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Reactive oxygen species mediate anlotinib-induced apoptosis via activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in pancreatic cancer.


ABSTRACT: Anlotinib (AL3818), a novel multi-targeted receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has recently been proven to be an antitumour drug. This study aimed to explore the antitumour effect of anlotinib and its underlying molecular mechanisms in human pancreatic cancer (PC) cells. The anti-proliferative effect of anlotinib for three PC cell lines was validated using CCK-8, colony formation and EdU detection assays. Cell cycle, cell apoptosis, and reactive oxygen species (ROS) detection assays, a PC xenograft model and immunohistochemistry were performed to elucidate the mechanisms by which anlotinib induced tumour lethality in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrated that anlotinib inhibited proliferation, induced G2/M phase arrest and triggered apoptosis in PC cell lines. Anlotinib induced PC's apoptosis through the accumulation of ROS which activated the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress via PERK/p-eIF2?/ATF4 pathway. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the expression level of Nrf2, an antioxidant protein, increased with anlotinib treatment. Nrf2 knockdown enhanced the pro-apoptotic effect of anlotinib and the expression of the PERK/p-eIF2?/ATF4 pathway. The in vivo results suggested that suppressing Nrf2 improved the antitumour effect of anlotinib on PC cells. These data indicated that the apoptotic effect of anlotinib on PC cells was induced by ER stress via the accumulation of ROS. In the future, anlotinib combined with an Nrf2 inhibitor may provide a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of human PC.

PROVIDER: S-EPMC7499216 | BioStudies |

REPOSITORIES: biostudies

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