Role of Viscosity in Deviations from the Nernst-Einstein Relation.
ABSTRACT: Deviations from the Nernst-Einstein relation are commonly attributed to ion-ion correlation and ion pairing. Despite the fact that these deviations can be quantified by either experimental measurements or molecular dynamics simulations, there is no rule of thumb to tell the extent of deviations. Here, we show that deviations from the Nernst-Einstein relation are proportional to the inverse viscosity by exploring the finite-size effect on transport properties under periodic boundary conditions. This conclusion is in accord with the established experimental results of ionic liquids.
Project description:The Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) model is based on a mean-field approximation of ion interactions and continuum descriptions of concentration and electrostatic potential. It provides qualitative explanation and increasingly quantitative predictions of experimental measurements for the ion transport problems in many areas such as semiconductor devices, nanofluidic systems, and biological systems, despite many limitations. While the PNP model gives a good prediction of the ion transport phenomenon for chemical, physical, and biological systems, the number of equations to be solved and the number of diffusion coefficient profiles to be determined for the calculation directly depend on the number of ion species in the system, since each ion species corresponds to one Nernst-Planck equation and one position-dependent diffusion coefficient profile. In a complex system with multiple ion species, the PNP can be computationally expensive and parameter demanding, as experimental measurements of diffusion coefficient profiles are generally quite limited for most confined regions such as ion channels, nanostructures and nanopores. We propose an alternative model to reduce number of Nernst-Planck equations to be solved in complex chemical and biological systems with multiple ion species by substituting Nernst-Planck equations with Boltzmann distributions of ion concentrations. As such, we solve the coupled Poisson-Boltzmann and Nernst-Planck (PBNP) equations, instead of the PNP equations. The proposed PBNP equations are derived from a total energy functional by using the variational principle. We design a number of computational techniques, including the Dirichlet to Neumann mapping, the matched interface and boundary, and relaxation based iterative procedure, to ensure efficient solution of the proposed PBNP equations. Two protein molecules, cytochrome c551 and Gramicidin A, are employed to validate the proposed model under a wide range of bulk ion concentrations and external voltages. Extensive numerical experiments show that there is an excellent consistency between the results predicted from the present PBNP model and those obtained from the PNP model in terms of the electrostatic potentials, ion concentration profiles, and current-voltage (I-V) curves. The present PBNP model is further validated by a comparison with experimental measurements of I-V curves under various ion bulk concentrations. Numerical experiments indicate that the proposed PBNP model is more efficient than the original PNP model in terms of simulation time.
Project description:The shear viscosity has been an important topic in ultracold Fermi gases, and it has served as a diagnostic of various theories. Due to the complicated phase structures of population-imbalanced (polarized) Fermi gases with tunable attraction, past works on the shear viscosity mainly focused on unpolarized Fermi gases. Here we investigate the shear viscosity of homogeneous, population-imbalanced Fermi superfluid at finite temperatures by a pairing fluctuation theory for thermodynamical quantities and a gauge-invariant linear response theory for transport coefficients. The Cooper pairs lead to the anomalous shear viscosity analogous to the shear viscosity. We derive an exact relation connecting certain thermodynamic quantities and transport coefficients at the mean-field level for polarized unitary Fermi superfluids. An approximate relation beyond mean-field is proposed and only exhibits mild deviations from our numerical results. In the unitary and Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) regimes, the total shear viscosity increases with the polarization because the excess majority fermions cause gapless excitations acting like a normal fluid. Moreover, competition among the excess fermions, noncondensed pairs, and fermionic quasiparticles may lead to non-monotonic behavior of the ratio between the shear viscosity and relaxation time as the polarization increases.
Project description:The conventional Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations do not account for the finite size of ions explicitly. This leads to solutions featuring unrealistically high ionic concentrations in the regions subject to external potentials, in particular, near highly charged surfaces. A modified form of the Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations accounts for steric effects and results in solutions with finite ion concentrations. Here, we evaluate numerical methods for solving the modified Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations by modeling electric field-driven transport of ions through a nanopore. We describe a novel, robust finite element solver that combines the applications of the Newton's method to the nonlinear Galerkin form of the equations, augmented with stabilization terms to appropriately handle the drift-diffusion processes. To make direct comparison with particle-based simulations possible, our method is specifically designed to produce solutions under periodic boundary conditions and to conserve the number of ions in the solution domain. We test our finite element solver on a set of challenging numerical experiments that include calculations of the ion distribution in a volume confined between two charged plates, calculations of the ionic current though a nanopore subject to an external electric field, and modeling the effect of a DNA molecule on the ion concentration and nanopore current.
Project description:The spin Hall effect allows the generation of spin current when charge current is passed along materials with large spin-orbit coupling. It has been recently predicted that heat current in a nonmagnetic metal can be converted into spin current via a process referred to as the spin Nernst effect. We report the observation of the spin Nernst effect in W. In W/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures, we find changes in the longitudinal and transverse voltages with magnetic field when temperature gradient is applied across the film. The field dependence of the voltage resembles that of the spin Hall magnetoresistance. A comparison of the temperature gradient-induced voltage and the spin Hall magnetoresistance allows direct estimation of the spin Nernst angle. We find the spin Nernst angle of W to be similar in magnitude but opposite in sign to its spin Hall angle. Under an open-circuit condition, this sign difference results in the spin current generation larger than otherwise. These results highlight the distinct characteristics of the spin Nernst and spin Hall effects, providing pathways to explore materials with unique band structures that may generate large spin current with high efficiency.
Project description:In the last decade, considerable advances have been made in the investigation of dipolar quantum gases. Previous theoretical investigations of a rotating binary dipolar Bose-Einstein condensate, where only one component possesses dipole moment, were mainly focused on two special orientations of the dipoles: perpendicular or parallel to the plane of motion. Here we study the ground-state and rotational properties of such a system for an arbitrary orientation of the dipoles. We demonstrate the ground-state vortex structures depend strongly on the relative strength between dipolar and contact interactions and the rotation frequency, as well as on the orientation of the dipoles. In the absence of rotation, the tunable dipolar interaction can be used to induce the squeezing or expansion of the cloud, and to derive the phase transition between phase coexistence and separation. Under finite rotation, the system is found to exhibit exotic ground-state vortex configurations, such as kernel-shell, vortex necklace, and compensating stripe vortex structures. We also check the validity of the Feynman relation, and find no significant deviations from it. The obtained results open up alternate ways for the quantum control of dipolar quantum gases.
Project description:The Hall effect can be extended by inducing a temperature gradient in lieu of electric field that is known as the Nernst (-Ettingshausen) effect. The recently discovered spin Nernst effect in heavy metals continues to enrich the picture of Nernst effect-related phenomena. However, the collection would not be complete without mentioning the valley degree of freedom benchmarked by the valley Hall effect. Here we show the experimental evidence of its missing counterpart, the valley Nernst effect. Using millimeter-sized WSe[Formula: see text] mono-multi-layers and the ferromagnetic resonance-spin pumping technique, we are able to apply a temperature gradient by off-centering the sample in the radio frequency cavity and address a single valley through spin-valley coupling. The combination of a temperature gradient and the valley polarization leads to the valley Nernst effect in WSe[Formula: see text] that we detect electrically at room temperature. The valley Nernst coefficient is in good agreement with the predicted value.
Project description:The anomalous Nernst effect in nanostructured magnetic materials is a key phenomenon to optimally control and employ the internal energy dissipated in electronic devices, being dependent on, for instance, the magnetic anisotropy of the active element. Thereby, here, we report a theoretical and experimental investigation of the magnetic properties and anomalous Nernst effect in a flexible magnetostrictive film with induced uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and under external stress. Specifically, we calculate the magnetization behavior and the thermoelectric voltage response from a theoretical approach for a planar geometry, with magnetic free energy density that takes into account the induced uniaxial and magnetoelastic anisotropy contributions. Experimentally, we verify modifications of the effective magnetic anisotropy by changing the external stress, and explore the anomalous Nernst effect, a powerful tool to investigate the magnetic properties of magnetostrictive materials. We find quantitative agreement between experiment and numerical calculations, thus elucidating the magnetic behavior and thermoelectric voltage response. Besides, we provide evidence to confirm the validity of the theoretical approach to describe the magnetic properties and anomalous Nernst effect in ferromagnetic magnetostrictive films having uniaxial magnetic anisotropy and submitted to external stress. Hence, the results place flexible magnetostrictive systems as promising candidates for active elements in functionalized touch electronic devices.
Project description:Electric generation of spin current via spin Hall effect is of great interest as it allows an efficient manipulation of magnetization in spintronic devices. Theoretically, pure spin current can be also created by a temperature gradient, which is known as spin Nernst effect. Here, we report spin Nernst effect-induced transverse magnetoresistance in ferromagnet/non-magnetic heavy metal bilayers. We observe that the magnitude of transverse magnetoresistance in the bilayers is significantly modified by heavy metal and its thickness. This strong dependence of transverse magnetoresistance on heavy metal evidences the generation of thermally induced pure spin current in heavy metal. Our analysis shows that spin Nernst angles of W and Pt have the opposite sign to their spin Hall angles. Moreover, our estimate implies that the magnitude of spin Nernst angle would be comparable to that of spin Hall angle, suggesting an efficient generation of spin current by the spin Nernst effect.
Project description:The Poisson Nernst-Planck (PNP) theory is a simplified continuum model for a wide variety of chemical, physical and biological applications. Its ability of providing quantitative explanation and increasingly qualitative predictions of experimental measurements has earned itself much recognition in the research community. Numerous computational algorithms have been constructed for the solution of the PNP equations. However, in the realistic ion-channel context, no second order convergent PNP algorithm has ever been reported in the literature, due to many numerical obstacles, including discontinuous coefficients, singular charges, geometric singularities, and nonlinear couplings. The present work introduces a number of numerical algorithms to overcome the abovementioned numerical challenges and constructs the first second-order convergent PNP solver in the ion-channel context. First, a Dirichlet to Neumann mapping (DNM) algorithm is designed to alleviate the charge singularity due to the protein structure. Additionally, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is reformulated for solving the PNP equations. The MIB method systematically enforces the interface jump conditions and achieves the second order accuracy in the presence of complex geometry and geometric singularities of molecular surfaces. Moreover, two iterative schemes are utilized to deal with the coupled nonlinear equations. Furthermore, extensive and rigorous numerical validations are carried out over a number of geometries, including a sphere, two proteins and an ion channel, to examine the numerical accuracy and convergence order of the present numerical algorithms. Finally, application is considered to a real transmembrane protein, the Gramicidin A channel protein. The performance of the proposed numerical techniques is tested against a number of factors, including mesh sizes, diffusion coefficient profiles, iterative schemes, ion concentrations, and applied voltages. Numerical predictions are compared with experimental measurements.
Project description:Lead ion selective membrane (Pb-ISM) coated AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMT) was used to demonstrate a whole new methodology for ion-selective FET sensors, which can create ultra-high sensitivity (-36?mV/log [Pb2+]) surpassing the limit of ideal sensitivity (-29.58?mV/log?[Pb2+]) in a typical Nernst equation for lead ion. The largely improved sensitivity has tremendously reduced the detection limit (10-10?M) for several orders of magnitude of lead ion concentration compared to typical ion-selective electrode (ISE) (10-7?M). The high sensitivity was obtained by creating a strong filed between the gate electrode and the HEMT channel. Systematical investigation was done by measuring different design of the sensor and gate bias, indicating ultra-high sensitivity and ultra-low detection limit obtained only in sufficiently strong field. Theoretical study in the sensitivity consistently agrees with the experimental finding and predicts the maximum and minimum sensitivity. The detection limit of our sensor is comparable to that of Inductively-Coupled-Plasma Mass Spectrum (ICP-MS), which also has detection limit near 10-10?M.