and Calu-1 cell lines) efficiently enhanced murine peritoneal macrophage migration and induces M2 polarization. Immunohistochemical analysis of clinical specimens confirmed the positive correlation of NOX4 and CD68 or CD206. The mechanical study revealed that tumoral NOX4-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulated various cytokine production, including CCL7, IL8, CSF-1 and VEGF-C, via PI3K/Akt signaling-dependent manner. Blockade of the function of these cytokines reversed NOX4 effect on macrophages. Specifically, the results showed that tumoral NOX4-educated M2 macrophages exhibited elevated JNK activity, expressed and released HB-EGF, thus facilitating NSCLC proliferation in vitro. Pretreatment of macrophages with JNK inhibitor blocked tumoral NOX4-induced HB-EGF production in M2 macrophages. Finally, in a xenograft mouse model, overexpression of NOX4 in A549 cells enhanced the tumor growth. Elimination of ROS by NAC or inhibition of NOX4 activity by GKT137831 suppressed tumor growth accompanied by reduction in macrophage infiltration and the percentage of M2 macrophages. In conclusion, our study indicates that tumoral NOX4 recruits M2 TAMs via ROS/PI3K signaling-dependent various cytokine production, thus contributing NSCLC cell growth.
Project description:Alternatively activated macrophages in tumor microenvironment is defined as M2 tumor-associated macrophages (M2 TAMs) that promote cancer progression. However, communicative mechanisms between M2 TAMs and cancer cells in squamous cell carcinoma of head and neck (SCCHN) remain largely unknown.Quantitative real-time PCR, western blotting, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and flow cytometry were applied to quantify mRNA and protein expression of genes related to M2 TAMs, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and stemness. Wounding-healing and Transwell invasion assays were performed to detect the invasion and migration. Sphere formation assay was used to detect the stemness of SCCHN cells. RNA-sequencing and following bioinformatics analysis were used to determine the alterations of transcriptome.THP-1 monocytes were successfully polarized into M2-like TAMs, which was manifested by increased mRNA and protein expression of CCL18, IL-10 and CD206. Conditioned medium from M2-like TAMs promoted the migration and invasion of SCCHN cells, which was accompanied by the occurrence of EMT and enhanced stemness. Importantly, CCL18 neutralizing antibody partially abrogated these effects that caused by conditional medium from M2-like TAMs. In addition, recombinant human CCL18 (rhCCL18) correspondingly promoted the malignant biological behaviors of SCCHN in vitro. Finally, RNA-sequencing analysis identified 331 up-regulated and 363 down-regulated genes stimulated by rhCCL18, which were statistically enriched in 10 cancer associated signaling pathways.These findings indicate that CCL18 derived from M2-like TAMs promotes metastasis via inducing EMT and cancer stemness in SCCHN in vitro.
Project description:Macrophages in tumor microenvironment are mostly M2-polarized - and have been reported to promote tumorigenesis, which are also defined as tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs). Here, we examined the regulatory effects of Huaier extract on TAMs using RAW264.7 murine macrophage cell line. Our data demonstrated that Huaier extract could inhibit the infiltration of macrophages into tumor microenvironment in a dose-dependent manner. By performing RT-PCR, immunofluorescence and phagocytosis assay, we were able to find that Huaier extract could regulate the polarization of macrophages, with decreased M2-polarization and increased phagocytosis of RAW264.7 cells. Moreover, we identified that Huaier extract could suppress macrophages-induced angiogenesis by using HUVEC migration assay, tube formation and chorioallantoic membrane assay. Additionally, western blotting showed decreased expression of MMP2, MMP9 and VEGF with the use of Huaier extract. Finally, we found that Huaier extract could inhibit M2-macrophages infiltration and angiogenesis through treating 4T1 tumor bearing mice with Huaier extract. Our study revealed a novel mechanism of the anti-tumor effect of Huaier extract which inhibited angiogenesis by targeting TAMs. These findings provided that Huaier was a promising drug for clinical treatment of breast cancer.
Project description:Background:As the main cellular ingredients of tumor microenvironment, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a vital role in tumor development and progression. Recent studies have suggested that TAMs are sensitive and specific prognostic factors in numerous cancers. The primary purpose of this study is to determine the prognostic significance of TAMs in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC). Methods:Immunohistochemical staining of CD68, CD86 and CD206 were performed in tissue microarrays containing 322 patients, who underwent surgical resection and were pathologically diagnosed with ICC. The prognostic value of CD68, CD86 and CD206 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis (log-rank test) and nomogram models. Results:We demonstrated that the CD86+/CD206+ TAMs model was an independent prognostic index for ICC patients. Patients with low CD86+ TAMs and high CD206+ TAMs infiltration had a markedly worse prognosis and increased risk of post-operative recurrence when compared to high CD86+ TAMs and low CD206+ TAMs intratumoral infiltration. Furthermore, subgroup analysis indicated that the CD86+/CD206+ TAMs model predicted prognosis of ICC patients more powerfully than single macrophage immunomarker. Interestingly, the CD86+/CD206+ TAMs model could further distinguish prognosis of CA-199 negative ICC patients, who were generally presumed to have a more favorable outcome. In order to further perfect the prognostic value of the CD86+/CD206+ TAMs model, we constructed and validated a postoperative nomogram to predict overall survival and recurrence-free survival time in ICC patients. Conclusions:These findings indicate that the CD86+/CD206+ TAMs model possess potential value as a novel prognostic indicator for ICC patients.
Project description:Beneficial effects of metformin on cancer risk and mortality have been proved by epidemiological and clinical studies, thus attracting research interest in elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Recently, tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs) appeared to be implicated in metformin-induced antitumour activities. However, how metformin inhibits TAMs-induced tumour progression remains ill-defined. Here, we report that metformin-induced antitumour and anti-angiogenic activities were not or only partially contributed by its direct inhibition of functions of tumour and endothelial cells. By skewing TAM polarization from M2- to M1-like phenotype, metformin inhibited both tumour growth and angiogenesis. Depletion of TAMs by clodronate liposomes eliminated M2-TAMs-induced angiogenic promotion, while also abrogating M1-TAMs-mediated anti-angiogenesis, thus promoting angiogenesis in tumours from metformin treatment mice. Further in vitro experiments using TAMs-conditioned medium and a coculture system were performed, which demonstrated an inhibitory effect of metformin on endothelial sprouting and tumour cell proliferation promoted by M2-polarized RAW264.7 macrophages. Based on these results, metformin-induced inhibition of tumour growth and angiogenesis is greatly contributed by skewing of TAMs polarization in microenvironment, thus offering therapeutic opportunities for metformin in cancer treatment.