Burden of scrub typhus among patients with acute febrile illness attending tertiary care hospital in Chitwan, Nepal.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES:Scrub typhus is an emerging neglected tropical disease, reported from many parts of Asia including Nepal. This study aims to determine the seroepidemiology of scrub typhus among febrile patients attending Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMC-TH), Bharatpur, Nepal. STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING:This was a hospital laboratory-based prospective study conducted in CMC-TH (a 750-bed hospital) located in Bharatpur, Chitwan district of Nepal. PARTICIPANTS:A total of 1797 patients visiting CMC-TH with acute febrile illness (temperature more than 38°C) were enrolled in this study. METHODS:A total of 1797 blood samples were collected from patients presenting with acute febrile illness. The samples were processed for detection of antibody for scrub typhus by ELISA for specific IgM antibody and Weil-Felix test. RESULTS:Out of 1797 serum sample of febrile patients, 524 (29.2%) were scrub typhus positive. Maximum seropositive cases were from Chitwan district, 271 (51.7%) with predominance among women, 314 (35.9%). Scrub typhus was common among age group 51-60 years (37.2%) and farmers, 182 (37.8%). Highest seropositivity was found in July, 60 (57.7%). Fever was common clinical symptom. Thrombocytopenia was seen in 386 (73.7%) and raised transaminase aspartate aminotransferase, 399 (76.1%) among seropositive cases. Weil-Felix test positive were 397 (22.1%) and IgM ELISA positive were 524 (29.2%). The correlation between IgM ELISA and Weil-Felix test showed statistically significant association (r=0.319, p<0.001). CONCLUSION:High prevalence of scrub typhus implies that patients with acute febrile illness should be investigated for scrub typhus with high priority. There is utmost need of reliable diagnostic facilities at all levels of healthcare system in Nepal. Infection with scrub typhus was found high and this calls for an urgent need to introduce vaccine against scrub typhus. More sustain and vigorous awareness programmes need to be promoted for early diagnosis, treatment and control.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Scrub typhus is prevalent in India although definite statistics are not available. There has been only one study on scrub typhus meningitis 20 years ago. Most reports of meningitis/meningoencephalitis in scrub typhus are case reports. METHODS: A retrospective study done in Pondicherry to extract cases of scrub typhus admitted to hospital between February 2011 and January 2012. Diagnosis was by a combination of any one of the following in a patient with an acute febrile illness--a positive scrub IgM ELISA, Weil-Felix test, and an eschar. Lumbar puncture was performed in patients with headache, nuchal rigidity, altered sensorium or cranial nerve deficits. RESULTS: Sixty five cases of scrub typhus were found, and 17 (17/65) had meningitis. There were 33 males and 32 females. Thirteen had an eschar. Median cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cell count, lymphocyte percentage, CSF protein, CSF glucose/blood glucose, CSF ADA were 54 cells/µL, 98%, 88 mg/dL, 0.622 and 3.5 U/mL respectively. Computed tomography was normal in patients with altered sensorium and cranial nerve deficits. Patients with meningitis had lesser respiratory symptoms and signs and higher urea levels. All patients had received doxycycline except one who additionally received chloramphenicol. CONCLUSION: Meningitis in scrub typhus is mild with quick and complete recovery. Clinical features and CSF findings can mimic tuberculous meningitis, except for ADA levels. In the Indian context where both scrub typhus and tuberculosis are endemic, ADA and scrub IgM may be helpful in identifying patients with scrub meningitis and in avoiding prolonged empirical antituberculous therapy in cases of lymphocytic meningitis.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Acute febrile illness (AFI) is characterized by malaise, myalgia and a raised temperature that is a nonspecific manifestation of infectious diseases in the tropics. The lack of appropriate diagnostics for the evaluation of AFI leads to increased morbidity and mortality in resource-limited settings, specifically low-income countries like India. The review aimed to identify the number, type and quality of diagnostics used for AFI evaluation during passive case detection at health care centres in South India. METHODS:A scoping review of peer-reviewed English language original research articles published between 1946-July 2018 from four databases was undertaken to assess the type and number of diagnostics used in AFI evaluation in South India. Results were stratified according to types of pathogen-specific tests used in AFI management. RESULTS:The review included a total of 40 studies, all conducted in tertiary care centres (80% in private settings). The studies demonstrated the use of 5-22 tests per patient for the evaluation of AFI. Among 25 studies evaluating possible causes of AFI, 96% tested for malaria followed by 80% for dengue, 72% for scrub typhus, 68% for typhoid and 60% for leptospirosis identifying these as commonly suspected causes of AFI. 54% studies diagnosed malaria with smear microscopy while others diagnosed dengue, scrub typhus, typhoid and leptospirosis using antibody or antigen detection assays. 39% studies used the Weil-Felix test (WFT) for scrub typhus diagnosis and 82% studies used the Widal test for diagnosing typhoid. CONCLUSIONS:The review demonstrated the use of five or more pathogen-specific tests in evaluating AFI as well as described the widespread use of suboptimal tests like the WFT and Widal in fever evaluation. It identified the need for the development of better-quality tests for aetiological diagnosis and improved standardised testing guidelines for AFI.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Scrub typhus, an important cause of unexplained fever, is grossly neglected and often misdiagnosed in low and middle income countries like Nepal. The main aim of this study was to report on the clinical profile and complications of scrub typhus and its outcome in Nepalese children. METHODS:A prospective observational study was carried out in children aged 1-16 years, admitted to a tertiary care hospital of central Nepal in between July 2016- Aug 2017. Scrub typhus was diagnosed with IgM ELISA. RESULTS:All cases of scrub typhus (n = 76) presented with fever and commonly had other symptoms such as headache (75%), myalgia (68.4%), vomiting (64.5%), nausea (59.2%), abdominal pain (57.9%), cough (35.5%), shortness of breath (22.4%), altered sensorium (14.5%), rashes (13.2%) and seizures (11.8%). Important clinical signs noticed were lymphadenopathy (60.5%), hepatomegaly (47.4%), edema (26.3%), jaundice (26.3%), and splenomegaly (15.8%). About 12% (n = 9) had necrotic eschar. Similarly, thrombocytopenia, raised liver enzymes and raised creatinine values were seen in 36.9%, 34.2% and 65.8% respectively. The most common complications were myocarditis (72.4%), hypoalbuminemia (71.1%), severe thrombocytopenia (22.4%), renal impairment (65.8%), hyponatremia (48.7%) and hepatitis (34.2%). Over two-thirds (69.70%) of the cases were treated with doxycycline followed by combination with azithromycin in the remaining 18.4%. Overall, mortality rate in this group was 3.9%. CONCLUSIONS:Scrub typhus should be considered as a differential in any community acquired acute undifferentiated febrile illness regardless of the presence of an eschar. Myocarditis and acute kidney injury are important complications which when addressed early can prevent mortality. Use of doxycycline showed a favorable outcome.
Project description:Background & objectives:In India, spotted fever group rickettsiae (SFGR) are an underdiagnosed cause of acute febrile illness (AFI). The non-specific Weil-Felix test is the first diagnostic modality for the diagnosis of SFGR in many laboratories due to the lack of advanced diagnostic facilities in developing countries. The aim of this study was to detect SFGR using molecular methods in the patients, presenting with AFI in a tertiary care centre in north India. Methods:Consecutive patients (>14 yr of age) with AFI were enrolled over a six month period. Standard investigations for common pathogens causing AFI in India (malaria, dengue, scrub typhus, leptospirosis and enteric fever) were carried out. In patients who were negative for all of the above investigations, blood was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting outer membrane protein A (ompA) gene of Rickettsia. Results:Of the 51 patients with an undiagnosed aetiology, three were positive by ompA PCR. Two of the PCR products produced good sequences and BLAST identification confirmed them as Rickettsia conorii. The sequences of R. conorii reported from south India clustered with two previously reported novel rickettsial genotypes. The study sequences clustered in a group different from that of Rickettsia spp. of the south Indian sequences reported earlier. Interpretation & conclusions:This study showed the existence of R. conorii in north India. Testing for SFGR may be included in the diagnostic workup of AFI for better disease management.
Project description:Being a globally emerging mite-borne zoonotic disease, scrub typhus is a serious public health concern in Nepal. Mapping environmental suitability and quantifying the human population under risk of the disease is important for prevention and control efforts. In this study, we model and map the environmental suitability of scrub typhus using the ecological niche approach, machine learning modeling techniques, and report locations of scrub typhus along with several climatic, topographic, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), and proximity explanatory variables and estimated population under the risk of disease at a national level. Both MaxEnt and RF technique results reveal robust predictive power with test The area under curve (AUC) and true skill statistics (TSS) of above 0.8 and 0.6, respectively. Spatial prediction reveals that environmentally suitable areas of scrub typhus are widely distributed across the country particularly in the low-land Tarai and less elevated river valleys. We found that areas close to agricultural land with gentle slopes have higher suitability of scrub typhus occurrence. Despite several speculations on the association between scrub typhus and proximity to earthquake epicenters, we did not find a significant role of proximity to earthquake epicenters in the distribution of scrub typhus in Nepal. About 43% of the population living in highly suitable areas for scrub typhus are at higher risk of infection, followed by 29% living in suitable areas of moderate-risk, and about 22% living in moderately suitable areas of lower risk. These findings could be useful in selecting priority areas for surveillance and control strategies effectively.
Project description:Scrub typhus is a potentially fatal mite-borne febrile illness, primarily of the Asia-Pacific Rim. With an endemic area greater than 13 million km2 and millions of people at risk, scrub typhus remains an underreported, often misdiagnosed febrile illness. A comprehensive, updatable map of the true distribution of cases has been lacking, and therefore the true risk of disease within the very large endemic area remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to establish a database and map to track human scrub typhus. An online search using PubMed and the United States Armed Forces Pest Management Board Literature Retrieval System was performed to identify articles describing human scrub typhus cases both within and outside the traditionally accepted endemic regions. Using World Health Organization guidelines, stringent criteria were used to establish diagnoses for inclusion in the database. The preliminary screening of 181 scrub typhus publications yielded 145 publications that met the case criterion, 267 case records, and 13 serosurvey records that could be georeferenced, describing 13,739 probable or confirmed human cases in 28 countries. A map service has been established within VectorMap (www.vectormap.org) to explore the role that relative location of vectors, hosts, and the pathogen play in the transmission of mite-borne scrub typhus. The online display of scrub typhus cases in VectorMap illustrates their presence and provides an up-to-date geographic distribution of proven scrub typhus cases.
Project description:Serum samples from patients in Kenya with febrile illnesses were screened for antibodies against bacteria that cause spotted fever, typhus, and scrub typhus. Seroprevalence was 10% for spotted fever group, <1% for typhus group, and 5% for scrub typhus group. Results should help clinicians expand their list of differential diagnoses for undifferentiated fevers.
Project description:BACKGROUND:We conducted a diagnostic surveillance study to identify Plasmodium, dengue virus, chikungunya virus, and Orientia tsutsugamushi infections among febrile patients who underwent triage for malaria in the outpatient department at Ispat General Hospital, Rourkela, Odisha, India. METHODS:Febrile patients were enrolled from January 2016-January 2017. Blood smears and small volumes or vacutainers of blood were collected from study participants to carry out diagnostic assays. Malaria was diagnosed using rapid diagnostic tests (RDT), microscopy, and PCR. Dengue, chikungunya, and scrub typhus infections were identified using rapid diagnostic test kits and ELISA. RESULTS:Nine hundred and fifty-four patients were prospectively enrolled in our study. The majority of patients were male (58.4%) and more than 15?years of age (66.4%). All 954 enrollees underwent additional testing for malaria; a subset of enrollees (293/954) that had larger volumes of plasma available was also tested for dengue, chikungunya and scrub typhus by either RDT or ELISA or both tests. Fifty-four of 954 patients (5.7%) were positive for malaria by RDT, or microscopy, or PCR. Seventy-four of 293 patients (25.3%) tested positive for dengue by either RDT or ELISA, and 17 of 293 patients (5.8%) tested positive for chikungunya-specific IgM by either ELISA or RDT. Ten of 287 patients tested (3.5%) were positive for scrub typhus by ELISA specific for scrub typhus IgM. Seventeen patients among 290 (5.9%) with results for ?3 infections tested positive for more than one infection. Patients with scrub typhus and chikungunya had high rates of co-infection: of the 10 patients positive for scrub typhus, six were positive for dengue (p =?0.009), and five of 17 patients positive for chikungunya (by RDT or ELISA) were also diagnosed with malaria (p <?0.001). CONCLUSIONS:Dengue, chikungunya and scrub typhus are important etiologies of non-malarial febrile illness in Rourkela, Odisha, and comorbidity should be considered. Routine febrile illness surveillance is required to accurately establish the prevalence of these infections in this region, to offer timely treatment, and to implement appropriate methods of control.
Project description:Scrub typhus is the most common febrile disease in Korea during the autumn. Jeju Island is the largest island in South Korea and has a distinctive oceanic climate. This study aimed to identify epidemiologic characteristics of scrub typhus on Jeju Island.From January 2011 to December 2016, 446 patients were diagnosed with scrub typhus on Jeju Island. The patients' personal data and the environmental factors that might be related to scrub typhus were investigated and retrospectively analyzed.The median age of the patients was 58-years-old (range, 8 to 91) and 43% of them worked in the agricultural, forestry or livestock industry. Regardless of their job, 87% of the patients had a history of either working outdoors or of other activities before developing scrub typhus. The south and southeast regions of Jeju Island, especially Namwon-eup, showed the highest incidence of scrub typhus. Workers in mandarin orange orchards seemed to be the highest risk group for scrub typhus infection.Scrub typhus on Jeju Island showed unique characteristics. To efficiently prevent scrub typhus, each year individual regional approaches should be developed based on the epidemiologic characteristics of the disease.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Infection-related acute kidney injury (AKI) is an important preventable cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropical region. The prevalence and outcome of kidney involvement, especially AKI, in scrub typhus is not known. We investigated all patients with undiagnosed fever and multisystem involvement for scrub typhus and present the pattern of renal involvement seen.<h4>Methods</h4>From September 2011 to November 2012, blood samples of all the patients with unexplained acute febrile illness and/or varying organ involvement were evaluated for evidence of scrub typhus. A confirmed case of scrub typhus was defined as one with detectable Orientia tsutsugamushi deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in patient's blood sample by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the gene encoding 56-kDa antigen and without any alternative etiological diagnosis. Renal involvement was defined by demonstration of abnormal urinalysis and/or reduced glomerular filtration rate. AKI was defined as per Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) definition.<h4>Results</h4>Out of 201 patients tested during this period, 49 were positive by nested PCR for scrub typhus. Mean age of study population was 34.1±14.4 (range 11-65) years. Majority were males and a seasonal trend was evident with most cases following the rainy season. Overall, renal abnormalities were seen in 82% patients, 53% of patients had AKI (stage 1, 2 and 3 in 10%, 8% and 35%, respectively). The urinalysis was abnormal in 61%, with dipstick positive albuminuria (55%) and microscopic hematuria (16%) being most common. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and shock were seen in 57% and 16% of patients, respectively. Hyperbilirubinemia was associated with AKI (p?=?0.013). A total of 8 patients (including three with dialysis dependent AKI) expired whereas rest all made uneventful recovery. Jaundice, oliguria, ARDS and AKI were associated with mortality. However, after multivariate analysis, only oliguric AKI remained a significant predictor of mortality (p?=?0.002).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Scrub typhus was diagnosed in 24% of patients presenting with unexplained febrile illness according to a strict case definition not previously used in this region. Renal abnormalities were seen in almost 82% of all patients with evidence of AKI in 53%. Our finding is contrary to current perception that scrub typhus rarely causes renal dysfunction. We suggest that all patients with unexplained febrile illness be investigated for scrub typhus and AKI looked for in scrub typhus patients.