Bioorthogonal Turn-On BODIPY-Peptide Photosensitizers for Tailored Photodynamic Therapy.
ABSTRACT: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) leads to cancer remission via the production of cytotoxic species under photosensitizer (PS) irradiation. However, concomitant damage and dark toxicity can both hinder its use. With this in mind, we have implemented a versatile peptide-based platform of bioorthogonally activatable BODIPY-tetrazine PSs. Confocal microscopy and phototoxicity studies demonstrated that the incorporation of the PS, as a bifunctional module, into a peptide enabled spatial and conditional control of singlet oxygen (1 O2 ) generation. Comparing subcellular distribution, PS confined in the cytoplasmic membrane achieved the highest toxicities (IC50 =0.096±0.003??m) after activation and without apparent dark toxicity. Our tunable approach will inspire novel probes towards smart PDT.
Project description:The long wavelength absorbing photosensitizer (PS) is important in allowing deeper penetration of near-infrared light into tumor tissue for photodynamic therapy (PDT). A suitable drug delivery vehicle is important to attain a sufficient concentration of PS at the tumor site. Presently, we developed graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles containing long wavelength absorbing PS in the form of the chlorin derivative purpurin-18-N-ethylamine (maximum absorption wavelength [λmax] 707 nm). The GO-PS complexes comprised a delivery system in which PS was loaded by covalent and noncovalent bonding on the GO nanosheet. The two GO-PS complexes were fully characterized and compared concerning their synthesis, stability, cell viability, and dark toxicity. The GO-PS complexes produced significantly-enhanced PDT activity based on excellent drug delivery effect of GO compared with PS alone. In addition, the noncovalent GO-PS complex displayed higher photoactivity, corresponding with the pH-induced release of noncovalently-bound PS from the GO complex in the acidic environment of the cells. Furthermore, the noncovalently bound GO‒PS complex had no dark toxicity, as their highly organized structure prevented GO toxicity. We describe an excellent GO complex-based delivery system with significantly enhanced PDT with long wavelength absorbing PS, as well as reduced dark toxicity as a promising cancer treatment.
Project description:Liposomes are attractive vehicles for the controlled release of drugs and cytotoxins and have a long-standing history in medical research and clinical practice. In addition to established therapeutic indications, liposomes have several favorable properties for molecular imaging, including high stability and the ability to be labeled with radioisotopes, as well as paramagnetic and fluorescent contrast agents. However, long circulation times and difficulties in creating targeted liposomes have proven challenges for imaging. In this study, we have addressed these limitations using a recently developed strategy for bioorthogonal conjugation, the reaction between tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes. By coating radiolabeled liposomes with trans-cyclooctene and pretargeting with a tetrazine coupled to a targeted peptide, we were able to selectively enhance the retention of liposomes and bind them to tumor tissue in live animals. The rapid reaction between tetrazines and trans-cyclooctenes allowed imaging to be performed with the short-lived PET tracer (18)F, yielding signal-to-background activity ratios of 7:1. The covalent, bioorthogonally driven tumor-targeting of liposomes by in vivo click chemistry is promising and should be explored for more selective and rapid delivery of radiodiagnostics and radiotherapeutics, two classes of drugs which particularly benefit from fast clearance, low nonspecific binding, and the associated reduced toxicity to kidneys and bone marrow.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a promising cancer treatment which involves a photosensitizer (PS), light at a specific wavelength for PS activation and oxygen, which combine to elicit cell death. While the illumination required to activate a PS imparts a certain amount of selectivity to PDT treatments, poor tumor accumulation and cell internalization are still inherent properties of most intravenously administered PSs. As a result, common consequences of PDT include skin photosensitivity. To overcome the mentioned issues, PSs may be tailored to specifically target overexpressed biomarkers of tumors. This active targeting can be achieved by direct conjugation of the PS to a ligand with enhanced affinity for a target overexpressed on cancer cells and/or other cells of the tumor microenvironment. Alternatively, PSs may be incorporated into ligand-targeted nanocarriers, which may also encompass multi-functionalities, including diagnosis and therapy. In this review, we highlight the major advances in active targeting of PSs, either by means of ligand-derived bioconjugates or by exploiting ligand-targeting nanocarriers.
Project description:Phthalocyanines (Pc) and their metallated derivatives are strongly considered for photodynamic therapy (PDT) possessing unique properties as possible new photosensitizers (PS). We have used toxicological assessments, real-time monitoring of cellular impedance, and imagistic measurements for assessing the in vitro dark toxicity and PDT efficacy of Ga(III)-Pc in SHSy5Y neuroblastoma cells. We have established the non-toxic concentration range of Ga(III)-Pc, a compound which shows a high intracellular accumulation, with perinuclear distribution in confocal microscopy. By choosing Ga(III)Pc non-toxic dose, we performed in vitro experimental PDT hampering cellular proliferation. Our proposed Ga(III)-Pc could complete a future PS panel for neuroblastoma alternate therapy.
Project description:Covalent organic frameworks (COFs), an emerging class of organic porous materials, have attracted intense attention due to their versatile applications. However, the deliberate fabrication of COF-based nanomaterials for nanomedical application remains challenging due to difficulty in their size- and structure-controlled synthesis and poor aqueous dispersibility. Herein, we report two boron-dipyrromethene (BODIPY)-decorated nanoscale COFs (NCOFs), which were prepared by the Schiff-base condensation of the free end -CHO (bonding defects in COFs) on the established imine-based NCOFs with the amino-substituted organic photosensitizer BODIPY via "bonding defects functionalization" approach. Thus BODIPY has been successfully nanocrystallized via the NCOF platform, and can be used for photodynamic therapy (PDT) to treat tumors. These NCOF-based PDT agents featured nanometer size (∼110 nm), low dark toxicity, and high phototoxicity as evidenced by in vitro and in vivo experiments. Moreover, the "bonding defects functionalization" approach might open up new avenues for the fabrication of additional COF-based platforms for biomedical treatment.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) was discovered more than 100 years ago, and has since become a well-studied therapy for cancer and various non-malignant diseases including infections. PDT uses photosensitizers (PSs, non-toxic dyes) that are activated by absorption of visible light to initially form the excited singlet state, followed by transition to the long-lived excited triplet state. This triplet state can undergo photochemical reactions in the presence of oxygen to form reactive oxygen species (including singlet oxygen) that can destroy cancer cells, pathogenic microbes and unwanted tissue. The dual-specificity of PDT relies on accumulation of the PS in diseased tissue and also on localized light delivery. Tetrapyrrole structures such as porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins and phthalocyanines with appropriate functionalization have been widely investigated in PDT, and several compounds have received clinical approval. Other molecular structures including the synthetic dyes classes as phenothiazinium, squaraine and BODIPY (boron-dipyrromethene), transition metal complexes, and natural products such as hypericin, riboflavin and curcumin have been investigated. Targeted PDT uses PSs conjugated to antibodies, peptides, proteins and other ligands with specific cellular receptors. Nanotechnology has made a significant contribution to PDT, giving rise to approaches such as nanoparticle delivery, fullerene-based PSs, titania photocatalysis, and the use of upconverting nanoparticles to increase light penetration into tissue. Future directions include photochemical internalization, genetically encoded protein PSs, theranostics, two-photon absorption PDT, and sonodynamic therapy using ultrasound.
Project description:In non-invasive anticancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS), which is activated by visible light, is used as a magic bullet that selectively destroys cancer cells. Recently, we described the combined therapy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-PDT) with thiosemicarbazone (TSC), i.e. an iron-chelating agent. This resulted in a strong synergistic effect. Herein, we investigated a novel strategy using a combination of PDT consist of the xenobiotic-porphyrin type PS with TSC. We observed a synergistic effect for all of the pairs of TSC-PS. This approach can be rationalized by the fact that both chlorin and TSC can affect the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In order to elucidate the plausible mechanism of action, we also combined the investigated PSs with DFO, which forms complexes that are redox inactive. We detected a slight antagonism or additivity for this combination. This may suggest that the ability of an iron chelator (IC) to participate in the production of ROS and the generation of oxidative stress is important.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) uses non-toxic dyes called photosensitizers (PS) and harmless visible light that combine to form highly toxic reactive oxygen species that kill cells. Originally, a cancer therapy, PDT, now includes applications for infections. The most widely studied PS are tetrapyrrole macrocycles including porphyrins, chlorins, bacteriochlorins, and phthalocyanines. The present review covers the design features in PS that can work together to maximize the PDT activity for various disease targets. Photophysical and photochemical properties include the wavelength and size of the long-wavelength absorption peak (for good light penetration into tissue), the triplet quantum yield and lifetime, and the propensity to undergo type I (electron transfer) or type II (energy transfer) photochemical mechanisms. The central metal in the tetrapyrrole macrocycle has a strong influence on the PDT activity. Hydrophobicity and charge are important factors that govern interactions with various types of cells (cancer and microbial) in vitro and the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution in vivo. Hydrophobic structures tend to be water insoluble and require a drug delivery vehicle for maximal activity. Molecular asymmetry and amphiphilicity are also important for high activity. In vivo some structures possess the ability to selectively accumulate in tumors and to localize in the tumor microvasculature producing vascular shutdown after illumination.
Project description:Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging approach for the treatment of tumor diseases that has received growing interest in the past few years. In this study, we constructed liposomal photosensitizers (PS) for PDT by shoehorning as light-harvesting "antenna" molecules and dense fullerene (C60) into lipid membrane bilayers. The liposomal PS showed improved photodynamic activity toward human cancer cells via the photoenergy transfer from photoactivated antenna molecules to C60.
Project description:: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) augments the host antitumor immune response, but the role of the PDT effect on the tumor microenvironment in dependence on the type of photosensitizer and/or therapeutic protocols has not been clearly elucidated. We employed three bacteriochlorins (F2BOH, F2BMet and Cl2BHep) of different polarity that absorb near-infrared light (NIR) and generated a large amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to compare the PDT efficacy after various drug-to-light intervals: 15 min. (V-PDT), 3h (E-PDT) and 72h (C-PDT). We also performed the analysis of the molecular mechanisms of PDT crucial for the generation of the long-lasting antitumor immune response. PDT-induced damage affected the integrity of the host tissue and developed acute (protocol-dependent) local inflammation, which in turn led to the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. In order to further confirm this hypothesis, a number of proteins in the plasma of PDT-treated mice were identified. Among a wide range of cytokines (IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-15, TNF-?, GM-CSF), chemokines (KC, MCP-1, MIP1?, MIP1?, MIP2) and growth factors (VEGF) released after PDT, an important role was assigned to IL-6. PDT protocols optimized for studied bacteriochlorins led to a significant increase in the survival rate of BALB/c mice bearing CT26 tumors, but each photosensitizer (PS) was more or less potent, depending on the applied DLI (15 min, 3 h or 72 h). Hydrophilic (F2BOH) and amphiphilic (F2BMet) PSs were equally effective in V-PDT (>80 cure rate). F2BMet was the most efficient in E-PDT (DLI = 3h), leading to a cure of 65 % of the animals. Finally, the most powerful PS in the C-PDT (DLI = 72 h) regimen turned out to be the most hydrophobic compound (Cl2BHep), allowing 100 % of treated animals to be cured at a light dose of only 45 J/cm2.