CRL5-dependent regulation of the small GTPases ARL4C and ARF6 controls hippocampal morphogenesis.
ABSTRACT: The small GTPase ARL4C participates in the regulation of cell migration, cytoskeletal rearrangements, and vesicular trafficking in epithelial cells. The ARL4C signaling cascade starts by the recruitment of the ARF-GEF cytohesins to the plasma membrane, which, in turn, bind and activate the small GTPase ARF6. However, the role of ARL4C-cytohesin-ARF6 signaling during hippocampal development remains elusive. Here, we report that the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin 5/RBX2 (CRL5) controls the stability of ARL4C and its signaling effectors to regulate hippocampal morphogenesis. Both RBX2 knockout and Cullin 5 knockdown cause hippocampal pyramidal neuron mislocalization and development of multiple apical dendrites. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to show that ARL4C, Cytohesin-1/3, and ARF6 accumulate in the RBX2 mutant telencephalon. Furthermore, we show that depletion of ARL4C rescues the phenotypes caused by Cullin 5 knockdown, whereas depletion of CYTH1 or ARF6 exacerbates overmigration. Finally, we show that ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 are necessary for the dendritic outgrowth of pyramidal neurons to the superficial strata of the hippocampus. Overall, we identified CRL5 as a key regulator of hippocampal development and uncovered ARL4C, CYTH1, and ARF6 as CRL5-regulated signaling effectors that control pyramidal neuron migration and dendritogenesis.
Project description:The dentate gyrus (DG) is an essential part of the hippocampal formation and participates in the majority of hippocampal functions. The DG is also one of the few structures in the mammalian central nervous system that produces adult-born neurons and, in humans, alterations in adult neurogenesis are associated with stress and depression. Given the importance of DG in hippocampal function, it is imperative to understand the molecular mechanisms driving DG development and homeostasis. The E3 ubiquitin ligase Cullin-5/RBX2 (CRL5) is a multiprotein complex involved in neuron migration and localization in the nervous system, but its role during development and in the adult DG remain elusive. Here, we show that CRL5 participates in mossy fiber pruning, DG layering, adult neurogenesis, and overall physical activity in mice. During DG development, RBX2 depletion causes an overextension of the DG mossy fiber infrapyramidal bundle (IPB). We further demonstrate that the increased activity in Reelin/DAB1 or ARF6 signaling, observed in RBX2 knockout mice, is not responsible for the lack of IPB pruning. Knocking out RBX2 also affects granule cell and neural progenitor localization and these defects were rescued by downregulating the Reelin/DAB1 signaling. Finally, we show that absence of RBX2 increases the number neural progenitors and adult neurogenesis. Importantly, RBX2 knockout mice exhibit higher levels of physical activity, uncovering a potential mechanism responsible for the increased adult neurogenesis in the RBX2 mutant DG. Overall, we present evidence of CRL5 regulating mossy fiber pruning and layering during development and opposing adult neurogenesis in the adult DG.
Project description:Morphogenesis requires the proper migration and positioning of different cell types in the embryo. Much more is known about how cells start and guide their migrations than about how they stop when they reach their destinations. Here we provide evidence that Rbx2, a subunit of the Cullin 5-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase (CRL5) complex, stops neocortical projection neurons at their target layers. Rbx2 mutation causes neocortical and cerebellar ectopias dependent on Dab1, a key signaling protein in the Reelin pathway. SOCS7, a CRL5 substrate adaptor protein, is also required for neocortical layering. SOCS7-CRL5 complexes stimulate the ubiquitylation and turnover of Dab1. SOCS7 is upregulated during projection neuron migration, and unscheduled SOCS7 expression stops migration prematurely. Cerebellar development requires Rbx2 but not SOCS7, pointing to the importance of other CRL5 adaptors. Our results suggest that CRL5 adaptor expression is spatiotemporally regulated to modulate Reelin signaling and ensure normal neuron positioning in the developing brain.
Project description:The multisubunit cullin RING E3 ubiquitin ligases (CRLs) target post-translationally modified substrates for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation. The suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCS) proteins play important roles in inflammatory processes, diabetes, and cancer and therefore represent attractive targets for therapeutic intervention. The SOCS proteins, among their other functions, serve as substrate receptors of CRL5 complexes. A member of the CRL family, SOCS2-EloBC-Cul5-Rbx2 (CRL5(SOCS2)), binds phosphorylated growth hormone receptor as its main substrate. Here, we demonstrate that the components of CRL5(SOCS2) can be specifically pulled from K562 human cell lysates using beads decorated with phosphorylated growth hormone receptor peptides. Subsequently, SOCS2-EloBC and full-length Cul5-Rbx2, recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and in Sf21 insect cells, respectively, were used to reconstitute neddylated and unneddylated CRL5(SOCS2) complexes in vitro. Finally, diverse biophysical methods were employed to study the assembly and interactions within the complexes. Unlike other E3 ligases, CRL5(SOCS2) was found to exist in a monomeric state as confirmed by size exclusion chromatography with inline multiangle static light scattering and native MS. Affinities of the protein-protein interactions within the multisubunit complex were measured by isothermal titration calorimetry. A structural model for full-size neddylated and unneddylated CRL5(SOCS2) complexes is supported by traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry data.
Project description:Multi-subunit cullin-RING ligases (CRLs) are the largest family of ubiquitin E3 ligases in humans. CRL activity is tightly regulated to prevent unintended substrate degradation or autocatalytic degradation of CRL subunits. Using a proteomics strategy, we discovered that CRL4AMBRA1 (CRL substrate receptor denoted in superscript) targets Elongin C (ELOC), the essential adapter protein of CRL5 complexes, for polyubiquitination and degradation. We showed that the ubiquitin ligase function of CRL4AMBRA1 is required to disrupt the assembly and attenuate the ligase activity of human CRL5SOCS3 and HIV-1 CRL5VIF complexes as AMBRA1 depletion leads to hyperactivation of both CRL5 complexes. Moreover, CRL4AMBRA1 modulates interleukin-6/STAT3 signaling and HIV-1 infectivity that are regulated by CRL5SOCS3 and CRL5VIF, respectively. Thus, by discovering a substrate of CRL4AMBRA1, ELOC, the shared adapter of CRL5 ubiquitin ligases, we uncovered a novel CRL cross-regulation pathway.
Project description:The laminated structure of the retina is fundamental for the organization of the synaptic circuitry that translates light input into patterns of action potentials. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying cell migration and layering of the retina are poorly understood. Here, we show that RBX2, a core component of the E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL5, is essential for retinal layering and function. RBX2 regulates the final cell position of rod bipolar cells, cone photoreceptors and Muller glia. Our data indicate that sustained RELN/DAB1 signaling, triggered by depletion of RBX2 or SOCS7 - a CRL5 substrate adaptor known to recruit DAB1 - causes rod bipolar cell misposition. Moreover, whereas SOCS7 also controls Muller glia cell lamination, it is not responsible for cone photoreceptor positioning, suggesting that RBX2, most likely through CRL5 activity, controls other signaling pathways required for proper cone localization. Furthermore, RBX2 depletion reduces the number of ribbon synapses and disrupts cone photoreceptor function. Together, these results uncover RBX2 as a crucial molecular regulator of retina morphogenesis and cone photoreceptor function.
Project description:Structural analysis of host-pathogen protein complexes remains challenging, largely due to their structural heterogeneity. Here, we describe a pipeline for the structural characterization of these complexes using integrative structure modeling based on chemical cross-links and residue-protein contacts inferred from mutagenesis studies. We used this approach on the HIV-1 Vif protein bound to restriction factor APOBEC3G (A3G), the Cullin-5 E3 ring ligase (CRL5), and the cellular transcription factor Core Binding Factor Beta (CBFβ) to determine the structure of the (A3G-Vif-CRL5-CBFβ) complex. Using the MS-cleavable DSSO cross-linker to obtain a set of 132 cross-links within this reconstituted complex along with the atomic structures of the subunits and mutagenesis data, we computed an integrative structure model of the heptameric A3G-Vif-CRL5-CBFβ complex. The structure, which was validated using a series of tests, reveals that A3G is bound to Vif mostly through its N-terminal domain. Moreover, the model ensemble quantifies the dynamic heterogeneity of the A3G C-terminal domain and Cul5 positions. Finally, the model was used to rationalize previous structural, mutagenesis and functional data not used for modeling, including information related to the A3G-bound and unbound structures as well as mapping functional mutations to the A3G-Vif interface. The experimental and computational approach described here is generally applicable to other challenging host-pathogen protein complexes.