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Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation Support for Failure to Wean From Cardiopulmonary Bypass After Pediatric Cardiac Surgery: Analysis of Extracorporeal Life Support Organization Registry Data.

ABSTRACT: Objectives:Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used to support children who fail to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass after pediatric cardiac surgery, but little is known about outcomes. We aimed to describe epidemiology and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation factors associated with inhospital mortality in these patients. Design:Retrospective multicenter registry-based cohort study. Setting:International pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation centers. Patients:Children less than 18 years old supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass after cardiac surgery during 2000-2016 and reported to Extracorporeal Life Support Organization's registry. Intervention:None. Measurements and Main Results:The primary outcome measure was inhospital mortality. Cardiac surgical procedural complexity was assigned using risk adjustment in congenital heart surgery-1. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with the primary outcome. We included 2,322 patients, with a median age of 26 days (interquartile range, 7-159); 47% underwent complex surgical procedures (risk adjustment in congenital heart surgery 4-6 categories). Inhospital mortality was 55%. The multivariable model evaluating associations with inhospital mortality showed noncardiac congenital anomalies (odds ratio, 1.78; CI, 1.36-2.32), comorbidities (odds ratio, 1.59; CI, 1.30-1.94), preoperative cardiac arrest (odds ratio, 1.67; CI, 1.20-2.34), preoperative mechanical ventilation greater than 24 hours (odds ratio, 1.49; CI, 1.21-1.84), preoperative bicarbonate administration (odds ratio, 1.42; CI, 1.08-1.86), longer cardiopulmonary bypass time (> 251 min; odds ratio, 1.50; CI, 1.13-1.99), complex surgical procedures (odds ratio, 1.43; CI, 1.13-1.81), longer extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration (> 104 hr, odds ratio, 1.54; CI, 1.17-2.02), and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications increased the odds of inhospital mortality. Age greater than 26 days (odds ratio, 0.56; CI, 0.42-0.75) reduced the odds of mortality. Conclusions:Children supported with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass after cardiac surgery are at high risk of mortality (55%). Younger patients, those with congenital abnormalities and comorbidities, undergoing complex procedures, requiring longer cardiopulmonary bypass, and experiencing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation complications and longer extracorporeal membrane oxygenation duration have higher mortality risk. These data can help assessing prognosis in this high-risk population.

SUBMITTER: Sperotto F 

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7498130 | BioStudies | 2020-01-01

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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