An internally eGFP-tagged ?-adaptin is a fully functional and improved fiduciary marker for clathrin-coated pit dynamics.
ABSTRACT: Clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME) has been extensively studied in living cells by quantitative total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM). Fluorescent protein fusions to subunits of the major coat proteins, clathrin light chains or the heterotetrameric adaptor protein (AP2) complexes, have been used as fiduciary markers of clathrin coated pits (CCPs). However, the functionality of these fusion proteins has not been rigorously compared. Here, we generated stable cells lines overexpressing mRuby-CLCa and/or ?2-eGFP, ?2-eGFP, two markers currently in use, or a novel marker generated by inserting eGFP into the unstructured hinge region of the ? subunit (?-eGFP). Using biochemical and TIRFM-based assays, we compared the functionality of the AP2 markers. All of the eGFP-tagged subunits were efficiently incorporated into AP2 and displayed greater accuracy in image-based CCP analyses than mRuby-CLCa. However, overexpression of either ?2-eGFP or ?2-eGFP impaired transferrin receptor uptake. In addition, ?2-eGFP reduced the rates of CCP initiation and ?2-eGFP perturbed AP2 incorporation into CCPs and CCP maturation. In contrast, CME and CCP dynamics were unperturbed in cells overexpressing ?-eGFP. Moreover, ?-eGFP was a more sensitive and accurate marker of CCP dynamics than mRuby-CLCa. Thus, our work establishes ?-eGFP as a robust, fully functional marker for CME.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is key to maintaining the transmembrane protein composition of cells' limiting membranes. During mammalian CME, a reversible phosphorylation event occurs on Thr156 of the ?2 subunit of the main endocytic clathrin adaptor, AP2. We show that this phosphorylation event starts during clathrin-coated pit (CCP) initiation and increases throughout CCP lifetime. ?2Thr156 phosphorylation favors a new, cargo-bound conformation of AP2 and simultaneously creates a binding platform for the endocytic NECAP proteins but without significantly altering AP2's cargo affinity in vitro. We describe the structural bases of both. NECAP arrival at CCPs parallels that of clathrin and increases with ?2Thr156 phosphorylation. In turn, NECAP recruits drivers of late stages of CCP formation, including SNX9, via a site distinct from where NECAP binds AP2. Disruption of the different modules of this phosphorylation-based temporal regulatory system results in CCP maturation being delayed and/or stalled, hence impairing global rates of CME.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) occurs via the formation of clathrin-coated vesicles from clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Clathrin is recruited to CCPs through interactions between the AP2 complex and its N-terminal domain, which in turn recruits endocytic accessory proteins. Inhibitors of CME that interfere with clathrin function have been described, but their specificity and mechanisms of action are unclear. Here we show that overexpression of the N-terminal domain with (TDD) or without (TD) the distal leg inhibits CME and CCP dynamics by perturbing clathrin interactions with AP2 and SNX9. TDD overexpression does not affect clathrin-independent endocytosis or, surprisingly, AP1-dependent lysosomal trafficking from the Golgi. We designed small membrane-permeant peptides that encode key functional residues within the four known binding sites on the TD. One peptide, Wbox2, encoding residues along the W-box motif binding surface, binds to SNX9 and AP2 and potently and acutely inhibits CME.
Project description:The critical initiation phase of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) determines where and when endocytosis occurs. Heterotetrameric adaptor protein 2 (AP2) complexes, which initiate clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly, are activated by conformational changes in response to phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and cargo binding at multiple sites. However, the functional hierarchy of interactions and how these conformational changes relate to distinct steps in CCP formation in living cells remains unknown. We used quantitative live-cell analyses to measure discrete early stages of CME and show how sequential, allosterically regulated conformational changes activate AP2 to drive both nucleation and subsequent stabilization of nascent CCPs. Our data establish that cargoes containing Yxx? motif, but not dileucine motif, play a critical role in the earliest stages of AP2 activation and CCP nucleation. Interestingly, these cargo and PIP2 interactions are not conserved in yeast. Thus, we speculate that AP2 has evolved as a key regulatory node to coordinate CCP formation and cargo sorting and ensure high spatial and temporal regulation of CME.
Project description:Numerous endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs) mediate assembly and maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) into cargo-containing vesicles. Analysis of EAP function through bulk measurement of cargo uptake has been hampered due to potential redundancy among EAPs and, as we show here, the plasticity and resilience of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Instead, EAP function is best studied by uncovering the correlation between variations in EAP association to individual CCPs and the resulting variations in maturation. However, most EAPs bind to CCPs in low numbers, making the measurement of EAP association via fused fluorescent reporters highly susceptible to detection errors. Here, we present a framework for unbiased measurement of EAP recruitment to CCPs and their direct effects on CCP dynamics. We identify dynamin and the EAP-binding ?-adaptin appendage domain of the AP2 adaptor as switches in a regulated, multistep maturation process and provide direct evidence for a molecular checkpoint in CME.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the major mechanism for internalization in mammalian cells. CME initiates by recruitment of adaptors and clathrin to form clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Nearly half of nascent CCPs abort, whereas others are stabilized by unknown mechanisms and undergo further maturation before pinching off to form clathrin-coated vesicles (CCVs). Phosphatidylinositol-(4,5)-bisphosphate (PIP(2)), the main lipid binding partner of endocytic proteins, is required for CCP assembly, but little is currently known about its contribution(s) to later events in CCV formation. Using small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown and overexpression, we have analyzed the effects of manipulating PIP(2) synthesis and turnover on CME by quantitative total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy and computational analysis. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate-5-kinase cannot be detected within CCPs but functions in initiation and controls the rate and extent of CCP growth. In contrast, the 5'-inositol phosphatase synaptojanin 1 localizes to CCPs and controls early stabilization and maturation efficiency. Together these results suggest that the balance of PIP(2) synthesis in the bulk plasma membrane and its local turnover within CCPs control multiple stages of CCV formation.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) is the most characterized pathway for the endocytic entry of proteins and lipids at the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells. Numerous studies have probed the roles of different endocytic accessory proteins in regulating the dynamics of clathrin-coated pit (CCP) assembly. However, it is not completely clear how physical cues regulate CCP dynamics. Here we employ microcontact printing to control cell shape and examine CCP dynamics as a function of cell spreading area for three differently sized cells. Cells with a large spreading area had more short-lived CCPs but a higher CCP initiation rate. Interestingly, we found that fluorescence intensity of CCPs decreased with increasing cell spreading area in a manner that was dependent on the cortical actin network. Our results point to another facet of the regulation of CCP dynamics, suggesting that CME may be modulated while cells change their mechanical state and remodel their actin cytoskeleton during various processes.
Project description:Phosphoinositides are thought to play an important role in clathrin-coated pit (CCP) dynamics. Biochemical and structural studies have shown a direct interaction of phosphatidylinositol (4,5)-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] with endocytic clathrin adaptors, whereas functional studies using cell-free systems or intact cells have demonstrated the importance of PI(4,5)P2 synthesis and dephosphorylation in clathrin coating and uncoating, respectively. Furthermore, genetic manipulations of kinases and phosphatases involved in PI(4,5)P2 metabolism result in major defects in synaptic vesicle recycling and other forms of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. However, live imaging studies of these enzymes at CCPs have not been conducted. We have used multicolor total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM) to visualize the spatial-temporal recruitment of synaptojanin 1 (SJ1), a polyphosphoinositide phosphatase, and its binding partner endophilin to CCPs. Strikingly, we observed differential temporal recruitment of the two major SJ1 splice variants to CCPs. The 145-kDa isoform, the predominant isoform expressed in the brain, was rapidly recruited as a "burst," together with endophilin, at a late stage of CCP formation. In contrast, the nonneuronal ubiquitously expressed 170-kDa isoform of SJ1 was present at all stages of CCP formation. These results raise the possibility that dynamic phosphoinositide metabolism may occur throughout the lifetime of a CCP.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in mammalian cells is driven by resilient machinery that includes >70 endocytic accessory proteins (EAP). Accordingly, perturbation of individual EAPs often results in minor effects on biochemical measurements of CME, thus providing inconclusive/misleading information regarding EAP function. Live-cell imaging can detect earlier roles of EAPs preceding cargo internalization; however, this approach has been limited because unambiguously distinguishing abortive coats (ACs) from bona fide clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) is required but unaccomplished. Here, we develop a thermodynamics-inspired method, "disassembly asymmetry score classification (DASC)", that resolves ACs from CCPs based on single channel fluorescent movies. After extensive verification, we use DASC-resolved ACs and CCPs to quantify CME progression in 11 EAP knockdown conditions. We show that DASC is a sensitive detector of phenotypic variation in CCP dynamics that is uncorrelated to the variation in biochemical measurements of CME. Thus, DASC is an essential tool for uncovering EAP function.
Project description:Adaptor protein 2 (AP2) is a major constituent of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Whether it is essential for all forms of clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in mammalian cells is an open issue. Here, we demonstrate, by live TIRF microscopy, the existence of a subclass of relatively short-lived CCPs lacking AP2 under physiological, unperturbed conditions. This subclass is retained in AP2-knockout cells and is able to support the internalization of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) but not of transferrin receptor (TfR). The AP2-independent internalization mechanism relies on the endocytic adaptors eps15, eps15L1, and epsin1. The absence of AP2 impairs the recycling of the EGFR to the cell surface, thereby augmenting its degradation. Accordingly, under conditions of AP2 ablation, we detected dampening of EGFR-dependent AKT signaling and cell migration, arguing that distinct classes of CCPs could provide specialized functions in regulating EGFR recycling and signaling.
Project description:Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) begins with the nucleation of clathrin assembly on the plasma membrane, followed by stabilization and growth/maturation of clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) that eventually pinch off and internalize as clathrin-coated vesicles. This highly regulated process involves a myriad of endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs), many of which are multidomain proteins that encode a wide range of biochemical activities. Although domain-specific activities of EAPs have been extensively studied, their precise stage-specific functions have been identified in only a few cases. Using single-guide RNA (sgRNA)/dCas9 and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated protein knockdown, combined with an image-based analysis pipeline, we have determined the phenotypic signature of 67 EAPs throughout the maturation process of CCPs. Based on these data, we show that EAPs can be partitioned into phenotypic clusters, which differentially affect CCP maturation and dynamics. Importantly, these clusters do not correlate with functional modules based on biochemical activities. Furthermore, we discover a critical role for SNARE proteins and their adaptors during early stages of CCP nucleation and stabilization and highlight the importance of GAK throughout CCP maturation that is consistent with GAK's multifunctional domain architecture. Together, these findings provide systematic, mechanistic insights into the plasticity and robustness of CME.