Seasonal Ely Copper Mine Superfund site shotgun metagenomic and metatranscriptomic data analysis.
ABSTRACT: High throughput sequencing data collected from acid rock drainage (ARD) communities can reveal the active taxonomic and functional diversity of these extreme environments, which can be exploited for bioremediation, pharmaceutical, and industrial applications. Here, we report a seasonal comparison of a microbiome and transcriptome in Ely Brook (EB-90M), a confluence of clean water and upstream tributaries that drains the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site in Vershire, VT, USA. Nucleic acids were extracted from EB-90M water and sediment followed by shotgun sequencing using the Illumina NextSeq platform. Approximately 575,933 contigs with a total length of 1.54 Gbp were generated. Contigs of at least a size of 3264 (N50) or greater represented 50% of the sequences and the longest contig was 488,568?bp in length. Using Centrifuge against the NCBI "nt" database 141 phyla, including candidate phyla, were detected. Roughly 380,000 contigs were assembled and ?1,000,000 DNA and ?550,000 cDNA sequences were identified and functionally annotated using the Prokka pipeline. Most expressed KEGG-annotated microbial genes were involved in amino acid metabolism and several KEGG pathways were differentially expressed between seasons. Biosynthetic gene clusters involved in secondary metabolism as well as metal- and antibiotic-resistance genes were annotated, some of which were differentially expressed, colocalized, and coexpressed. These data can be used to show how ecological stimuli, such as seasonal variations and metal concentrations, affect the ARD microbiome and select taxa to produce novel natural products. The data reported herein is supporting information for the research article "Characterization of an acid rock drainage microbiome and transcriptome at the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site" by Giddings et al. .
Project description:The microbial oxidation of metal sulfides plays a major role in the formation of acid rock drainage (ARD). We aimed to broadly characterize the ARD at Ely Brook, which drains the Ely Copper Mine Superfund site in Vermont, USA, using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to assess the metabolic potential and seasonal ecological roles of microorganisms in water and sediment. Using Centrifuge against the NCBI "nt" database, ~25% of reads in sediment and water samples were classified as acid-tolerant Proteobacteria (61 ± 4%) belonging to the genera Pseudomonas (2.6-3.3%), Bradyrhizobium (1.7-4.1%), and Streptomyces (2.9-5.0%). Numerous genes (12%) were differentially expressed between seasons and played significant roles in iron, sulfur, carbon, and nitrogen cycling. The most abundant RNA transcript encoded the multidrug resistance protein Stp, and most expressed KEGG-annotated transcripts were involved in amino acid metabolism. Biosynthetic gene clusters involved in secondary metabolism (BGCs, 449) as well as metal- (133) and antibiotic-resistance (8501) genes were identified across the entire dataset. Several antibiotic and metal resistance genes were colocalized and coexpressed with putative BGCs, providing insight into the protective roles of the molecules BGCs produce. Our study shows that ecological stimuli, such as metal concentrations and seasonal variations, can drive ARD taxa to produce novel bioactive metabolites.
Project description:Nucleo-cytoplasmic large DNA viruses are doubled stranded DNA viruses capable of infecting eukaryotic cells. Since the discovery of Mimivirus and Pandoravirus, there has been no doubt about their extraordinary features compared to "classic" viruses. Recently, we reported the expansion of the proposed family Pithoviridae, with the description of Cedratvirus and Orpheovirus, two new viruses related to Pithoviruses. Studying the major capsid protein of Orpheovirus, we detected a homologous sequence in a mine drainage metagenome. The in-depth exploration of this metagenome, using the MG-Digger program, enabled us to retrieve up to 10 contigs with clear evidence of viral sequences. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses further extended our screening with the discovery in another marine metagenome of a second virus closely related to Orpheovirus IHUMI-LCC2. This virus is a misidentified virus confused with and annotated as a Rickettsiales bacterium. It presents a partial genome size of about 170 kbp.
Project description:Computational analysis of metagenomes requires the taxonomical assignment of the genome contigs assembled from DNA reads of environmental samples. Because of the diverse nature of microbiomes, the length of the assemblies obtained can vary between a few hundred bp to a few hundred Kbp. Current taxonomic classification algorithms provide accurate classification for long contigs or for short fragments from organisms that have close relatives with annotated genomes. These are significant limitations for metagenome analysis because of the complexity of microbiomes and the paucity of existing annotated genomes.We propose a robust taxonomic classification method, RAIphy, that uses a novel sequence similarity metric with iterative refinement of taxonomic models and functions effectively without these limitations. We have tested RAIphy with synthetic metagenomics data ranging between 100 bp to 50 Kbp. Within a sequence read range of 100 bp-1000 bp, the sensitivity of RAIphy ranges between 38%-81% outperforming the currently popular composition-based methods for reads in this range. Comparison with computationally more intensive sequence similarity methods shows that RAIphy performs competitively while being significantly faster. The sensitivity-specificity characteristics for relatively longer contigs were compared with the PhyloPythia and TACOA algorithms. RAIphy performs better than these algorithms at varying clade-levels. For an acid mine drainage (AMD) metagenome, RAIphy was able to taxonomically bin the sequence read set more accurately than the currently available methods, Phymm and MEGAN, and more accurately in two out of three tests than the much more computationally intensive method, PhymmBL.With the introduction of the relative abundance index metric and an iterative classification method, we propose a taxonomic classification algorithm that performs competitively for a large range of DNA contig lengths assembled from metagenome data. Because of its speed, simplicity, and accuracy RAIphy can be successfully used in the binning process for a broad range of metagenomic data obtained from environmental samples.
Project description:Bacteria of the genus Sulfobacillus are found worldwide as members of microbial communities that accelerate sulfide mineral dissolution in acid mine drainage environments (AMD), acid-rock drainage environments (ARD), as well as in industrial bioleaching operations. Despite their frequent identification in these environments, their role in biogeochemical cycling is poorly understood.Here we report draft genomes of five species of the Sulfobacillus genus (AMDSBA1-5) reconstructed by cultivation-independent sequencing of biofilms sampled from the Richmond Mine (Iron Mountain, CA). Three of these species (AMDSBA2, AMDSBA3, and AMDSBA4) have no cultured representatives while AMDSBA1 is a strain of S. benefaciens, and AMDSBA5 a strain of S. thermosulfidooxidans. We analyzed the diversity of energy conservation and central carbon metabolisms for these genomes and previously published Sulfobacillus genomes. Pathways of sulfur oxidation vary considerably across the genus, including the number and type of subunits of putative heterodisulfide reductase complexes likely involved in sulfur oxidation. The number and type of nickel-iron hydrogenase proteins varied across the genus, as does the presence of different central carbon pathways. Only the AMDSBA3 genome encodes a dissimilatory nitrate reducatase and only the AMDSBA5 and S. thermosulfidooxidans genomes encode assimilatory nitrate reductases. Within the genus, AMDSBA4 is unusual in that its electron transport chain includes a cytochrome bc type complex, a unique cytochrome c oxidase, and two distinct succinate dehydrogenase complexes.Overall, the results significantly expand our understanding of carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and hydrogen metabolism within the Sulfobacillus genus.
Project description:The tenacious association between strains of the heterotrophic alphaproteobacterial genus Acidiphilium and chemolithotrophic iron oxidizing bacteria has long been known. In this context the genome of the heterotroph Acidiphilium sp. JA12-A1, an isolate from an iron oxidizing mixed culture derived from a pilot plant for bioremediation of acid mine drainage, was determined with the aim to reveal metabolic properties that are fundamental for the syntrophic interaction between Acidiphilium sp. JA12-A1 and the co-occurring chemolithoautotrophic iron oxidizer. The genome sequence consists of 4.18 Mbp on 297 contigs and harbors 4015 protein-coding genes and 50 RNA genes. Additionally, the molecular and functional organization of the Acidiphilium sp. JA12-A1 draft genome was compared to those of the close relatives Acidiphilium cryptum JF-5, Acidiphilium multivorum AIU301 and Acidiphilium sp. PM DSM 24941. The comparative genome analysis underlines the close relationship between these strains and the highly similar metabolic potential supports the idea that other Acidiphilium strains play a similar role in various acid mine drainage communities. Nevertheless, in contrast to other closely related strains Acidiphilium sp. JA12-A1 may be able to take up phosphonates as an additional source of phosphor.
Project description:During microbial evolution, genome rearrangement increases with increasing sequence divergence. If the relationship between synteny and sequence divergence can be modeled, gene clusters in genomes of distantly related organisms exhibiting anomalous synteny can be identified and used to infer functional conservation. We applied the phylogenetic pairwise comparison method to establish and model a strong correlation between synteny and sequence divergence in all 634 available Archaeal and Bacterial genomes from the NCBI database and four newly assembled genomes of uncultivated Archaea from an acid mine drainage (AMD) community. In parallel, we established and modeled the trend between synteny and functional relatedness in the 118 genomes available in the STRING database. By combining these models, we developed a gene functional annotation method that weights evolutionary distance to estimate the probability of functional associations of syntenous proteins between genome pairs. The method was applied to the hypothetical proteins and poorly annotated genes in newly assembled acid mine drainage Archaeal genomes to add or improve gene annotations. This is the first method to assign possible functions to poorly annotated genes through quantification of the probability of gene functional relationships based on synteny at a significant evolutionary distance, and has the potential for broad application.
Project description:Mine drainage is an important environmental disturbance that affects the chemical and biological components in natural resources. However, little is known about the effects of neutral mine drainage on the soil bacteria community. Here, a high-throughput 16S rDNA pyrosequencing approach was used to evaluate differences in composition, structure, and diversity of bacteria communities in samples from a neutral drainage channel, and soil next to the channel, at the Sossego copper mine in Brazil. Advanced statistical analyses were used to explore the relationships between the biological and chemical data. The results showed that the neutral mine drainage caused changes in the composition and structure of the microbial community, but not in its diversity. The Deinococcus/Thermus phylum, especially the Meiothermus genus, was in large part responsible for the differences between the communities, and was positively associated with the presence of copper and other heavy metals in the environmental samples. Other important parameters that influenced the bacterial diversity and composition were the elements potassium, sodium, nickel, and zinc, as well as pH. The findings contribute to the understanding of bacterial diversity in soils impacted by neutral mine drainage, and demonstrate that heavy metals play an important role in shaping the microbial population in mine environments.
Project description:The core microbiota of a neutral mine drainage and the surrounding high heavy metal content soil at a Brazilian copper mine were characterized by 16S rDNA pyrosequencing. The core microbiota of the drainage was dominated by the generalist genus Meiothermus. The soil samples contained a more heterogeneous bacterial community, with the presence of both generalist and specialist bacteria. Both environments supported mainly heterotrophic bacteria, including organisms resistant to heavy metals, although many of the bacterial groups identified remain poorly characterized. The results contribute to the understanding of bacterial communities in soils impacted by neutral mine drainage, for which information is scarce, and demonstrate that heavy metals can play an important role in shaping the microbial communities in mine environments.
2015-01-01 | S-EPMC4763313 | BioStudies
Project description:Microbiome of acid mine drainage
Project description:Heavy metal contamination of surface waters at mining sites often involves complex interactions of multiple sources and varying biogeochemical conditions. We compared surface and subsurface metal loading from mine waste pile runoff and mine drainage discharge and characterized the influence of iron oxides on metal fate along a 0.9-km stretch of Tar Creek (Oklahoma, USA), which drains an abandoned Zn/Pb mining area. The importance of each source varied by metal; mine waste pile runoff contributed 70% of Cd, while mine drainage contributed 90% of Pb, and both sources contributed similarly to Zn loading. Subsurface inputs accounted for 40% of flow and 40-70% of metal loading along this stretch. Streambed iron oxide aggregate material contained highly elevated Zn (up to 27,000 ?g g(-1)), Pb (up to 550 ?g g(-1)) and Cd (up to 200 ?g g(-1)) and was characterized as a heterogeneous mixture of iron oxides, fine-grain mine waste, and organic material. Sequential extractions confirmed preferential sequestration of Pb by iron oxides, as well as substantial concentrations of Zn and Cd in iron oxide fractions, with additional accumulation of Zn, Pb, and Cd during downstream transport. Comparisons with historical data show that while metal concentrations in mine drainage have decreased by more than an order of magnitude in recent decades, the chemical composition of mine waste pile runoff has remained relatively constant, indicating less attenuation and increased relative importance of pile runoff. These results highlight the importance of monitoring temporal changes at contaminated sites associated with evolving speciation and simultaneously addressing surface and subsurface contamination from both mine waste piles and mine drainage.