Novel PCNT variants in MOPDII with attenuated growth restriction and pachygyria.
ABSTRACT: Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in the centrosomal pericentrin gene (PCNT) cause microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), which is characterized by extreme growth retardation, microcephaly, skeletal dysplasia, and dental anomalies. Life expectancy is reduced due to a high risk of cerebral vascular anomalies. Here, we report two siblings with MOPDII and attenuated growth restriction, and pachygyria. Compound heterozygosity for two novel truncated PCNT variants was identified. Both truncated PCNT proteins were expressed in patient's fibroblasts, with a reduced total protein amount compared to control. Patient's fibroblasts showed impaired cell cycle progression. As a novel finding, 20% of patient's fibroblasts were shown to express PCNT comparable to control. This was associated with normal mitotic morphology and normal co-localization of mutated PCNT with centrosome-associated proteins ?-tubulin and centrin 3, suggesting some residual function of truncated PCNT proteins. These data expand the clinical and molecular spectrum of MOPDII and indicate that residual PCNT function might be associated with attenuated growth restriction in MOPDII.
Project description:Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is caused by mutations in the centrosome gene pericentrin (PCNT) that lead to severe pre- and postnatal growth retardation. As in MOPDII patients, disruption of pericentrin (Pcnt) in mice caused a number of abnormalities including microcephaly, aberrant hemodynamics analyzed by in utero echocardiography, and cardiovascular anomalies; the latter being associated with mortality, as in the human condition. To identify the mechanisms underlying these defects, we tested for changes in cell and molecular function. All Pcnt(-/-) mouse tissues and cells examined showed spindle misorientation. This mouse phenotype was associated with misdirected ventricular septal growth in the heart, decreased proliferative symmetric divisions in brain neural progenitors, and increased misoriented divisions in fibroblasts; the same phenotype was seen in fibroblasts from three MOPDII individuals. Misoriented spindles were associated with disrupted astral microtubules and near complete loss of a unique set of centrosome proteins from spindle poles (ninein, Cep215, centriolin). All these proteins appear to be crucial for microtubule anchoring and all interacted with Pcnt, suggesting that Pcnt serves as a molecular scaffold for this functionally linked set of spindle pole proteins. Importantly, Pcnt disruption had no detectable effect on localization of proteins involved in the cortical polarity pathway (NuMA, p150(glued), aPKC). Not only do these data reveal a spindle-pole-localized complex for spindle orientation, but they identify key spindle symmetry proteins involved in the pathogenesis of MOPDII.
Project description:Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism syndrome II (MOPDII) is microcephalic primordial dwarfism and is a very rare form of disproportionate short stature. This disorder shares common features with other forms of microcephalic primordial dwarfism, including severe prenatal and postnatal growth retardation with marked microcephaly. However, it includes characteristic skeletal dysplasia, abnormal dentition and increased risk for cerebrovascular diseases. Recent reports added more features, including café-au-lait lesions, cutis marmorata, astigmatism, Moyamoya disease, insulin resistance, obesity, abnormal skin pigmentation and acanthosis nigricans around the neck. Clearly, the more MOPDII reports that are produced, the more information will be added to the spectrum of MOPDII features that can improve our understanding of this disorder. In this paper, we reported a new case of MOPDII with more severe clinical features, earlier onset of common features, in addition to a homozygous novel variant in the <i>PCNT</i> gene.
Project description:Congenital microcephaly is the clinical presentation of significantly reduced head circumference at birth. It manifests as both non-syndromic-microcephaly primary hereditary (MCPH)-and syndromic forms and shows considerable inter- and intrafamilial variability. It has been hypothesized that additional genetic variants may be responsible for this variability, but data are sparse. We have conducted deep phenotyping and genotyping of five Pakistani multiplex families with either MCPH (<i>n</i> = 3) or Seckel syndrome (<i>n</i> = 2). In addition to homozygous causal variants in <i>ASPM</i> or <i>CENPJ</i>, we discovered additional heterozygous modifier variants in <i>WDR62, CEP63, RAD50</i> and <i>PCNT</i>-genes already known to be associated with neurological disorders. MCPH patients carrying an additional heterozygous modifier variant showed more severe phenotypic features. Likewise, the phenotype of Seckel syndrome caused by a novel <i>CENPJ</i> variant was aggravated to microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) in conjunction with an additional <i>PCNT</i> variant. We show that the <i>CENPJ</i> missense variant impairs splicing and decreases protein expression. We also observed centrosome amplification errors in patient cells, which were twofold higher in MOPDII as compared to Seckel cells. Taken together, these observations advocate for consideration of additional variants in related genes for their role in modifying the expressivity of the phenotype and need to be considered in genetic counseling and risk assessment.
Project description:Congenital microcephaly occurs in utero during Zika virus (ZIKV) infection. The single-gene disorder, Majewski osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII), also leads to microcephaly and is concomitant with a decrease in the centrosomal protein, pericentrin (PCNT). This protein is a known contributor of mitotic spindle misorientation and ultimately, microcephaly. Similar to MOPDII, either viral infection or interferon (IFN)-? exposure reduced PCNT levels at the mitotic spindle poles. We unexpectedly found that infection of cells with any one of a diverse set of viruses, such as ZIKV, dengue virus, cytomegalovirus, influenza A virus, or hepatitis B virus, or treatment of cells with the anti-viral cytokine, IFN-?, produced mitotic spindle misorientation. These findings demonstrate a related mechanism for the development of microcephaly in viral infection, the host's antiviral IFN response, and primordial dwarfism.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To identify novel genes involved in the etiology of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) or subarachnoid hemorrhages (SAHs) using whole-exome sequencing.<h4>Methods</h4>We performed whole-exome sequencing in 13 individuals from 3 families with an autosomal dominant IA/SAH inheritance pattern to look for candidate genes for disease. In addition, we sequenced <i>PCNT</i> exon 38 in a further 161 idiopathic patients with IA/SAH to find additional carriers of potential pathogenic variants.<h4>Results</h4>We identified 2 different variants in exon 38 from the <i>PCNT</i> gene shared between affected members from 2 different families with either IA or SAH (p.R2728C and p.V2811L). One hundred sixty-four samples with either SAH or IA were Sanger sequenced for the <i>PCNT</i> exon 38. Five additional missense mutations were identified. We also found a second p.V2811L carrier in a family with a history of neurovascular diseases.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The <i>PCNT</i> gene encodes a protein that is involved in the process of microtubule nucleation and organization in interphase and mitosis. Biallelic loss-of-function mutations in <i>PCNT</i> cause a form of primordial dwarfism (microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II), and ≈50% of these patients will develop neurovascular abnormalities, including IAs and SAHs. In addition, a complete <i>Pcnt</i> knockout mouse model (<i>Pcnt</i> <sup>-/-</sup>) published previously showed general vascular abnormalities, including intracranial hemorrhage. The variants in our families lie in the highly conserved PCNT protein-protein interaction domain, making <i>PCNT</i> a highly plausible candidate gene in cerebrovascular disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPD II) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by severe pre- and postnatal growth restrictions, microcephaly, skeletal dysplasia, severe teeth deformities, and typical facial features. Previous studies have shown that MOPD II is associated with mutations in the pericentrin (PCNT) gene.<h4>Methods</h4>We evaluated the clinical features of a 10-year and 7-month-old Chinese girl with MOPD II. Subsequently, next-generation sequencing and flow cytometry were performed to investigate genetic characteristics and the expression of PCNT protein respectively.<h4>Results</h4>The patient presented with short stature, microcephaly, typical craniofacial features, teeth deformity, thrombocytosis, and a delayed bone age (approximately 7 years). No abnormality in growth hormone or insulin-like growth factor 1 was detected. Notably, the patient was found to carry a novel homozygous PCNT mutation (c.6157G>T, p.Glu2053Ter), which was inherited from her healthy heterozygous parents. Meanwhile, significant deficiency of PCNT expression was identified in the patient.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our study identified a novel PCNT mutation associated with MOPD II, expanded the mutation spectrum of the PCNT gene and improved our understanding of the molecular basis of MOPD II.
Project description:We previously identified and characterized TELO2 as a human protein that facilitates efficient DNA damage response (DDR) signaling. A subsequent yeast 2-hybrid screen identified LARG; Leukemia-Associated Rho Guanine Nucleotide Exchange Factor (also known as Arhgef12), as a potential novel TELO2 interactor. LARG was previously shown to interact with Pericentrin (PCNT), which, like TELO2, is required for efficient replication stress signaling. Here we confirm interactions between LARG, TELO2 and PCNT and show that a sub-set of LARG co-localizes with PCNT at the centrosome. LARG-deficient cells exhibit replication stress signaling defects as evidenced by; supernumerary centrosomes, reduced replication stress-induced ?H2AX and RPA nuclear foci formation, and reduced activation of the replication stress signaling effector kinase Chk1 in response to hydroxyurea. As such, LARG-deficient cells are sensitive to replication stress-inducing agents such as hydroxyurea and mitomycin C. Conversely we also show that depletion of TELO2 and the replication stress signaling kinase ATR leads to RhoA signaling defects. These data therefore reveal a level of crosstalk between the RhoA and DDR signaling pathways. Given that mutations in both ATR and PCNT can give rise to the related primordial dwarfism disorders of Seckel Syndrome and Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) respectively, which both exhibit defects in ATR-dependent checkpoint signaling, these data also raise the possibility that mutations in LARG or disruption to RhoA signaling may be contributory factors to the etiology of a sub-set of primordial dwarfism disorders.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Osteodysplasia of the oral and maxillofacial bone is generally accompanied by systemic bone abnormalities (such as short stature, joint contracture) or other systemic abnormalities (such as renal, dermatological, cardiovascular, optic, or hearing disorders). However, it does not always present this way. Recent reports have suggested that genome-wide sequencing is an effective method for identifying rare or new disorders. Here, we performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a patient with a unique form of acquired, local osteodysplasia of the oral and maxillofacial region. CASE PRESENTATION:A 46-year-old woman presented to our hospital with the complaint of gradually moving mandibular teeth (for 6?months), changing facial appearance, and acquired osteolysis of the oral and maxillofacial bones, showing mandibular hypoplasia without family history. Upon skeletal examination, there were no abnormal findings outside of the oral and maxillofacial area; the patient had a height of 157?cm and bone mineral density (according to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry) of 90%. Results of blood and urine tests, including evaluation of bone metabolism markers and neurological and cardiovascular examinations, were normal. We performed WES of genomic DNA extracted from the blood of this patient and her mother, who did not have the disease, as a negative control. We identified 83 new missense variants in the patient, not detected in her mother, including a candidate single nucleotide variant in exon 14 of PCNT (pericentrin). Critical homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in PCNT are a known cause of microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II accompanied by mandibular hypoplasia, which is similar to the maxillofacial phenotype in this patient. CONCLUSIONS:Protein simulations performed using Polymorphism Phenotyping v2 and Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion software indicated that this missense variant is likely to disrupt the PCNT protein structure. These results suggest that this is a new form of osteolysis related to this PCNT variant.
Project description:INTRODUCTION: Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism is a syndrome characterized by the presence of intrauterine growth restriction, post-natal growth deficiency and microcephaly. Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II is the most distinctive syndrome in this group of entities. Individuals affected by this disease present at an adult height of less than 100 cm, a post-pubertal head circumference of 40 cm or less, mild mental retardation, an outgoing personality and bone dysplasia. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the first case of a five-year-old Colombian boy of mixed race ancestry (mestizo), with clinical features of microcephaly, prominent and narrow nose, arched palate, amelogenesis imperfecta, short stature, tall and narrow pelvis, disproportionate shortening of fore-arms and legs, and mild coxa vara. Analysis of the PCNT gene by sequencing showed the presence of a nucleotide change in exon 10, c. 1468C>T, evidencing a new mutation not reported in the literature for microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism. CONCLUSION: The new mutation identified in this case could be associated with the severity of the phenotypic expression of the disease, resulting in the extreme short stature of the patient. Further studies are required to reach an explanation that can justify such findings, and it is vital to emphasize the importance of detection and follow-up by the epidemiological surveillance groups in birth defects and rare diseases.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Microcephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism type II (MOPDII) is the most common form of primordial dwarfism, caused by bialleic mutations in the pericentrin gene (PCNT). Aside from its classic features, there are multiple associated medical complications, including a well-documented risk of neurovascular disease. Over the past several years, it has become apparent that additional vascular issues, as well as systemic hypertension and kidney disease may also be related to MOPDII. However, the frequency and extent of the vasculopathy was unclear. To help address this question, a vascular substudy was initiated within our Primordial Dwarfism Registry.<h4>Results</h4>Medical records from 47 individuals, living and deceased, ranging in age from 3 to 41 years of age were interrogated for this purpose. Of the total group, 64% were diagnosed with moyamoya, intracranial aneurysms, or both. In general, the age at diagnosis for moyamoya was younger than aneurysms, but the risk for neurovascular disease was throughout the shortened lifespan. In addition to neurovascular disease, renal, coronary and external carotid artery involvement are documented. 43% of the total group was diagnosed with hypertension, and 17% had myocardial infarctions. A total of 32% of the entire cohort had some form of chronic kidney disease, with 4% of the total group necessitating a kidney transplant. In addition, 38% had diabetes/insulin resistance. Ages of diagnoses, treatment modalities employed, and location of vasculopathies were notated as available and applicable, as well as frequencies of other comorbidities.<h4>Conclusions</h4>It is now clear that vascular disease in MOPDII is global and screening of the cardiac and renal vessels is warranted along with close monitoring of blood pressure. We recommend a blood pressure of 110/70 mmHg as a starting point for an upper limit, especially if the individual has a history of neurovascular disease, chronic kidney disease and/or diabetes. Additionally, providers need to be at high alert for the possibility of myocardial infarctions in young adults with MOPDII, so that appropriate treatment can be initiated promptly in an acute situation.