Effect of Alkali and Trivalent Metal Ions on the High-Pressure Phase Transition of [C2H5NH3]MI 0.5MIII 0.5(HCOO)3 (MI = Na, K and MIII = Cr, Al) Heterometallic Perovskites.
ABSTRACT: We report the high-pressure behavior of two perovskite-like metal formate frameworks with the ethylammonium cation (EtAKCr and EtANaAl) and compare them to previously reported data for EtANaCr. High-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction and Raman data for EtAKCr show the occurrence of two high-pressure phase transitions observed at 0.75(16) and 2.4(2) GPa. The first phase transition involves strong compression and distortion of the KO6 subnetwork followed by rearrangement of the -CH2CH3 groups from the ethylammonium cations, while the second involves octahedral tilting to further reduce pore volume, accompanied by further configurational changes of the alkyl chains. Both transitions retain the ambient P21/n symmetry. We also correlate and discuss the influence of structural properties (distortion parameters, bulk modulus, tolerance factors, and compressibility) and parameters calculated by using density functional theory (vibrational entropy, site-projected phonon density of states, and hydrogen bonding energy) on the occurrence and properties of structural phase transitions observed in this class of metal formates.
Project description:A niccolite series of [bnH2 (2+) ][M(HCOO)3 ]2 (bnH2 (2+) =1,4-butyldiammonium) shows four kinds of metal-dependent phase transitions, from high temperature para-electric phases to low-temperature ferro-, antiferro-, glass-like, and para-electric phases. The conformational flexibility of bnH2 (2+) and the different size, mass, and bonding character of the metal ion lead to various disorder-order transitions of bnH2 (2+) in the lattice and relevant framework modulations, thus different phase transitions and dielectric responses. The magnetic members display a coexistence or combination of electric and magnetic orderings in the low-temperature region.
Project description:Shape memory alloys (SMA) are a class of ferroic materials which undergo a structural (martensitic) transition where the associated ferroic property is a lattice distortion (strain). The sensitiveness of the transition to the conjugated external field (stress), together with the latent heat of the transition, gives rise to giant mechanocaloric effects. In non-magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion is mostly described by a pure shear and the martensitic transition in this family of alloys is strongly affected by uniaxial stress, whereas it is basically insensitive to hydrostatic pressure. As a result, non-magnetic alloys exhibit giant elastocaloric effects but negligible barocaloric effects. By contrast, in a number of magnetic SMA, the lattice distortion at the martensitic transition involves a volume change in addition to the shear strain. Those alloys are affected by both uniaxial stress and hydrostatic pressure and they exhibit giant elastocaloric and barocaloric effects. The paper aims at providing a critical survey of available experimental data on elastocaloric and barocaloric effects in magnetic and non-magnetic SMA.This article is part of the themed issue 'Taking the temperature of phase transitions in cool materials'.
Project description:Electronic phase-change memory devices take advantage of the different resistivity of two states, amorphous and crystalline, and the swift transitions between them in active phase-change materials (PCMs). In addition to these two distinct phases, multiple resistive states can be obtained by tuning the atomic disorder in the crystalline phase with heat treatment, because the disorder can lead to the localization of the electronic states and, thus, hamper the electron transport. The goal of this work is to achieve and explore multiple disordered configurations in PCMs by applying high pressure. Large-scale ab initio molecular dynamics simulations demonstrate that pressure can lower the energy barrier for the antisite migration in crystalline PCMs. The accumulation of these antisite atoms largely increases the compositional disorder, adding localized electronic states near the conduction band. The disorder-induced electron localization triggered by pressure is a novel way to modulate the properties of materials. Furthermore, the random distortion of the lattice induced by the compositional disorder provides a new mechanism that contributes to the amorphization of crystalline PCMs at high pressure.
Project description:Ice is a material of fundamental importance for a wide range of scientific disciplines including physics, chemistry, and biology, as well as space and materials science. A well-known feature of its phase diagram is that high-temperature phases of ice with orientational disorder of the hydrogen-bonded water molecules undergo phase transitions to their ordered counterparts upon cooling. Here, we present an example where this trend is broken. Instead, hydrochloric-acid-doped ice VI undergoes an alternative type of phase transition upon cooling at high pressure as the orientationally disordered ice remains disordered but undergoes structural distortions. As seen with in-situ neutron diffraction, the resulting phase of ice, ice XIX, forms through a Pbcn-type distortion which includes the tilting and squishing of hexameric clusters. This type of phase transition may provide an explanation for previously observed ferroelectric signatures in dielectric spectroscopy of ice VI and could be relevant for other icy materials.
Project description:[DMHy]Mn(HCOO)<sub>3</sub> (DMHy<sup>+</sup> = dimethylhydrazinium cation) is an example of an organic-inorganic hybrid adopting perovskite-like architecture with the largest organic cation used so far in the synthesis of formate-based hybrids. This compound undergoes an unusual isosymmetric phase transition at 240 K on heating. The mechanism of this phase transition has a complex nature and is mainly driven by the ordering of DMHy<sup>+</sup> cations and accompanied by a significant distortion of the metal-formate framework in the low temperature (LT) phase. In this work, the Density Functional Theory (DFT) calculations and factor group analysis are combined with experimental temperature-dependent IR and Raman studies to unequivocally assign the observed vibrational modes and shed light on the details of the occurring structural changes. The spectroscopic data show that this first-order phase transition has a highly dynamic nature, which is a result of balanced interplay combining re-arrangement of the hydrogen bonds and ordering of DMHy<sup>+</sup> cations. The tight confinement of organic cations forces simultaneous steric deformation of formate ions and the MnO<sub>6</sub> octahedra.
Project description:Distortions are ubiquitous in nature. Under perturbations such as stresses, fields or other changes, a physical system reconfigures by following a path from one state to another; this path, often a collection of atomic trajectories, describes a distortion. Here we introduce an antisymmetry operation called distortion reversal that reverses a distortion pathway. The symmetry of a distortion pathway is then uniquely defined by a distortion group; it has the same form as a magnetic group that involves time reversal. Given its isomorphism to magnetic groups, distortion groups could have a commensurate impact in the study of distortions, as the magnetic groups have had in the study of magnetic structures. Distortion symmetry has important implications for a range of phenomena such as structural and electronic phase transitions, diffusion, molecular conformational changes, vibrations, reaction pathways and interface dynamics.
Project description:High-pressure phase transitions of AlB2-type transition-metal diborides (TMB2; TM = Zr, Sc, Ti, Nb, and Y) were systematically investigated using first-principles calculations. Upon subjecting to pressure, these TMB2 compounds underwent universal phase transitions from an AlB2-type to a new high-pressure phase tP6 structure. The analysis of the atomistic mechanism suggests that the tP6 phases result from atomic layer folds of the AlB2-type parent phases under pressure. Stability studies indicate that the tP6-structured ZrB2, ScB2, and NbB2 are stable and may be observed under high pressure and the tP6-structured TiB2 phase may be recovered at ambient pressure.
Project description:Using first-principles calculations, we investigate the band structure evolution and topological phase transitions in TlBiS2 and TlSbS2 under hydrostatic pressure as well as uniaxial and biaxial strain. The phase transitions are identified by parity analysis and by calculating the surface states. Zero, one, and four Dirac cones are found for the (111) surfaces of both TlBiS2 and TlSbS2 when the pressure grows, which confirms trivial-nontrivial-trivial phase transitions. The Dirac cones at the points are anisotropic with large out-of-plane component. TlBiS2 shows normal, topological, and topological crystalline insulator phases under hydrostatic pressure, thus being the first compound to exhibit a phase transition from a topological to a topological crystalline insulator.
Project description:Astigmatid mites depend on bioactive glandular secretions, pheromones, and defensive agents to mediate intra- and interspecies interactions. Aliphatic formates, such as (Z,Z)-8,11-heptadecadienyl formate (8,11-F17) and (Z)-8-heptadecenyl formate (8-F17), are rarely encountered natural products that are abundant in Sancassania sp. Sasagawa (Acari: Acaridae) mite secretions. Linoleic acid and oleic acid are predicted as key intermediates in the synthesis of the closely related aliphatic formates. To gain insight in this biosynthetic pathway, acarid mite feeding experiments were conducted using 13C-labeled precursors to precisely track incorporation. Analyses using 13C NMR spectroscopy demonstrated that the 13C-labeling pattern of the precursors was detectable on formates in exocrine secretions and likewise on fatty acids in total lipid pools. Curiously, the results demonstrated that the formates were biosynthesized without the dehomologation of corresponding fatty acids. Careful examination of the mass spectra from labeling experiments revealed that the carbonyl carbon of the formates is originally derived from the C-1 position of the fatty acids. Consistent with a Baeyer-Villiger oxidation reaction, labeling studies support the insertion of an oxygen atom between the carbonyl group and carbon chain. Empirical data support the existence of a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase responsible for the catalyzation of the Baeyer-Villiger oxidation. The predicted existence of a Baeyer-Villiger monooxygenase capable of converting aliphatic aldehydes to formates represents an exciting opportunity to expand the enzymatic toolbox available for controlled biochemical synthesis.
Project description:We investigate the pressure-dependent mechanical behaviour of the zeolitic imidazolate framework ZIF-4 (M(im)2; M2+ = Co2+ or Zn2+, im- = imidazolate) with high pressure, synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction and mercury intrusion measurements. A displacive phase transition from a highly compressible open pore (op) phase with continuous porosity (space group Pbca, bulk modulus ?1.4 GPa) to a closed pore (cp) phase with inaccessible porosity (space group P21/c, bulk modulus ?3.3-4.9 GPa) is triggered by the application of mechanical pressure. Over the course of the transitions, both ZIF-4 materials contract by about 20% in volume. However, the threshold pressure, the reversibility and the immediate repeatability of the phase transition depend on the metal cation. ZIF-4(Zn) undergoes the op-cp phase transition at a hydrostatic mechanical pressure of only 28 MPa, while ZIF-4(Co) requires about 50 MPa to initiate the transition. Interestingly, ZIF-4(Co) fully returns to the op phase after decompression, whereas ZIF-4(Zn) remains in the cp phase after pressure release and requires subsequent heating to switch back to the op phase. These variations in high pressure behaviour can be rationalised on the basis of the different electron configurations of the respective M2+ ions (3d10 for Zn2+ and 3d7 for Co2+). Our results present the first examples of op-cp phase transitions (i.e. breathing transitions) of ZIFs driven by mechanical pressure and suggest potential applications of these functional materials as shock absorbers, nanodampers, or in mechanocalorics.