Comprehensive histological investigation of age-related changes in dermal extracellular matrix and muscle fibers in the upper lip vermilion.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE:Few histological studies have directly examined age-related changes within the lips, although non-invasive investigations of such changes are increasing. Therefore, this study aimed to provide histological and molecular data on age-dependent alterations in the vermilion. METHODS:Upper vermilion specimens from 15 female Caucasian cadavers (age range, 27-78 years) were investigated histologically or immunohistochemically. RESULTS:Histologically, age-dependent decreases in areas occupied by hyaluronan and collagenous fibres in the dermis of upper vermilion were demonstrated. Elastic fibre content varied widely between individuals. The area occupied by muscle fibres in the orbicularis oris muscle region within the vermilion also correlated negatively with age. Immunohistochemically, signals of four proteins were attenuated in vermilion from older individuals compared with young individuals: procollagen type I, hyaluronan synthase (HAS)1, myosin heavy chain (MYH)2 (a component of fast-twitch oxidative muscle fibres) and MYH7 (a component of slow-twitch muscle fibres). In contrast, signals of cell migration inducing hyaluronidase 1 (CEMIP) were intensified in vermilion from older individuals. No marked differences between young and older individuals were seen in procollagen type III, HAS2, HAS3, hyaluronidase (HYAL)1, HYAL2, MYH1 or MYH4. CONCLUSION:Age-dependent decreases of hyaluronan in the dermis of vermilion were prominent, possibly due to both the decrease in synthesis (HAS1) and the increase in degradation (CEMIP). Furthermore, age-dependent decreases in collagenous fibres and two types of muscle fibre in the vermilion were also identified histologically. Type I collagen, MYH2 and MYH7 appear to represent the molecules responsible for these respective decrements.
Project description:In patients with osteoarthritis (OA), there is a decrease in both the concentration and molecular size of hyaluronan (HA) in the synovial fluid and cartilage. Cell migration-inducing hyaluronidase 1 (CEMIP), also known as hyaluronan (HA)-binding protein involved in HA depolymerization (HYBID), was recently reported as an HA depolymerization-related molecule expressed in the cartilage of patients with OA. However, the underlying mechanism of CEMIP regulation is not well understood. We found that CEMIP expression was transiently increased by interleukine-1? (IL-1?) stimulation in chondrocytic cells. We also observed that ERK activation and NF-?B nuclear translocation were involved in the induction of CEMIP by IL-1?. In addition, both administration of HA and mechanical strain attenuated the CEMIP induction in IL-1?-stimulated chondrocytes. In conclusion, we clarified the regulatory mechanism of CEMIP in chondrocytes by inflammatory cytokines and suggested the potential involvement in osteoarthritis development.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a major human bacterial pathogen responsible for deep tissue skin infections. Recent observations have suggested that rapid, localized digestion of hyaluronic acid in the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the dermis may influence bacterial invasion and tissue inflammation. In this study we find that cell migration-inducing protein (Cemip) is the major inducible gene responsible for hyaluronan catabolism in mice. Cemip-/- mice failed to digest hyaluronan and had significantly less evidence of infection after intradermal bacterial challenge by S. aureus. Stabilization of large-molecular-weight hyaluronan enabled increased expression of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (Camp) that was due in part to enhanced differentiation of preadipocytes to adipocytes, as seen histologically and by increased expression of Pref1, PPARg, and Adipoq. Cemip-/- mice challenged with S. aureus also had greater IL-6 expression and neutrophil infiltration. These observations describe a mechanism for hyaluronan in the dermal ECM to regulate tissue inflammation and host antimicrobial defense.
Project description:Hyaluronan (HA) is an extremely large polysaccharide (glycosaminoglycan) involved in many cellular functions. HA catabolism is thought to involve the initial cleavage of extracellular high-molecular-weight (HMW) HA into intermediate-size HA by an extracellular or cell-surface hyaluronidase, internalization of intermediate-size HA, and complete degradation into monosaccharides in lysosomes. Despite considerable research, the identity of the hyaluronidase responsible for the initial HA cleavage in the extracellular space remains elusive. HYAL1 and HYAL2 have properties more consistent with lysosomal hyaluronidases, whereas CEMIP/KIAA1199, a recently identified HA-binding molecule that has HA-degrading activity, requires the participation of the clathrin-coated pit pathway of live cells for HA degradation. Here we show that transmembrane protein 2 (TMEM2), a mammalian homolog of a protein playing a role in zebrafish endocardial cushion development, is a cell-surface hyaluronidase. Live immunostaining and surface biotinylation assays confirmed that mouse TMEM2 is expressed on the cell surface in a type II transmembrane topology. TMEM2 degraded HMW-HA into ?5-kDa fragments but did not cleave chondroitin sulfate or dermatan sulfate, indicating its specificity to HA. The hyaluronidase activity of TMEM2 was Ca2+-dependent; the enzyme's pH optimum is around 6-7, and unlike CEMIP/KIAA1199, TMEM2 does not require the participation of live cells for its hyaluronidase activity. Moreover, TMEM2-expressing cells could eliminate HA immobilized on a glass surface in a contact-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that TMEM2 is the long-sought-after hyaluronidase that cleaves extracellular HMW-HA into intermediate-size fragments before internalization and degradation in the lysosome.
Project description:Spasticity develops as a result of central nervous system (CNS) injury; however, secondary changes within the muscles and connective tissue also contribute to muscle stiffness. The hyaluronan hypothesis postulates that the accumulation of hyaluronan promotes the development of muscle stiffness. Intramuscular injections of the enzyme hyaluronidase, which hydrolyzes long-chained hyaluronan polymers to smaller polymers, was shown to reduce muscle stiffness and increase passive and active range of motion in patients with spasticity. These results provide preliminary evidence of the hyaluronan hypothesis and suggest an emerging therapy to reduce muscle stiffness using the enzyme hyaluronidase.
Project description:AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Cardiovascular disease contributes to mortality in type 1 diabetes mellitus, but the specific pathophysiological mechanisms remain to be established. We recently showed that the endothelial glycocalyx, a protective layer of proteoglycans covering the endothelium, is severely perturbed in type 1 diabetes, with concomitantly increased plasma levels of hyaluronan and hyaluronidase. In the present study, we evaluated the relationship between hyaluronan and hyaluronidase with carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT), an established surrogate marker for cardiovascular disease. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Non-smoking type 1 diabetes patients without micro- or macrovascular complications and matched controls were recruited and cIMT of both carotid arteries was measured. To evaluate the relationship between cIMT and hyaluronan and hyaluronidase as well as other parameters, uni- or multivariate regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: We included 99 type 1 diabetes patients (age 10-72 years) and 99 age- and sex-matched controls. Mean cIMT, HbA(1c), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, hyaluronan and hyaluronidase were significantly increased in type 1 diabetes vs controls. Plasma hyaluronan and hyaluronidase were correlated in type 1 diabetes. In univariate regression analyses, mean IMT was associated with plasma hyaluronan, age and male sex, whereas after multivariate analysis only age and sex remained statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: We conclude that type 1 diabetes patients show structural changes of the arterial wall associated with increased hyaluronan metabolism. These data may lend further support to altered glycosaminoglycan metabolism in type 1 diabetes as a potential mechanism involved in accelerated atherogenesis.
Project description:Genes induced in colon cancer provide novel candidate biomarkers of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness. We originally identified KIAA1199 (now officially called CEMIP) as a transcript highly induced in colon cancer: initially designating the transcript as Colon Cancer Secreted Protein 1. We molecularly characterized CEMIP expression both at the mRNA and protein level and found it is a secreted protein induced an average of 54-fold in colon cancer. Knockout of CEMIPreduced the ability of human colon cancer cells to form xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Tumors that did grow had increased deposition of hyaluronan, linking CEMIP participation in hyaluronan degradation to the modulation of tumor phenotype. We find CEMIP mRNA overexpression correlates with poorer patient survival. In stage III only (n = 31) or in combined stage II plus stage III colon cancer cases (n = 73), 5-year overall survival was significantly better (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively) among patients with low CEMIP expressing tumors than those with high CEMIP expressing tumors. These results demonstrate that CEMIP directly facilitates colon tumor growth, and high CEMIP expression correlates with poor outcome in stage III and in stages II+III combined cohorts. We present CEMIP as a candidate prognostic marker for colon cancer and a potential therapeutic target.
Project description:Chronic hypoxia leads to pathologic remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature and pulmonary hypertension (PH). The antioxidant enzyme extracellular superoxide dismutase (SOD3) protects against hypoxia-induced PH. Hyaluronan (HA), a ubiquitous glycosaminoglycan of the lung extracellular matrix, is rapidly recycled at sites of vessel injury and repair. We investigated the hypothesis that SOD3 preserves HA homeostasis by inhibiting oxidative and enzymatic hyaluronidase-mediated HA breakdown. In SOD3-deficient mice, hypoxia increased lung hyaluronidase expression and activity, hyaluronan fragmentation, and effacement of HA from the vessel wall of small pulmonary arteries. Hyaluronan fragmentation corresponded to hypoxic induction of the cell surface hyaluronidase-2 (Hyal2), which was localized in the vascular media. Human pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (HPASMCs) demonstrated hypoxic induction of Hyal2 and SOD-suppressible hyaluronidase activity, congruent to our observations in vivo. Fragmentation of homeostatic high molecular weight HA promoted HPASMC proliferation in vitro, whereas pharmacologic inhibition of hyaluronidase activity prevented hypoxia- and oxidant-induced proliferation. Hypoxia initiates SOD3-dependent alterations in the structure and regulation of hyaluronan in the pulmonary vascular extracellular matrix. These changes occurred soon after hypoxia exposure, prior to appearance of PH, and may contribute to the early pathogenesis of this disease.
Project description:Hyaluronan is a megadalton glycosaminoglycan composed of repeating units of D-N-acetylglucosamine-beta-D-Glucuronic acid. It is known to form a highly hydrated pericellular coat around chondrocytes, fibrosarcoma, and smooth muscle cells. Using environmental scanning electron microscopy we detected fully hydrated hyaluronan pericellular coats around rat chondrocytes (RCJ-P) and epithelial cells (A6). Hyaluronan mediates early adhesion of both chondrocytes and A6 cells to glass surfaces. We show that chondrocytes in suspension establish early "soft contacts" with the substrate through a thick, hyaluronidase-sensitive coat (4.4 +/- 0.7 microm). Freshly-attached cells drift under shear stress, leaving hyaluronan "footprints" on the surface. This suggests that chondrocytes are surrounded by a multilayer of entangled hyaluronan molecules. In contrast, A6 cells have a 2.2 +/- 0.4- microm-thick hyaluronidase-sensitive coat, do not drift under shear stress, and remain firmly anchored to the surface. We consider the possibility that in A6 cells single hyaluronan molecules, spanning the whole thickness of the pericellular coat, mediate these tight contacts.
Project description:Many cell types wear up to 20-mum-wide hyaluronidase-sensitive surface coats, detected by exclusion of sedimenting particles like fixed erythrocytes. The structure of the coat is enigmatic, being apparently too thick to be accounted by random coils or even extended chains of just hyaluronan attached to cell surface. We have shown that hyaluronan synthesis enforced by green fluorescent protein-hyaluronan synthase transfection creates microvillous protrusions. The idea that the plasma membrane protrusions rather than hyaluronan alone is responsible for the exclusion space was studied with a fluorescent probe for hyaluronan and a dye with membrane affinity, applied to live cell cultures. Mesothelial and smooth muscle cells, fibroblasts, and chondrocytes, all known for their endogenously active hyaluronan synthesis, showed hyaluronan-coated plasma membrane protrusions, barely visible in phase contrast microscopy. Treatment with hyaluronidase and inhibition of hyaluronan synthesis caused retraction of the protrusions unless they were attached to substratum. Hyaluronan and the exclusion space were reduced, but did not disappear, by purified hyaluronan hexasaccharides that compete with hyaluronan attached to CD44. The results suggest that slender plasma membrane protrusions are an inherent feature of hyaluronan coats, form their scaffold, and largely result from ongoing hyaluronan synthesis in their plasma membrane. This manuscript contains online supplemental material at http://www.jhc.org. Please visit this article online to view these materials.
Project description:Dysregulation of cell migration–inducing hyaluronan-binding protein (CEMIP) is associated with the growth and metastasis of multiple malignancies. But, the underlying mechanism by which CEMIP contributes to colorectal cancer (CRC) remains undocumented. The association of CEMIP or miR-140-3p expression with clinicopathological characteristics and prognosis in CRC patients was analyzed by the tissue microarray and TCGA dataset. MiR-140-3p-specific binding with CEMIP was confirmed by luciferase report assay. In vitro experiments were conducted to assess the effects of CEMIP on the growth and invasion of CRC cells. Consequently, we found that CEMIP expression was dramatically elevated in CRC tissues and associated with a poor prognosis in CRC patients. The upregulation of CEMIP was attributable to the dysregulation of miR-140-3p rather than its genetic and epigenetic alterations. Ectopic expression of CEMIP facilitated the cell viability, colony formation, and invasive potential, but silencing of CEMIP reversed these effects. Furthermore, CEMIP was identified as a direct target of miR-140-3p and attenuated miR-140-3p-induced anti-proliferation effects by regulating c-Myc, E-cadherin, and Twist-1 expression. MiR-140-3p indicated a negative correlation with CEMIP expression and was an independent prognostic factor of tumor recurrence in CRC patients. Taken together, CEMIP is regulated by miR-140-3p and promotes the growth and invasion of CRC cells. MiR-140-3p/CEMIP axis may represent the potential markers for CRC patients.