Air-Liquid Interface In Vitro Models for Respiratory Toxicology Research: Consensus Workshop and Recommendations.
ABSTRACT: In vitro air-liquid interface (ALI) cell culture models can potentially be used to assess inhalation toxicology endpoints and are usually considered, in terms of relevancy, between classic (i.e., submerged) in vitro models and animal-based models. In some situations that need to be clearly defined, ALI methods may represent a complement or an alternative option to in vivo experimentations or classic in vitro methods. However, it is clear that many different approaches exist and that only very limited validation studies have been carried out to date. This means comparison of data from different methods is difficult and available methods are currently not suitable for use in regulatory assessments. This is despite inhalation toxicology being a priority area for many governmental organizations. In this setting, a 1-day workshop on ALI in vitro models for respiratory toxicology research was organized in Paris in March 2016 to assess the situation and to discuss what might be possible in terms of validation studies. The workshop was attended by major parties in Europe and brought together more than 60 representatives from various academic, commercial, and regulatory organizations. Following plenary, oral, and poster presentations, an expert panel was convened to lead a discussion on possible approaches to validation studies for ALI inhalation models. A series of recommendations were made and the outcomes of the workshop are reported.
Project description:Small freshwater fish models, especially zebrafish, offer advantages over traditional rodent models, including low maintenance and husbandry costs, high fecundity, genetic diversity, physiology similar to that of traditional biomedical models, and reduced animal welfare concerns. The Collaborative Workshop on Aquatic Models and 21st Century Toxicology was held at North Carolina State University on May 5-6, 2014, in Raleigh, North Carolina, USA. Participants discussed the ways in which small fish are being used as models to screen toxicants and understand mechanisms of toxicity. Workshop participants agreed that the lack of standardized protocols is an impediment to broader acceptance of these models, whereas development of standardized protocols, validation, and subsequent regulatory acceptance would facilitate greater usage. Given the advantages and increasing application of small fish models, there was widespread interest in follow-up workshops to review and discuss developments in their use. In this article, we summarize the recommendations formulated by workshop participants to enhance the utility of small fish species in toxicology studies, as well as many of the advances in the field of toxicology that resulted from using small fish species, including advances in developmental toxicology, cardiovascular toxicology, neurotoxicology, and immunotoxicology. We alsoreview many emerging issues that will benefit from using small fish species, especially zebrafish, and new technologies that will enable using these organisms to yield results unprecedented in their information content to better understand how toxicants affect development and health.
Project description:Aerosol generation and characterization are critical components in the assessment of the inhalation hazards of engineered nanomaterials (NMs). An extensive review was conducted on aerosol generation and exposure apparatus as part of an international expert workshop convened to discuss the design of an in vitro testing strategy to assess pulmonary toxicity following exposure to aerosolized particles. More specifically, this workshop focused on the design of an in vitro method to predict the development of pulmonary fibrosis in humans following exposure to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). Aerosol generators, for dry or liquid particle suspension aerosolization, and exposure chambers, including both commercially available systems and those developed by independent researchers, were evaluated. Additionally, characterization methods that can be used and the time points at which characterization can be conducted in order to interpret in vitro exposure results were assessed. Summarized below is the information presented and discussed regarding the relevance of various aerosol generation and characterization techniques specific to aerosolized MWCNTs exposed to cells cultured at the air-liquid interface (ALI). The generation of MWCNT aerosols relevant to human exposures and their characterization throughout exposure in an ALI system is critical for extrapolation of in vitro results to toxicological outcomes in humans.
Project description:Acute lung injury (ALI) is characterized by pulmonary edema and acute inflammation leading to pulmonary dysfunction and potentially death. Early medical intervention may ameliorate the severity of ALI, but unfortunately, there are no reliable biomarkers for early diagnosis. We screened for biomarkers in a mouse model of ALI. In this model, inhalation of S. aureus enterotoxin A causes increased capillary permeability, cell damage, and increase protein and cytokine concentration in the lungs. We set out to find predictive biomarkers of ALI in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid before the onset of clinical manifestations. A cutting edge proteomic approach was used to compare BAL fluid harvested 16 h post S. aureus enterotoxin A inhalation versus BAL fluid from vehicle alone treated mice. The proteomic PF 2D platform permitted comparative analysis of proteomic maps and mass spectrometry identified cytochrome b5 and cytokeratin 17 in BAL fluid of mice challenged with S. aureus enterotoxin A. Validation of cytochrome b5 showed tropic expression in epithelial cells of the bronchioles. Importantly, S. aureus enterotoxin A inhalation significantly decreased cytochrome b5 during the onset of lung injury. Validation of cytokeratin 17 showed ubiquitous expression in lung tissue and increased presence in BAL fluid after S. aureus enterotoxin A inhalation. Therefore, these new biomarkers may be predictive of ALI onset in patients and could provide insight regarding the basis of lung injury and inflammation.
Project description:Future Tox III, a Society of Toxicology Contemporary Concepts in Toxicology workshop, was held in November 2015. Building upon Future Tox I and II, Future Tox III was focused on developing the high throughput risk assessment paradigm and taking the science of in vitro data and in silico models forward to explore the question-what progress is being made to address challenges in implementing the emerging big-data toolbox for risk assessment and regulatory decision-making. This article reports on the outcome of the workshop including 2 examples of where advancements in predictive toxicology approaches are being applied within Federal agencies, where opportunities remain within the exposome and AOP domains, and how collectively the toxicology community across multiple sectors can continue to bridge the translation from historical approaches to Tox21 implementation relative to risk assessment and regulatory decision-making.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Accurate knowledge of cell-/tissue-delivered dose plays a pivotal role in inhalation toxicology studies, since it is the key parameter for hazard assessment and translation of in vitro to in vivo dose-response. Traditionally, (nano-)particle toxicological studies with in vivo and in vitro models of the lung rely on in silio computational or off-line analytical methods for dosimetry. In contrast to traditional in vitro testing under submerged cell culture conditions, the more physiologic air-liquid interface (ALI) conditions offer the possibility for real-time dosimetry using quartz crystal microbalances (QCMs). However, it is unclear, if QCMs are sensitive enough for nanotoxicological studies. We investigated this issue for two commercially available VITROCELL®Cloud ALI exposure systems. RESULTS:Quantitative fluorescence spectroscopy of fluorescein-spiked saline aerosol was used to determine detection limit, precision and accuracy of the QCMs implemented in a VITROCELL®Cloud 6 and Cloud 12 system for dose-controlled ALI aerosol-cell exposure experiments. Both QCMs performed linearly over the entire investigated dose range (200 to 12,000?ng/cm2) with an accuracy of 3.4% (Cloud 6) and 3.8% (Cloud 12). Their precision (repeatability) decreased from 2.5% for large doses (>?9500?ng/cm2) to values of 10% and even 25% for doses of 1000?ng/cm2 and 200?ng/cm2, respectively. Their lower detection limit was 170?ng/cm2 and 169?ng/cm2 for the Cloud 6 and Cloud 12, respectively. Dose-response measurements with (NM110) ZnO nanoparticles revealed an onset dose of 3.3??g/cm2 (or 0.39?cm2/cm2) for both cell viability (WST-1) and cytotoxicity (LDH) of A549 lung epithelial cells. CONCLUSIONS:The QCMs of the Cloud 6 and Cloud 12 systems show similar performance and are highly sensitive, accurate devices for (quasi-) real-time dosimetry of the cell-delivered particle dose in ALI cell exposure experiments, if operated according to manufacturer specifications. Comparison with in vitro onset doses from this and previously published ALI studies revealed that the detection limit of 170?ng/cm2 is sufficient for determination of toxicological onset doses for all particle types with low (e.g. polystyrene) or high mass-specific toxicity (e.g. ZnO and Ag) investigated here. Hence, in principle QCMs are suitable for in vitro nanotoxciological studies, but this should be investigated for each QCM and ALI exposure system under the specific exposure conditions as described in the present study.
Project description:There are many studies concerning titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NP) toxicity. Nevertheless, there are few publications comparing in vitro and in vivo exposure, and even less comparing air-liquid interface exposure (ALI) with other in vitro and in vivo exposures. The identification and validation of common markers under different exposure conditions are relevant for the development of smart and quick nanotoxicity tests. In this work, cell viability was assessed in vitro by WST-1 and LDH assays after the exposure of NR8383 cells to TiO2 NP sample. To evaluate in vitro gene expression profile, NR8383 cells were exposed to TiO2 NP during 4 h at 3 cm2 of TiO2 NP/cm2 of cells or 19 ?g/mL, in two settings-submerged cultures and ALI. For the in vivo study, Fischer 344 rats were exposed by inhalation to a nanostructured aerosol at a concentration of 10 mg/m3, 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 4 weeks. This was followed immediately by gene expression analysis. The results showed a low cytotoxic potential of TiO2 NP on NR8383 cells. Despite the absence of toxicity at the doses studied, the different exposures to TiO2 NP induce 18 common differentially expressed genes (DEG) which are involved in mitosis regulation, cell proliferation and apoptosis and inflammation transport of membrane proteins. Among these genes, we noticed the upregulation of Ccl4, Osm, Ccl7 and Bcl3 genes which could be suggested as early response biomarkers after exposure to TiO2 NP. On the other hand, the comparison of the three models helped us to validate the alternative ones, namely submerged and ALI approaches.
Project description:In the field of inhalation toxicology, progress in the development of in vitro methods and efficient exposure strategies now offers the implementation of cellular-based systems. These can be used to analyze the hazardous potency of airborne substances like gases, particles, and complex mixtures (combustion products). In addition, the regulatory authorities require the integration of such approaches to reduce or replace animal experiments. Although the animal experiment currently still has to provide the last proof of the toxicological potency and classification of a certain compound, in vitro testing is gaining more and more importance in toxicological considerations. This paper gives a brief characterization of the CULTEX® Radial Flow System exposure device, which allows the exposure of cultivated cells as well as bacteria under reproducible and stable conditions for studying cellular and genotoxic effects after the exposure at the air-liquid or air-agar interface, respectively. A commercial bronchial epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-) as well as Salmonella typhimurium tester strains were exposed to smoke of different research and commercial available cigarettes. A dose-dependent reduction of cell viability was found in the case of 16HBE14o- cells; S. typhimurium responded with a dose-dependent induction of revertants. The promising results recommend the integration of cellular studies in the field of inhalation toxicology and their regulatory acceptance by advancing appropriate validation studies.
Project description:Evidence supports the advantages of inhalation over other drug-administration routes in the treatment of lung diseases, including cancer. Although data obtained from animal models and conventional in vitro cultures are informative, testing the efficacy of inhaled chemotherapeutic agents requires human-relevant preclinical tools. Such tools are currently unavailable. Here, we developed and characterized in vitro models for the efficacy testing of inhaled chemotherapeutic agents against non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). These models recapitulated key elements of both the lung epithelium and the tumour tissue, namely the direct contact with the gas phase and the three-dimensional (3D) architecture. Our in vitro models were formed by growing, for the first time, human adenocarcinoma (A549) cells as multilayered mono-cultures at the Air-Liquid Interface (ALI). The in vitro models were tested for their response to four benchmarking chemotherapeutics, currently in use in clinics, demonstrating an increased resistance to these drugs as compared to sub-confluent monolayered 2D cell cultures. Chemoresistance was comparable to that detected in 3D hypoxic tumour spheroids. Being cultured in ALI conditions, the multilayered monocultures demonstrated to be compatible with testing drugs administered as a liquid aerosol by a clinical nebulizer, offering an advantage over 3D tumour spheroids. In conclusion, we demonstrated that our in vitro models provide new human-relevant tools allowing for the efficacy screening of inhaled anti-cancer drugs.
Project description:This is the report of the first workshop "Validation of Toxicogenomics-Based Test Systems" held 11-12 December 2003 in Ispra, Italy. The workshop was hosted by the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and organized jointly by ECVAM, the U.S. Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), and the National Toxicology Program (NTP) Interagency Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Toxicological Methods (NICEATM). The primary aim of the workshop was for participants to discuss and define principles applicable to the validation of toxicogenomics platforms as well as validation of specific toxicologic test methods that incorporate toxicogenomics technologies. The workshop was viewed as an opportunity for initiating a dialogue between technologic experts, regulators, and the principal validation bodies and for identifying those factors to which the validation process would be applicable. It was felt that to do so now, as the technology is evolving and associated challenges are identified, would be a basis for the future validation of the technology when it reaches the appropriate stage. Because of the complexity of the issue, different aspects of the validation of toxicogenomics-based test methods were covered. The three focus areas include a) biologic validation of toxicogenomics-based test methods for regulatory decision making, b) technical and bioinformatics aspects related to validation, and c) validation issues as they relate to regulatory acceptance and use of toxicogenomics-based test methods. In this report we summarize the discussions and describe in detail the recommendations for future direction and priorities.
Project description:Simvastatin inhibits inflammatory responses in vitro and in murine models of lung inflammation in vivo. As simvastatin modulates a number of the underlying processes described in acute lung injury (ALI), it may be a potential therapeutic option.To investigate in vivo if simvastatin modulates mechanisms important in the development of ALI in a model of acute lung inflammation induced by inhalation of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in healthy human volunteers.Thirty healthy subjects were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Subjects were randomized to receive 40 mg or 80 mg of simvastatin or placebo (n = 10/group) for 4 days before inhalation of 50 microg LPS. Measurements were performed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) obtained at 6 hours and plasma obtained at 24 hours after LPS challenge. Nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) was measured in monocyte-derived macrophages.Pretreatment with simvastatin reduced LPS-induced BALF neutrophilia, myeloperoxidase, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, matrix metalloproteinases 7, 8, and 9, and C-reactive protein (CRP) as well as plasma CRP (all P < 0.05 vs. placebo). There was no significant difference between simvastatin 40 mg and 80 mg. BALF from subjects post-LPS inhalation induced a threefold up-regulation in nuclear NF-kappaB in monocyte-derived macrophages (P < 0.001); pretreatment with simvastatin reduced this by 35% (P < 0.001).Simvastatin has antiinflammatory effects in the pulmonary and systemic compartment in humans exposed to inhaled LPS.