Neurological and growth outcomes in South African children with congenital cytomegalovirus: A cohort study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:To assess neurological sequelae and growth in the first 12 months of life in a cohort of congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infected infants compared to cCMV uninfected infants. STUDY DESIGN:This was a prospective matched cohort study conducted in Soweto, South Africa where forty-six confirmed cCMV cases were matched on HIV-exposure, gender and gestational age (±two weeks) to 84 cCMV-uninfected controls in a 1:2 ratio. Cases and controls were followed up until 12 months of age to assess anthropometry, hearing and neurodevelopmental outcomes. RESULTS:Thirty-four (73.9%) cCMV cases and 74 (88.1%) controls, completed all assessments at 12 months age. At 12 months, one cCMV case had died, none of the children in either group had SNHL and neurodevelopmental delay was present in a similar percentage of cCMV cases (n = 2; 6%) and controls (n = 1, 4%; OR 1.09, 95% CI 0.04-27.84, p = 0.958). Anthropometry did not differ between cases and controls overall throughout the follow up period. HIV-exposed cases had smaller head circumference for age at 6 and 12 months when compared with HIV-exposed controls. CONCLUSION:By 12 months of age, there was no evidence of a difference in neurological sequelae between cCMV infected South African children and cCMV uninfected children in this study. Further follow-up is warranted to detect late-onset hearing loss and neurodevelopmental delay beyond 12 months of age.
Project description:Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an ubiquitous pathogen, with a high worldwide seroprevalence. When acquired in the prenatal period, congenital CMV (cCMV) is a major cause of neurodevelopmental sequelae and hearing loss. cCMV remains an underdiagnosed condition, with no systematic screening implemented in pregnancy or in the postnatal period. Therefore, imaging takes a prominent role in prenatal diagnosis of cCMV. With the prospect of new viable therapies, accurate and timely diagnosis becomes paramount, as well as identification of fetuses at risk for neurodevelopmental sequelae. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides a complementary method to ultrasound (US) in fetal brain and body imaging. Anterior temporal lobe lesions are the most specific finding, and MRI is superior to US in their detection. Other findings such as ventriculomegaly, cortical malformations and calcifications, as well as hepatosplenomegaly, liver signal changes and abnormal effusions are unspecific. However, when seen in combination these should raise the suspicion of fetal infection, highlighting the need for a full fetal assessment. Still, some fetuses deemed normal on prenatal imaging are symptomatic at birth or develop delayed cCMV-associated symptoms, leaving room for improvement of diagnostic tools. Advanced MR sequences may help in this field and in determining prognosis, but further studies are needed.
Project description:Although early detection and intervention may improve the outcome of the congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection, few studies assessed the real-world clinical practice for cCMV patients. We analyzed medical claims data to assess the patterns of diagnoses and medical care for cCMV patients.We used a subset of medical claims database (JMDC Claims Database) in Japan, covering 207,547 newborns between April 2010 and March 2017 and observed for at least 6 months. The diagnosis of cCMV and related symptoms and sequelae and medical care, including essential examinations and antiviral treatment, were identified using standardized codes.Overall, we identified 53 (25.5 per 100,000 newborns) cCMV patients diagnosed within 6 months after birth; of these, 83% were diagnosed within 1 month and 68% had at least 1 cCMV-related symptom at birth. Objective hearing tests and fundus examinations were performed within 6 months in 60% and 30% of patients, respectively. Antivirals were prescribed in 26% of patients. During the observation period (median?=?33 months), sensorineural hearing loss (49%) and developmental problems (28%) were commonly identified as cCMV-related sequelae. The proportions of the patients continuously followed up with objective hearing tests up to 36 months were 30% in total and 56% in antiviral-treated patients, respectively.The cCMV patients did not necessarily receive a timely diagnosis nor continuous follow-ups in usual clinical practice. Although the universal screening for cCMV may, if implemented, facilitate early diagnosis, it should be accompanied by strategic follow-up plans to support timely interventions.
Project description:Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of neonatal sepsis and meningitis. We aimed to evaluate the burden of invasive early-onset (0-6 days of life, EOD) and late-onset (7-89 days, LOD) GBS disease and subsequent neurological sequelae in infants from a setting with a high prevalence (29.5%) of HIV among pregnant women.A case-control study was undertaken at three secondary-tertiary care public hospitals in Johannesburg. Invasive cases in infants <3 months age were identified by surveillance of laboratories from November 2012 to February 2014. Neurodevelopmental screening was done in surviving cases and controls at 3 and 6 months of age.We identified 122 cases of invasive GBS disease over a 12 month period. Although the incidence (per 1,000 live births) of EOD was similar between HIV-exposed and HIV-unexposed infants (1.13 vs. 1.46; p = 0.487), there was a 4.67-fold (95%CI: 2.24-9.74) greater risk for LOD in HIV-exposed infants (2.27 vs. 0.49; p<0.001). Overall, serotypes Ia, Ib and III constituted 75.8% and 92.5% of EOD and LOD, respectively. Risk factors for EOD included offensive draining liquor (adjusted Odds Ratio: 27.37; 95%CI: 1.94-386.50) and maternal GBS bacteriuria (aOR: 8.41; 95%CI: 1.44-49.15), which was also a risk-factor for LOD (aOR: 3.49; 95%CI: 1.17-10.40). The overall case fatality rate among cases was 18.0%. The adjusted odds for neurological sequelae at 6 months age was 13.18-fold (95%CI: 1.44-120.95) greater in cases (13.2%) than controls (0.4%).The high burden of invasive GBS disease in South Africa, which is also associated with high case fatality rates and significant neurological sequelae among survivors, is partly due to the heightened risk for LOD in infants born to HIV-infected women. An effective trivalent GBS conjugate vaccine targeted at pregnant women could prevent invasive GBS disease in this setting.
Project description:Background: Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) is the leading cause of nongenetic congenital hearing loss in much of the world and a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities. Infected babies can be born to women who are seropositive and seronegative prior to pregnancy, and the incidence is approximately 0.6%-0.7% in the United States. Symptoms vary from mild to severe, and hearing loss can be delayed in onset and progressive. Methods: We reviewed the literature to summarize the epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, and future directions of cCMV. Results: The best way to diagnose the infection is with polymerase chain reaction of urine or saliva within 3 weeks after birth, followed by a repeat confirmatory test if positive. Moderately to severely symptomatic neonates should be treated for 6 months with valganciclovir, and some practitioners also choose to treat infants who have isolated hearing loss only. Treatment is not recommended for asymptomatic infants. All infected infants should be screened for hearing loss and neurodevelopmental sequelae. Universal and targeted screening may be cost effective. Currently, no vaccine is commercially available, although multiple candidates are under study. Conclusion: Congenitally acquired cytomegalovirus is found in all communities around the world with a disease burden that is greater than many other well-known diseases. Advances are being made in prevention and treatment; however, improved awareness of the disease among clinicians and patients is needed.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection leads to sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and neurodevelopmental delays. However, the long-term outcomes of cCMV infection with severe neurological manifestations in infancy remain unclear. CASE PRESENTATION:The patient was a one-month-old girl visited owing to abnormalities in neonatal hearing screening. Central nervous system involvement including intracranial calcification and extensive white matter abnormalities was identified. Right SNHL (50?dB) was detected by auditory brain response (ABR) testing. The cause of her hearing loss was determined to be cCMV infection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using a dried blood spot. At 1.5?months of age, the patient was treated with intravenous ganciclovir (GCV) for 5?weeks followed by oral valganciclovir (VGCV) for an additional 6?weeks. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) loads in her urine continued to be detected until she was 10?years old. Fortunately, during this time, her right hearing loss did not deteriorate, and her left hearing remained normal. Furthermore, the extensive abnormal areas of white matter observed at 1?month of age mostly disappeared by the time the patient was 9?years old. Her neurodevelopmental score was normal, and motor milestones were not delayed as of 10?years of age. CONCLUSIONS:Here, we report the 10-year follow-up of a patient with cCMV who showed normal neurodevelopment, no progression of hearing loss, and ameliorating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, despite having various complications and severe neurological findings during infancy.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection (cCMV) is an important cause of hearing loss and cognitive impairment. Prior studies suggest that HIV-exposed children are at higher risk of acquiring cCMV. We assessed the presence, magnitude and risk factors associated with cCMV among infants born to HIV-infected women, who were not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. METHODS:cCMV and urinary CMV load were determined in a cohort of infants born to HIV-infected women not receiving antiretrovirals during pregnancy. Neonatal urines obtained at birth were tested for CMV DNA by qualitative and reflex quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS:Urine specimens were available for 992 (58.9%) of 1684 infants; 64 (6.5%) were CMV-positive. Mean CMV load (VL) was 470,276 copies/ml (range: < 200-2,000,000 copies/ml). Among 89 HIV-infected infants, 16 (18%) had cCMV versus 42 (4.9%) of 858 HIV-exposed, uninfected infants (P < 0.0001). cCMV was present in 23.2% of infants with in utero and 9.1% infants with intrapartum HIV infection (P < 0.0001). Rates of cCMV among HIV-infected infants were 4-fold greater (adjusted OR, 4.4; 95% CI: 2.3-8.2) and 6-fold greater among HIV in utero-infected infants (adjusted OR, 6; 95% CI: 3-12.1) compared with HIV-exposed, uninfected infants. cCMV was not associated with mode of delivery, gestational age, Apgar scores, 6-month infant mortality, maternal age, race/ethnicity, HIV viral load or CD4 count. Primary cCMV risk factors included infant HIV-infection, particularly in utero infection. CONCLUSION:High rates of cCMV with high urinary CMV VL were observed in HIV-exposed infants. In utero HIV infection appears to be a major risk factor for cCMV in infants whose mothers have not received combination antiretroviral therapy in pregnancy.
Project description:Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) strains may be genotyped based on polymorphisms that exist within the UL144 gene, which is one of 19 viral genes lost in attenuated laboratory strains. In the present study, UL144 genotypes in congenitally infected babies (congenital cytomegalovirus [cCMV]) were determined, and the relationship between the genotype, viral load, cytokine profile, and patient developmental outcome was investigated. All cCMV infections identified during 2006 and 2007 were included (n = 29). A portion of the infants were clinically assessed at birth and at 12 to 18 months postinfection for cCMV clinical sequelae (n = 18/29). The plasma viral load (PVL) was requested for 23/29 patients, and the UL144 genotype was determined (n = 27/29). The cytokine profile in patient plasma or serum was assessed (n = 20/29). UL144 genotypes A, B, and C were detected within the cCMV population at 33.3%, 29.6%, and 25.9%, respectively. UL144 A and C were associated with a high PVL (P < 0.04). Furthermore, a significant association between the developmental outcome and UL144 A and C was observed (P < 0.04). Only patients infected with UL144 B and A/B were described as having a normal clinical outcome. In addition, a significant correlation between interleukin 10 (IL-10) levels and the PVL was observed (P < 0.04); however, there was no association between the genotype and the cytokine profile. The present study determined that the specific detection of UL144 genotypes A and C was indicative of serious cCMV infection and more likely to lead to long-term cCMV-associated clinical manifestations. The inclusion of HCMV UL144 genotyping along with the recommended PVL monitoring following cCMV diagnosis may aid prediction of the clinical outcome.
Project description:The current World Health Organization guideline for first line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected children recommends the use of abacavir and lamivudine as nucleoside backbones and no longer includes stavudine. We compared treatment outcomes with abacavir (ABC) versus stavudine (d4T) in a cohort of HIV-1 infected children 6 and 12 months after antiretroviral therapy was initiated.This was a retrospective case-cohort study, using programmatic data from children enrolled in the Paediatric Wellness Programme at the Perinatal HIV Research Unit in Soweto, South Africa between 2005 and 2013. Children on abacavir/stavudine who had initiated ART at age <3 years with a regimen including lamivudine and lopinavir/ritonavir and had at least one 6 or 12 month viral load result were eligible. All ABC cases identified were matched for age at ART initiation and gender to eligible d4T controls (1:2). Outcomes analysed at 6 and 12 months post ART initiation included virological failure, mortality, immunological failure and anthropometry. Chi-square tests compared categorical measures while Kruskal-Wallis compared continuous measures.We identified 57 eligible ABC cases and selected 114 matched d4T controls. Overall, 57% were females and 89% started treatment at age <1year. The median age at ART initiation was 3.11 (IQR: 1.98-6.05) months. There was no difference in the proportion of children virologically suppressed between the groups at 6 (ABC 54.5% vs. d4T 67.0%, p = 0.125) and 12 (ABC 66.7% vs. d4T 71.6%, p = 0.53) months post ART-initiation. The proportion of children with adherence levels >90% for ABC and d4T were similar too (95% in ABC vs. 86% in d4T, p = 0.10). The proportion of children who died over 12 months was 3.5% in the ABC and 7.9% in the d4T group (p = 0.27). Similarly, the anthropometric measures were comparable.It is reassuring that in the short term, in this group of patients, the treatment outcomes were similar.
Project description:Early antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved neurodevelopmental outcomes of HIV-infected (HIV-positive) children; however, little is known about the longer term outcomes in infants commencing early ART or whether temporary ART interruption might have long-term consequences. In the children with HIV early antiretroviral treatment (CHER) trial, HIV-infected infants ?12 weeks of age with CD4 ?25% were randomized to deferred ART (ART-Def); immediate time-limited ART for 40 weeks (ART-40W) or 96 weeks (ART-96W). ART was restarted in the time-limited arms for immunologic/clinical progression. Our objective was to compare the neurodevelopmental profiles in all three arms of Cape Town CHER participants.A prospective, longitudinal observational study was used. The Griffiths mental development scales (GMDS), which includes six subscales and a global score, were performed at 11, 20, 30, 42 and 60 months, and the Beery-Buktenica developmental tests for visual motor integration at 60 months. HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed (HU) children were enrolled for comparison. Mixed model repeated measures were used to compare groups over time, using quotients derived from standardized British norms.In this study, 28 ART-Def, 35 ART-40W, 33 ART-96W CHER children, and 34 HEU and 39 HU controls were enrolled. GMDS scores over five years were similar between the five groups in all subscales except locomotor and general Griffiths (interaction p < 0.001 and p = 0.02 respectively), driven by early lower scores in the ART-Def arm. At 60 months, scores for all groups were similar in each GMDS scale. However, Beery visual perception scores were significantly lower in HIV-infected children (mean standard scores: 75.8 ART-Def, 79.8 ART-40W, 75.9 ART-96W) versus 84.4 in HEU and 90.5 in HU (p < 0.01)).Early locomotor delay in the ART-Def arm resolved by five years. Neurodevelopmental outcomes at five years in HIV-infected children on early time-limited ART were similar to uninfected controls, apart from visual perception where HIV-infected children scored lower. Poorer visual perception performance warrants further investigation.
Project description:Congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV) infection is the most common cause of progressive hearing impairment. In our previous study around 90% of children with a cCMV infection and CI had severely damaged balance functions (Karltorp et al., 2014). Around 20% had vision impairment, 15% were diagnosed with Autism-Spectrum-Disorder, and 20% with ADHD. One clinical observation was that children with cCMV infection had problems with executive functioning (EF), while controls with a genetic cause of deafness (Connexin 26 mutations; Cx26) did not have similar difficulties. A follow-up study was therefore initiated with the main objective to examine EF and pragmatic skills in relation to mental health in children with a cCMV infection and to draw a comparison with matched controls with Cx26 mutations (age, sex, hearing, non-verbal cognitive ability, vocabulary, and socioeconomic status level). Ten children with a cCMV infection and CI (4.8-12:9 years) and seven children with CI (4:8-12:8 years) participated in the study, which had a multidisciplinary approach. Executive functioning was assessed both with formal tests targeting working memory and attention, parent and teacher questionnaires, and a systematic observation by a blinded psychologist during one test situation. Pragmatics and mental health were investigated with parent and teacher reports. In addition, the early language outcome was considered in non-parametric correlation analyses examining the possible relationships between later EF skills, pragmatics, and mental health. Children with cCMV had a statistically significant worse pragmatic outcome and phonological working memory than controls despite their groups having similar non-verbal cognitive ability and vocabulary. However, there were no statistical differences between the groups regarding their EF skills in everyday settings and mental health. There were associations between early language outcomes and later EF skills and pragmatics in the whole sample. Conclusion: Children with a cCMV infection are at risk of developing learning difficulties in school due to difficulties with phonological working memory and pragmatic skills in social interactions.