Characterisation of the novel spontaneously immortalized and invasively growing human skin keratinocyte line HaSKpw.
ABSTRACT: We here present the spontaneously immortalised cell line, HaSKpw, as a novel model for the multistep process of skin carcinogenesis. HaSKpw cells were established from the epidermis of normal human adult skin that, without crisis, are now growing unrestricted and feeder-independent. At passage 22, clonal populations were established and clone7 (HaSKpwC7) was further compared to the also spontaneously immortalized HaCaT cells. As important differences, the HaSKpw cells express wild-type p53, remain pseudodiploid, and show a unique chromosomal profile with numerous complex aberrations involving chromosome 20. In addition, HaSKpw cells overexpress a pattern of genes and miRNAs such as KRT34, LOX, S100A9, miR21, and miR155; all pointing to a tumorigenic status. In concordance, HaSKpw cells exhibit reduced desmosomal contacts that provide them with increased motility and a highly migratory/invasive phenotype as demonstrated in scratch- and Boyden chamber assays. In 3D organotypic cultures, both HaCaT and HaSKpw cells form disorganized epithelia but only the HaSKpw cells show tumorcell-like invasive growth. Together, HaSKpwC7 and HaCaT cells represent two spontaneous (non-genetically engineered) "premalignant" keratinocyte lines from adult human skin that display different stages of the multistep process of skin carcinogenesis and thus represent unique models for analysing skin cancer development and progression.
Project description:Epidemiological studies suggest ultraviolet B (UVB) component (290-320 nm) of sun light is the most prevalent etiologic factor for skin carcinogenesis--a disease accounting for more than two million new cases each year in the USA alone. Development of UVB-induced skin carcinoma is a multistep and complex process. The molecular events that occur during UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis are poorly understood largely due to the lack of an appropriate cellular model system. Therefore, to make a progress in this area, we have developed an in vitro model for UVB-induced skin cancer using immortalized human epidermal keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells through repetitive exposure to UVB radiation. We demonstrate that UVB-transformed HaCaT cells gain enhanced proliferation rate, apoptosis-resistance, and colony- and sphere-forming abilities in a progressive manner. Moreover, these cells exhibit increased aggressiveness with enhanced migration and invasive potential and mesenchymal phenotypes. Furthermore, these derived cells are able to form aggressive squamous cell carcinoma upon inoculation into the nude mice, while parental HaCaT cells remain non-tumorigenic. Together, these novel, UVB-transformed progression model cell lines can be very helpful in gaining valuable mechanistic insight into UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis, identification of novel molecular targets of diagnostic and therapeutic significance, and in vitro screening for novel preventive and therapeutic agents.
Project description:1,8-cineole is a natural monoterpene cyclic ether present in Eucalyptus, and has been reported to exhibit anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, the preventive effect of 1,8-cineole on skin carcinogenesis and the molecular mechanism of action responsible remains unknown. In the present study, we investigated the effect of 1,8-cineole on UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis. 1,8-cineole inhibited UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein and mRNA expression and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation in HaCaT cells. 1,8-cineole also inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, and phosphorylation of its upstream kinases, c-Src and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) and drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) assay results showed that 1,8-cineole suppressed UVB-induced expression of a target gene of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), cyp1a1, and directly binds to AhR. Knockdown of AhR suppressed COX-2 expression as well as phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, topical treatment of 1,8-cineole on mouse skin delayed tumor incidence and reduced tumor numbers, while inhibiting COX-2 expression in vivo. Taken together, these results suggest that 1,8-cineole is a potent chemopreventive agent that inhibits UVB-induced COX-2 expression by targeting AhR to suppress UVB-induced skin carcinogenesis.
Project description:Arsenic is a widely distributed toxic natural element. Chronic arsenic ingestion causes several cancers, especially skin cancer. Arsenic-induced cancer mechanisms are not well defined, but several studies indicate that mutation is not the driving force and that microRNA expression changes play a role. Chronic low arsenite exposure malignantly transforms immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT), serving as a model for arsenic-induced skin carcinogenesis. Early changes in miRNA expression in HaCaT cells chronically exposed to arsenite will reveal early steps in transformation. HaCaT cells were maintained with 0/100?nM NaAsO2 for 3 and 7?weeks. Total RNA was purified. miRNA and mRNA expression was assayed using Affymetrix microarrays. Targets of differentially expressed miRNAs were collected from TargetScan 6.2, intersected with differentially expressed mRNAs using Partek Genomic Suite software, and mapped to their pathways using MetaCore software. MDM2, HMGB1 and TP53 mRNA, and protein levels were assayed by RT-qPCR and Western blot. Numerous miRNAs and mRNAs involved in carcinogenesis pathways in other systems were differentially expressed at 3 and 7?weeks. A TP53 regulatory network including MDM2 and HMGB1 was predicted by the miRNA and mRNA networks. Total TP53 and TP53-S15-phosphorylation were induced. However, TP53-K382-hypoacetylation suggested that the induced TP53 is inactive in arsenic exposed cells. Our data provide strong evidence that early changes in miRNAs and target mRNAs may contribute to arsenic-induced carcinogenesis.
Project description:miR155 is a regulator of immune cell development and function that is generally thought to be immunostimulatory. However, we report here that genetic ablation of miR155 renders mice resistant to chemical carcinogenesis and the growth of several transplanted tumors, suggesting that miR155 functions in immunosuppression and tumor promotion. Host miR155 deficiency promoted overall antitumor immunity despite the finding of defective responses of miR155-deficient dendritic cells and antitumor T cells. Further analysis of immune cell compartments revealed that miR155 regulated the accumulation of functional myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSC) in the tumor microenvironment. Specifically, miR155 mediated MDSC suppressor activity through at least two mechanisms, including SOCS1 repression and a reduced ability to license the generation of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) regulatory T cells. Importantly, we demonstrated that miR155 expression was required for MDSC to facilitate tumor growth. Thus, our results revealed a contextual function for miR155 in antitumor immunity, with a role in MDSC support that appears to dominate in tumor-bearing hosts. Overall, the balance of these cellular effects appears to be a root determinant of whether miR155 promotes or inhibits tumor growth.
Project description:In vitro models to study the process of keratinocyte differentiation have been hindered by the stringent culture requirements and limitations imposed by the inherent properties of the cells. Primary keratinocytes only have a finite life span, while transformed cell lines exhibit many phenotypic features not found in normal cells. The spontaneously immortalized HaCaT cell line has been a widely employed keratinocyte model due to its ease of propagation and near normal phenotype, but protocols for differentiation and gene delivery into HaCaT cells vary widely in the literature. Here we report culture conditions for maintaining HaCaT cells in a basal-like state, for efficient differentiation of these cells, and for delivery of transgenes by transfection or adenoviral infection. This technological report will provide guidance to a large audience of scientists interested in investigating mechanisms of differentiation and skin morphogenesis.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Ultraviolet (UV)-B radiation from the sun is an established etiological cause of skin cancer, which afflicts more than a million lives each year in the United States alone. Here, we tested the chemopreventive efficacy of silver-nanoparticles (AgNPs) against UVB-irradiation-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human immortalized keratinocytes (HaCaT). AgNPs were synthesized by reduction-chemistry and characterized for their physicochemical properties. AgNPs were well tolerated by HaCaT cells and their pretreatment protected them from UVB-irradiation-induced apoptosis along with significant reduction in cyclobutane-pyrimidine-dimer formation. Moreover, AgNPs pre-treatment led to G1-phase cell-cycle arrest in UVB-irradiated HaCaT cells. AgNPs were efficiently internalized in UVB-irradiated cells and localized into cytoplasmic and nuclear compartments. Furthermore, we observed an altered expression of various genes involved in cell-cycle, apoptosis and nucleotide-excision repair in HaCaT cells treated with AgNPs prior to UVB-irradiation. Together, these findings provide support for potential utility of AgNPs as novel chemopreventive agents against UVB-irradiation-induced skin carcinogenesis. FROM THE CLINICAL EDITOR:Excessive exposure to the sun is known to increase the risk of skin cancer due to DNA damage. In this work, the authors tested the use of silver nanoparticles as protective agents against ultraviolet radiation. The positive results may open a door for the use of silver nanoparticle as novel agents in the future.
Project description:Human Papillomavirus cause a number of diseases most notably cervical cancer. K14-HPV16 transgenic mice expressing the HPV16 early genes in squamous epithelial cells provide a suitable experimental model for studying these diseases. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs that play an important role in regulating gene expression and have been suggested to play an important role in cancer development. The role of miR-155 in cancer remains controversial and there is limited evidence linking this miRNA to HPV- associated diseases. We hypothesized that miR-155 expression modulates each tissue's susceptibility to develop HPV-associated carcinogenesis. In this study, we analyzed miR-155 expression in ear and chest skin samples from 22-26 weeks old, female K14-HPV16 transgenic (HPV16+/-) and wild-type (HPV-/-) mice. Among wild-type mice the expression of miR-155 was lower in ear skin compared with chest skin (p = 0.028). In transgenic animals, in situ carcinoma was present in all ear samples whereas chest tissues only showed epidermal hyperplasia. Furthermore, in hyperplastic chest skin samples, miR-155 expression was lower than in normal chest skin (p = 0,026). These results suggest that miR-155 expression may modulate the microenvironmental susceptibility to cancer development and that high miR155 levels may be protective against the carcinogenesis induced by HPV16.
Project description:Caffeic acid (3,4-dihydroxycinnamic acid) is a well-known phenolic phytochemical present in coffee and reportedly has anticancer activities. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms and targeted proteins involved in the suppression of carcinogenesis by caffeic acid are not fully understood. In this study, we report that caffeic acid significantly inhibits colony formation of human skin cancer cells and EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of HaCaT cells dose-dependently. Caffeic acid topically applied to dorsal mouse skin significantly suppressed tumor incidence and volume in a solar UV (SUV)-induced skin carcinogenesis mouse model. A substantial reduction of phosphorylation in mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling was observed in mice treated with caffeic acid either before or after SUV exposure. Caffeic acid directly interacted with ERK1/2 and inhibited ERK1/2 activities in vitro. Importantly, we resolved the cocrystal structure of ERK2 complexed with caffeic acid. Caffeic acid interacted directly with ERK2 at amino acid residues Q105, D106, and M108. Moreover, A431 cells expressing knockdown of ERK2 lost sensitivity to caffeic acid in a skin cancer xenograft mouse model. Taken together, our results suggest that caffeic acid exerts chemopreventive activity against SUV-induced skin carcinogenesis by targeting ERK1 and 2.
Project description:Cultured primary human keratinocytes are frequently employed for studies of immunological and inflammatory responses; however, interpretation of experimental data may be complicated by donor to donor variability, the relatively short culture lifetime, and variations between passages. To standardize the in vitro studies on keratinocytes, we investigated the use of HaCaT cells, a long-lived, spontaneously immortalized human keratinocyte line which is able to differentiate in vitro, as a suitable model to follow the release of inflammatory and repair mediators in response to TNF? or IL-1?. Different treatment conditions (presence or absence of serum) and differentiation stimuli (increase in cell density as a function of time in culture and elevation of extracellular calcium) were considered. ELISA and Multiplex measurement technologies were used to monitor the production of cytokines and chemokines. Taken together, the results highlight that Ca2+ concentration in the medium, cell density, and presence of serum influences at different levels the release of proinflammatory mediators by HaCaT cells. Moreover, HaCaT cells maintained in low Ca2+ medium and 80% confluent are similar to normal keratinocytes in terms of cytokine production suggesting that HaCaT cells may be a useful model to investigate anti-inflammatory interventions/therapies on skin diseases.
Project description:Migration of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) is essential for vascular reconstruction in hypertension and several vascular diseases. Our recent study showed that extracellular vesicles derived from vascular adventitial fibroblasts of normal rats inhibited VSMC proliferation by delivering miR155-5p to VSMCs. It is unknown whether miR155-5p inhibits cell migration and oxidative stress in VSMCs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and in angiotensin II (Ang II)-treated VSMCs. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of miR155-5p in VSMC migration and its underlying mechanisms. Primary VSMCs were isolated from the aortic media of Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) and SHR. Wound healing assay and Boyden chamber assay were used to evaluate VSMC migration. A miR155-5p mimic inhibited, and a miR155-5p inhibitor promoted the migration of VSMC of SHR but had no significant effect on the migration of VSMC of WKY. The miR155-5p mimic inhibited angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mRNA and protein expression in VSMCs. It also reduced superoxide anion production, NAD(P)H oxidase (NOX) activity, as well as NOX2, interleukin-1? (IL-1?), and tumor necrosis factor ? (TNF-?) expression levels in VSMCs of SHR but not in VSMCs of WKY rats. Overexpression of miR155-5p inhibited VSMC migration and superoxide anion and IL-1? production in VSMCs of SHR but had no impact on exogenous Ang II-induced VSMC migration and on superoxide anion and IL-1? production in WKY rats and SHR. These results indicate that miR155-5p inhibits VSMC migration in SHR by suppressing ACE expression and its downstream production of Ang II, superoxide anion, and inflammatory factors. However, miR155-5p had no effects on exogenous Ang II-induced VSMC migration.