Tumor-Treating Fields Inhibit the Metastatic Potential of Osteosarcoma Cells.
ABSTRACT: The prognosis of metastatic osteosarcoma (OS) remains poor with a <20% survival rate, particularly in cases of distant (non-lung) metastases. Tumor-treating field (TTF) therapy is a novel electric field-based treatment that causes metaphase arrest and tumor cell death, with the advantage of reduced side effects compared to radiation and chemotherapy. TTF shows promise in glioblastoma and other solid tumors; however, few studies have examined its potential in the treatment of osteosarcoma. Therefore, we explored the mechanism of TTF-induced metastasis inhibition and cell death using in vitro models. TTF (1.5 V/cm, 150 kHz) was applied to U2OS and KHOS/NP OS cell lines. In addition, a 3-dimensional culture system was established using these OS cell lines. Cell migration and invasion (i.e., metastatic potential) were examined using a wound-healing scratch assay and transwell assay, respectively. Western blotting of metastasis- and angiogenesis-related proteins was performed. TTF suppressed the migration of and invasion by OS cells and inhibited the expression of epithelial markers, thereby preventing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a hallmark of metastasis. Moreover, TTF prevented angiogenesis in human tumor endothelial cells and downregulated matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Therefore, TTF shows potential as an improved treatment for osteosarcoma, warranting further preclinical studies in animal models to support clinical trials.
Project description:The present study aimed to investigate the common metastatic mechanism in various types of metastatic osteosarcoma (OS). Gene expression profiles generated from the metastatic OS KHOS and KRIB cell lines and the non-metastatic OS HOS cell line were compared. Two groups of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between KHOS or KRIB and HOS were screened (P<0.01 and |fold change| ?2) and then underwent Gene Ontology (GO) and pathway enrichment analyses. Subsequently, the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed and the subnetwork was mined. Furthermore, overlapping DEGs of these two groups were identified and pathway enrichment and regulatory network analyses were performed. A total of 1,552 and 1,330 DEGs from KHOS vs. HOS and KRIB vs. HOS were obtained, respectively. GO and pathway enrichment analyses of DEGs between KRIB and HOS, including anatomical structure morphogenesis and focal adhesion, were similar to those between KHOS and HOS. Vascular endothelial growth factor A and epidermal growth factor receptor were hub nodes in the PPI network for KHOS and KRIB. Subnetworks of these two groups were similar. In addition, 421 upregulated and 595 downregulated overlapping genes were enriched in the mitogen-activated protein kinase and transforming growth factor-? signaling pathways. Furthermore, seven vital transcription factors, including hes-related family bHLH transcription factor with YRPW motif 1 (HEY1), were obtained. Overall, different types of metastatic OS were shown to exhibit a similar mechanism of pathogenesis. With the exception of cell adhesion and angiogenesis, recapitulation of the morphogenetic processes facilitates OS tumor formation and metastasis. Genes such as HEY1 are important for metastatic OS. Further studies are required in order to confirm these results.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common pediatric bone tumor and is associated with the emergence of pulmonary metastasis. Unfortunately, the mechanistic basis for metastasis remains unclear. Tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have been shown to play critical roles in cell-to-cell communication and metastatic progression in other cancers, but their role in OS has not been explored. We show that EVs secreted by cells derived from a highly metastatic clonal variant of the KHOS cell line can be internalized by a poorly metastatic clonal variant of the same cell line and induce a migratory and invasive phenotype. This horizontal phenotypic transfer is unidirectional and provides evidence that metastatic potential may arise via interclonal co-operation. Proteomic analysis of the EVs secreted by highly metastatic OS clonal variants results in the identification of a number of proteins and G-protein coupled receptor signaling events as potential drivers of OS metastasis and novel therapeutic targets. Finally, multiphoton microscopy with fluorescence lifetime imaging in vivo, demonstrated a preferential seeding of lung tissue by EVs derived from highly metastatic OS clonal variants. Thus, we show that EVs derived from highly metastatic clonal variants of OS may drive metastatic behaviour via interclonal co-operation and preferential colonization of the lungs.
Project description:Known as co-stimulatory molecule, programmed death ligand-2 (PD-L2) contributes to T-cell exhaustion by interaction with programmed death-1 (PD-1) receptor, but its tumor cell-intrinsic signal effects have been little investigated. PD-L2 expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 18 pairs of primary osteosarcoma tissues and matching lung metastasis tissues. We also investigated the effects of PD-L2 knockdown on osteosarcoma both in vitro and in vivo. In our study, PD-L2 expression was elevated in lung metastases compared with primary osteosarcoma according to an immunohistochemistry assay. Wound-healing and transwell assays revealed that PD-L2 knockdown leaded to inhibition of migration and invasion of human osteosarcoma cells in vitro. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that PD-L2 knockdown attenuated migration and invasion by inactivating RhoA-ROCK-LIMK2 signaling, suppressing epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and inhibiting autophagy by decreasing beclin-1 expression. In support of these observations, beclin-1 knockdown also inhibited activation of the RhoA-ROCK-LIMK2 pathway, leading to autophagy inhibition-induced blockade of migration and invasion. Depletion of PD-L2 in KHOS cells markedly weakens pulmonary metastatic potential in vivo by orthotopic transplantation of nude mice. Our study reveals a pro-metastatic functional mechanism for PD-L2 in osteosarcoma. Furthermore, we demonstrate a regulatory role for PD-L2 on autophagy, as well as a relationship between autophagy and metastasis in osteosarcoma, which may represent a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is a life-threatening malignant bone tumor associated with poor prognosis among children. The survival rate of the patient is still arguably low even with intensive treatment provided, plus with the inherent side effects from the chemotherapy, which gives more unfavorable outcomes. Hence, the search for potent anti-osteosarcoma agent with promising safety profile is still on going. Natural occurring substance like curcumin has gained a lot of attention due to its splendid safety profile as well as it pharmacological advantages such as anti-metastasis and anti-angiogenesis. However, natural curcumin was widely known for its poor cellular uptake, which undermines all potential that it possesses. This prompted the development of synthetically synthesized curcuminoid analog, known as (Z)-3-hydroxy-1-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-3-phenylprop-2- en-1-one (DK1). In this present study, in vitro scratch assay, transwell migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, and ex vivo rat aortic ring assays were performed in order to investigate the anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic potential of DK1. For further comprehension of DK1 mechanism on human osteosarcoma cell lines, microarray gene expression analysis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and proteome profiler were adopted, providing valuable forecast from the expression of important genes and proteins related to metastasis and angiogenesis. Based on the data gathered from the bioassays, DK1 was able to inhibit the metastasis and angiogenesis of human osteosarcoma cell lines by significantly reducing the cell motility, number of migrated and invaded cells as well as the tube formation and micro-vessels sprouting. Additionally, DK1 also has significantly regulated several cancer pathways involved in OS proliferation, metastasis, and angiogenesis such as PI3K/Akt and NF-κB in both U-2 OS and MG-63. Regulation of PI3K/Akt caused up-regulation of genes related to metastasis inhibition, namely, PTEN, FOXO, PLK3, and GADD45A. Meanwhile, NF-κB pathway was regulated by mitigating the expression of NF-κB activator such as IKBKB and IKBKE in MG-63, whilst up-regulating the expression of NF-κB inhibitors such as NFKBIA and NFKBIE in U-2 OS. Finally, DK1 also has successfully hindered the metastatic and angiogenic capability of OS cell lines by down-regulating the expression of pro-metastatic genes and proteins like MMP3, COL11A1, FGF1, Endoglin, uPA, and IGFBP2 in U-2 OS. Whilst for MG-63, the significantly down-regulated oncogenes were Serpin E1, AKT2, VEGF, uPA, PD-ECGF, and Endoglin. These results suggest that curcumin analog DK1 may serve as a potential new anti-osteosarcoma agent due to its anti-metastatic and anti-angiogenic attributes.
Project description:Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumor with a 5 year survival rate of up to 70%. However, patients with metastatic disease have still a very poor prognosis. Osteosarcoma metastasis models are essential to develop novel treatment strategies for advanced disease.Based on a serial transplantation approach, we have established a U-2 OS osteosarcoma xenograft model with increased metastatic potential and compared it to other metastatic osteosarcoma models from international sources. Subclones with differing invasive potential were compared for genomic gains and losses as well as gene expression changes by several bioinformatic approaches. Based on the acquired results, the effects of a shRNA-mediated CD44 mRNA knockdown on migration, invasion and chemosensitivity were evaluated.The CD44 gene was part of an amplified region at chromosome 11p found in both U-2 OS subclones with enhanced metastatic potential but not in parental U-2 OS cells, corresponding with distinct CD44 overexpression. Accordingly, shRNA-mediated CD44 knockdown significantly attenuated osteosarcoma cell migration, invasion, and viability especially in the metastatic subclones of U-2 OS and Saos-2 cells. Metastatic subclones generally were hypersensitive against the integrin inhibitor cilengitide paralleled by alterations in integrin expression pattern following CD44 knock-down. Additionally, attenuation of CD44 expression sensitized these cell models against osteosarcoma chemotherapy with doxorubicin but not methotrexate and cisplatin.The osteosarcoma xenograft models with increased metastatic potential developed in this study can be useful for identification of mechanisms driving metastasis and resistance towards clinically used and novel therapeutic regimens.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) accounts for 56% of malignant bone cancers in children and adolescents. Patients with localized disease rarely develop metastasis; however, pulmonary metastasis occurs in approximately 50% of patients and leads to a 5-year survival rate of only 10-20%. Therefore, identifying the genes and pathways involved in metastasis, as new therapeutic targets, is crucial to improve long-term survival of OS patients. Novel markers that define metastatic OS were identified using comparative transcriptomic analyses of two highly metastatic (C1 and C6) and two poorly metastatic clonal variants (C4 and C5) isolated from the metastatic OS cell line, KHOS. Using this approach, we determined that the metastatic phenotype correlated with overexpression of thioredoxin reductase 2 (TXNRD2) or vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Validation in patient biopsies confirmed TXNRD2 and VEGF targets were highly expressed in 29-42% of metastatic OS patient biopsies, with no detectable expression in non-malignant bone or samples from OS patients with localised disease. Auranofin (AF) was used to selectively target and inhibit thioredoxin reductase (TrxR). At low doses, AF was able to inhibit TrxR activity without a significant effect on cell viability whereas at higher doses, AF could induce ROS-dependent apoptosis. AF treatment, in vivo, significantly reduced the development of pulmonary metastasis and we provide evidence that this effect may be due to an AF-dependent increase in cellular ROS. Thus, TXNRD2 may represent a novel druggable target that could be deployed to reduce the development of fatal pulmonary metastases in patients with OS.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most frequent pediatric malignant bone tumor that has a high propensity for metastases. Through osteoblast-specific alteration of p53 status, we developed a genetically engineered mouse model of localized and metastatic OS to gain an understanding into the molecular pathogenesis of OS. Microarray analysis of both localized tumors and metastatic tumors identified the downregulation of the naked cuticle homolog 2 (NKD2) gene, a negative regulator of Wnt signaling. Overexpression of NKD2 in metastatic human and mouse OS cells significantly decreases cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability in vitro and drastically diminishes OS tumor growth and metastasis in vivo, whereas downregulation enhances migratory and invasive potential. Evaluation of NKD2-overexpressing tumors revealed upregulation of tumor-suppressor genes and downregulation of molecules involved in blood vessel formation and cell migration. Furthermore, assessment of primary human OS revealed downregulation of NKD2 in metastatic and recurrent OS. Finally, we provide biological evidence that use of small-molecule inhibitors targeting the Wnt pathway can have therapeutic efficacy in decreasing metastatic properties in OS. Our studies provide compelling evidence that downregulation of NKD2 expression and alterations in associated regulated pathways have a significant role in driving OS tumor growth and metastasis.
Project description:Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF), a proinflammatory cytokine, is implicated in many aspects of tumor progression, including cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis. We asked if MIF expression predicts survival and if it is associated with angiogenesis and cell invasion in osteosarcoma. We performed immunohistochemistry for MIF expression in prechemotherapy biopsy specimens of 58 patients with osteosarcoma. To investigate the role of MIF in angiogenesis, microvessel density was measured and compared with MIF expression. We also treated osteosarcoma cell lines (U2-OS and MG63) with MIF and measured vascular endothelial growth factor, a potent proangiogenic factor, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. To study the role of MIF in cell invasion, Boyden chamber assay was performed after knockdown of MIF by short interfering RNA. MIF independently predicted overall survival and metastasis-free survival. MIF expression correlated with microvessel density and induced a dose-dependent increase in vascular endothelial growth factor. Knockdown of MIF by short interfering RNA resulted in decreased cell invasion. These results suggest MIF could serve as a prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for osteosarcoma.Level II, prognostic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor affecting children and young adults, and development of metastatic disease is associated with poor prognosis. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the antitumor efficacy of virotherapy with engineered measles virus (MV) vaccine strains in the treatment of OS. Cell lines derived from pediatric patients with OS (HOS, MG63, 143B, KHOS-312H, U2-OS and SJSA1) were infected with MV expressing green fluorescent protein (MV-GFP) and MV-expressing sodium iodide symporter (MV-NIS) strains. Viral gene expression and cytotoxicity as defined by syncytial formation, cell death and eradication of cell monolayers were demonstrated. Findings were correlated with in vivo efficacy in subcutaneous, orthotopic (tibial bone) and lung metastatic OS xenografts treated with the MV derivative MV-NIS via the intratumoral or intravenous route. Following treatment, we observed decrease in tumor growth of subcutaneous xenografts (P=0.0374) and prolongation of survival in mice with orthotopic (P<0.0001) and pulmonary metastatic OS tumors (P=0.0207). Expression of the NIS transgene in MV-NIS infected tumors allowed for single photon emission computed tomography and positron emission tomography-computed tomography imaging of virus infected tumors in vivo. Our data support the translational potential of MV-based virotherapy approaches in the treatment of recurrent and metastatic OS.
Project description:Osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive malignant tumor with a high rate of lung metastasis and a lack of therapeutic targets. Although the anomalous expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has been extensively documented in human cancer, its contribution to OS metastasis remains poorly understood. In this study, we found that MIR205 host gene (MIR205HG) was significantly elevated in human OS tissues, especially in metastatic OS tissues. Stable knockdown of MIR205HG inhibited OS cell invasion and lung metastatic foci formation, but did not affect cell viability. The vast majority of MIR205HG was situated in the cytosol, and served as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) that directly bound to microRNA 2114-3p (miR-2114-3p), resulting in increased twist family bHLH transcription factor 2 (TWIST2) level. Pre-clinically, high MIR205HG was linked with dismal overall and relapse-free survival. Functionally, the attenuated cell invasion caused by MIR205HG knockdown was effectively rescued by miR-2114-3p silencing or TWIST2 overexpression. Overall, our findings suggest that the previously uncharacterized regulatory axis of MIR205HG/miR-2114-3p/TWIST2 plays a critical role in promoting OS metastasis, which implies a potential therapeutic target in OS patients with metastasis.