Subcellular localization of the porcine deltacoronavirus nucleocapsid protein.
ABSTRACT: Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) has been recently identified as an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus that mainly infects newborn piglets and causes enteritis, diarrhea and high mortality. Although coronavirus N proteins have multifarious activities, the subcellular localization of the PDCoV N protein is still unknown. Here, we produced mouse monoclonal antibodies against the PDCoV N protein. Experiments using anti-haemagglutinin antibodies and these monoclonal antibodies revealed that the PDCoV N protein is shuttled into the nucleolus in both ectopic PDCoV N-expressing cells and PDCoV-infected cells. The results of deletion mutagenesis experiments demonstrated that the predicted nucleolar localization signal at amino acids 295-318 is critical for nucleolar localization. Cumulatively, our study yielded a monoclonal antibody against the PDCoV N protein and revealed a mechanism by which the PDCoV N protein translocated into the nucleolus. The tolls and findings from this work will facilitate further investigations on the functions of the PDCoV N protein.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), first identified in 2012, is a swine enteropathogen now found in many countries. The nucleocapsid (N) protein, a core component of PDCoV, is essential for virus replication and is a significant candidate in the development of diagnostics for PDCoV. In this study, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were generated and tested for reactivity with three truncations of the full protein (N1, N2, N3) that contained partial overlaps; of the five monoclonals chosen tested, each reacted with only the N3 truncation. The antibody designated 4E88 had highest binding affinity with the N protein and was chosen for in-depth examination. The 4E88 epitope was located to amino acids 308-AKPKQQKKPKK-318 by testing the 4E88 monoclonal for reactivity with a series of N3 truncations, then the minimal epitope, 309-KPKQQKKPK-317 (designated EP-4E88), was pinpointed by testing the 4E88 monoclonal for reactivity with a series of synthetic peptides of this region. Homology analysis showed that the EP-4E88 sequence is highly conserved among PDCoV strains, and also shares high similarity with sparrow coronavirus (HKU17), Asian leopard cat coronavirus (ALCCoV), quail coronavirus (UAE-HKU30), and sparrow deltacoronavirus (SpDCoV). Of note, the PDCoV EP-4E88 sequence shared very low similarity (<22.2%) with other porcine coronaviruses (PEDV, TGEV, PRCV, SADS-CoV, PHEV), demonstrating that it is an epitope that can be used for distinguishing PDCoV and other porcine coronavirus. 3D structural analysis revealed that amino acids of EP-4E88 were in close proximity and may be exposed on the surface of the N protein.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteric coronavirus. Accessory proteins are genus-specific for coronavirus, and two putative accessory proteins, NS6 and NS7, are predicted to be encoded by PDCoV; however, this remains to be confirmed experimentally. Here, we identified the leader-body junction sites of NS6 subgenomic RNA (sgRNA) and found that the actual transcription regulatory sequence (TRS) utilized by NS6 is non-canonical and is located upstream of the predicted TRS. Using the purified NS6 from an Escherichia coli expression system, we obtained two anti-NS6 monoclonal antibodies that could detect the predicted NS6 in cells infected with PDCoV or transfected with NS6-expressing plasmids. Further studies revealed that NS6 is always localized in the cytoplasm of PDCoV-infected cells, mainly co-localizing with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ER-Golgi intermediate compartments, as well as partially with the Golgi apparatus. Together, our results identify the NS6 sgRNA and demonstrate its expression in PDCoV-infected cells.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a novel coronavirus that can cause vomiting and watery diarrhea in pigs and death in piglets. Since PDCoV was first detected in 2009 in Hong Kong, the prevalence of PDCoV has increased in recent years, resulting in serious economic losses to the swine industry. The coronavirus spike (S) protein is an antigen that has been demonstrated to contain epitopes that induce neutralizing antibodies. The presence of serum and milk IgA antibodies against pathogens that replicate primarily on mucosal surfaces is important for mucosal immunity. Here, an indirect anti-PDCoV IgA antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PDCoV S1 IgA ELISA) using the purified S1 portion of S protein as the coating antigen was developed to detect PDCoV IgA antibodies in serum and sow's milk. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis showed high specificity and sensitivity of the PDCoV-S1-IgA-ELISA based on samples confirmed by IFA. Anti-PDCoV IgA antibodies in 152 serum samples and 65 milk samples collected from six farms that had experienced diarrhea outbreaks within previous last two years were detected by this assay, and 62.5% of the serum samples and 100% of the milk samples were positive for PDCoV. The indirect ELISA method established in this study will provide a convenient tool for measurement of serum and milk IgA levels against PDCoV in pig herds, rapid detection of PDCoV infection in pigs, and evaluation of the immunogenicity of vaccines.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), also known as porcine coronavirus HKU15, was first detected in North America in early 2014 and associated with enteric disease in pigs, resulting in an urgent need to further investigate the ecology of this virus. While assays detecting nucleic acids were implemented quickly, assays to detect anti-PDCoV antibodies have not been available. In this study, an indirect anti-PDCoV IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on the putative S1 portion of the spike protein was developed and utilized to determine the prevalence of anti-PDCoV IgG in U.S. pigs. The diagnostic sensitivity of the PDCoV ELISA was 91% with a diagnostic specificity of 95%. A total of 968 serum samples were tested including samples with confirmed infection with PDCoV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), transmissible gastroenteritis virus or porcine respiratory coronavirus. There was no cross-reactivity with any of the other coronaviruses. Among 355 arbitrarily selected serum samples collected in 2014 and originating from 51 farms across 18 U.S. states, anti-PDCoV IgG antibodies were detected in 8.7% of the samples and in 25.5% of the farms whereas anti-PEDV IgG was detected in 22.8% of the samples and in 54.9% of the farms. In addition, anti-PDCoV IgG antibodies were detected in archived samples collected in 2010, perhaps indicating an earlier undetected introduction into the U.S. pig population. Overall, the obtained data suggest that PDCoV seroprevalence in U.S. pigs is lower compared to PEDV and PDCoV may have been introduced to the U.S. prior to PEDV.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), is an emerging enteropathogenic coronavirus in pigs, that poses a novel threat to swine husbandry worldwide. Crucial to halting PDCoV transmission and infection is the development of effective therapies and vaccines. The spike (S) protein of coronavirus is the major target of host neutralizing antibodies, however the immunodominant neutralizing region in the S protein of PDCoV has not been defined. Here, three truncations of the PDCoV S protein were generated, the N-terminal domain of the S1 subunit (NTD, amino acids (aa) 50-286), the C-terminal domain of the S1 subunit (CTD, aa 278-616), and S2 subunit (aa 601-1087). The proteins were expressed using an E. coli expression system. Polyclonal antisera against the three recombinant proteins were produced in rabbits and mice. All three antisera were able to inhibit PDCoV infection in vitro, as determined by virus neutralization assay, fluorescent focus neutralization assay, and plaque-reduction neutralization. The CTD-specific antisera had the most potent PDCoV-neutralizing effect, indicating that the CTD region may contain the major neutralizing epitope(s) in the PDCoV S protein. Based on these findings, CTD may be a promising target for development of an effective vaccine against PDCoV infection in pigs.
Project description:Unlike nuclear localization signals, there is no obvious consensus sequence for the targeting of proteins to the nucleolus. The nucleolus is a dynamic subnuclear structure which is crucial to the normal operation of the eukaryotic cell. Studying nucleolar trafficking signals is problematic as many nucleolar retention signals (NoRSs) are part of classical nuclear localization signals (NLSs). In addition, there is no known consensus signal with which to inform a study. The avian infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), coronavirus nucleocapsid (N) protein, localizes to the cytoplasm and the nucleolus. Mutagenesis was used to delineate a novel eight amino acid motif that was necessary and sufficient for nucleolar retention of N protein and colocalize with nucleolin and fibrillarin. Additionally, a classical nuclear export signal (NES) functioned to direct N protein to the cytoplasm. Comparison of the coronavirus NoRSs with known cellular and other viral NoRSs revealed that these motifs have conserved arginine residues. Molecular modelling, using the solution structure of severe acute respiratory (SARS) coronavirus N-protein, revealed that this motif is available for interaction with cellular factors which may mediate nucleolar localization. We hypothesise that the N-protein uses these signals to traffic to and from the nucleolus and the cytoplasm.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) was initially documented in Hong Kong and later in the United States, South Korea, and Thailand. To investigate if PDCoV is also present in Taiwan, three swine coronaviruses-PDCoV, porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), and transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV)-were tested using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) in 172 rectal swab samples from piglets exhibiting diarrhea between January 2016 and May 2017 on 68 pig farms in Taiwan. The rRT-PCR results were positive for PDCoV (29/172, 16.9%), PEDV (36/172, 20.9%), TGEV (2/172, 1.2%), and coinfections (16/172, 9.3%). After cloning and sequencing, PDCoV nucleocapsid genes were analyzed. Phylogeny results indicated that the nucleotide sequences of all isolates were like those reported in other countries. To further trace PDCoV in the period of 2011 to 2015, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect antibodies against PDCoV. The results showed that 279 of 1,039 (26.9%) sera were positive for the PDCoV nucleocapsid protein, implying that PDCoV might have existed in Taiwan before 2011.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is a recently identified coronavirus in the genus Deltacoronavirus that can cause enteric disease including diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration and mortality in neonatal piglets. Serological assays to detect anti-PDCoV antibodies are presently limited to certain laboratories and geographic regions. In this study, a recombinant M protein-based indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (PDCoV-rM ELISA) was developed and utilized to determine the prevalence of anti-PDCoV IgG in Hebei province. The PDCoV-rM ELISA showed no cross-reaction with antisera against transmissible gastroenteritis virus (TGEV), porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV), porcine rotavirus (PRV), porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2), classical swine fever virus (CSFV) or porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). The diagnostic sensitivity was 90.6% and the diagnostic specificity was 93.3%. A total of 871 serum samples collected in Hebei from January 2015 to October 2016 were checked for presence of antibodies against PDCoV using the novel PDCoV-rM ELISA. Anti-PDCoV IgG antibodies were detected in 11% (96/871) of the samples and in 25% (10/40) of the investigated farms. The data suggest that PDCoV has a low seroprevalence in pig population in Hebei province, China.
Project description:Coronaviruses recently emerged as major human pathogens causing outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome and Middle East respiratory syndrome. They utilize the spike (S) glycoprotein anchored in the viral envelope to mediate host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes to initiate infection. The S protein is a major determinant of the zoonotic potential of coronaviruses and is also the main target of the host humoral immune response. We report here the 3.5-Å-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S glycoprotein trimer from the pathogenic porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV), which belongs to the recently identified Deltacoronavirus genus. Structural and glycoproteomics data indicate that the glycans of PDCoV S are topologically conserved compared with the human respiratory coronavirus NL63 S, resulting in similar surface areas being shielded from neutralizing antibodies and implying that both viruses are under comparable immune pressure in their respective hosts. The structure further reveals a shortened S2' activation loop, containing a reduced number of basic amino acids, which participates in rendering the spike largely protease resistant. This property distinguishes PDCoV S from recently characterized betacoronavirus S proteins and suggests that the S protein of enterotropic PDCoV has evolved to tolerate the protease-rich environment of the small intestine and to fine-tune its fusion activation to avoid premature triggering and reduction of infectivity.IMPORTANCE Coronaviruses use transmembrane S glycoprotein trimers to promote host attachment and fusion of the viral and cellular membranes. We determined a near-atomic-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structure of the S ectodomain trimer from the pathogenic PDCoV, which is responsible for diarrhea in piglets and has had devastating consequences for the swine industry worldwide. Structural and glycoproteomics data reveal that PDCoV S is decorated with 78 N-linked glycans obstructing the protein surface to limit accessibility to neutralizing antibodies in a way reminiscent of what has recently been described for a human respiratory coronavirus. PDCoV S is largely protease resistant, which distinguishes it from most other characterized coronavirus S glycoproteins and suggests that enteric coronaviruses have evolved to fine-tune fusion activation in the protease-rich environment of the small intestine of infected hosts.
Project description:Porcine deltacoronavirus (PDCoV) is an emerging swine enteric coronavirus. Bioinformatics predicts that PDCoV encodes two accessory proteins (NS6 and NS7), the species-specific proteins for coronavirus. In this study, four mAbs against the predicted NS7 were prepared by using the purified recombinant NS7 protein. Indirect immunofluorescence assay demonstrated that all mAbs recognized cells transfected with an NS7 expression construct or infected with PDCoV. Western blot showed that NS7-specific mAbs recognized an additional protein band of about 12 kDa from PDCoV-infected cell lysates but not from cells with the ectopic expression of NS7. Detailed analysis suggested that this additional protein band represented a novel accessory protein, termed NS7a, a 100 amino acid polypeptide identical to the 3' end of NS7. Moreover, NS7a is encoded by a separate subgenomic mRNA with a non-canonical transcription regulatory sequence. In summary, our results identified a third accessory protein encoded by PDCoV, which will enhance our understanding of PDCoV.