Writing 3D Nanomagnets Using Focused Electron Beams.
ABSTRACT: Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a direct-write nanofabrication technique able to pattern three-dimensional magnetic nanostructures at resolutions comparable to the characteristic magnetic length scales. FEBID is thus a powerful tool for 3D nanomagnetism which enables unique fundamental studies involving complex 3D geometries, as well as nano-prototyping and specialized applications compatible with low throughputs. In this focused review, we discuss recent developments of this technique for applications in 3D nanomagnetism, namely the substantial progress on FEBID computational methods, and new routes followed to tune the magnetic properties of ferromagnetic FEBID materials. We also review a selection of recent works involving FEBID 3D nanostructures in areas such as scanning probe microscopy sensing, magnetic frustration phenomena, curvilinear magnetism, magnonics and fluxonics, offering a wide perspective of the important role FEBID is likely to have in the coming years in the study of new phenomena involving 3D magnetic nanostructures.
Project description:This work introduces an additive direct-write nanofabrication technique for producing extremely conductive gold nanostructures from a commercial metalorganic precursor. Gold content of 91 atomic % (at. %) was achieved by using water as an oxidative enhancer during direct-write deposition. A model was developed based on the deposition rate and the chemical composition, and it explains the surface processes that lead to the increases in gold purity and deposition yield. Co-injection of an oxidative enhancer enabled Focused Electron Beam Induced Deposition (FEBID)-a maskless, resistless deposition method for three dimensional (3D) nanostructures-to directly yield pure gold in a single process step, without post-deposition purification. Gold nanowires displayed resistivity down to 8.8????cm. This is the highest conductivity achieved so far from FEBID and it opens the possibility of applications in nanoelectronics, such as direct-write contacts to nanomaterials. The increased gold deposition yield and the ultralow carbon level will facilitate future applications such as the fabrication of 3D nanostructures in nanoplasmonics and biomolecule immobilization.
Project description:This work presents a highly effective approach for the chemical purification of directly written 2D and 3D gold nanostructures suitable for plasmonics, biomolecule immobilisation, and nanoelectronics. Gold nano- and microstructures can be fabricated by one-step direct-write lithography process using focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID). Typically, as-deposited gold nanostructures suffer from a low Au content and unacceptably high carbon contamination. We show that the undesirable carbon contamination can be diminished using a two-step process - a combination of optimized deposition followed by appropriate postdeposition cleaning. Starting from the common metal-organic precursor Me2-Au-tfac, it is demonstrated that the Au content in pristine FEBID nanostructures can be increased from 30 atom % to as much as 72 atom %, depending on the sustained electron beam dose. As a second step, oxygen-plasma treatment is established to further enhance the Au content in the structures, while preserving their morphology to a high degree. This two-step process represents a simple, feasible and high-throughput method for direct writing of purer gold nanostructures that can enable their future use for demanding applications.
Project description:Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) is used as a direct-write approach to decorate ultrasmall Pt nanoclusters on carbon nanotubes at selected sites in a straightforward maskless manner. The as-deposited nanostructures are studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in 2D and 3D, demonstrating that the Pt nanoclusters are well-dispersed, covering the selected areas of the CNT surface completely. The ability of FEBID to graft nanoclusters on multiple sides, through an electron-transparent target within one step, is unique as a physical deposition method. Using high-resolution TEM we have shown that the CNT structure can be well preserved thanks to the low dose used in FEBID. By tuning the electron-beam parameters, the density and distribution of the nanoclusters can be controlled. The purity of as-deposited nanoclusters can be improved by low-energy electron irradiation at room temperature.
Project description:Focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) is a versatile tool for the direct-write fabrication of nanostructures on surfaces. However, FEBID nanostructures are usually highly contaminated by carbon originating from the precursor used in the process. Recently, it was shown that platinum nanostructures produced by FEBID can be efficiently purified by electron irradiation in the presence of water. If such processes can be transferred to FEBID deposits produced from other carbon-containing precursors, a new general approach to the generation of pure metallic nanostructures could be implemented. Therefore this study aims to understand the chemical reactions that are fundamental to the water-assisted purification of platinum FEBID deposits generated from trimethyl(methylcyclopentadienyl)platinum(IV) (MeCpPtMe3). The experiments performed under ultrahigh vacuum conditions apply a combination of different desorption experiments coupled with mass spectrometry to analyse reaction products. Electron-stimulated desorption monitors species that leave the surface during electron exposure while post-irradiation thermal desorption spectrometry reveals products that evolve during subsequent thermal treatment. In addition, desorption of volatile products was also observed when a deposit produced by electron exposure was subsequently brought into contact with water. The results distinguish between contributions of thermal chemistry, direct chemistry between water and the deposit, and electron-induced reactions that all contribute to the purification process. We discuss reaction kinetics for the main volatile products CO and CH4 to obtain mechanistic information. The results provide novel insights into the chemistry that occurs during purification of FEBID nanostructures with implications also for the stability of the carbonaceous matrix of nanogranular FEBID materials under humid conditions.
Project description:Iron nanostructures grown by focused electron beam induced deposition (FEBID) are promising for applications in magnetic sensing, storage and logic. Such applications require a precise design and determination of the coercive field (H C), which depends on the shape of the nanostructure. In the present work, we have used the Fe2(CO)9 precursor to grow iron nanowires by FEBID in the thickness range from 10 to 45 nm and width range from 50 to 500 nm. These nanowires exhibit an Fe content between 80 and 85%, thus giving a high ferromagnetic signal. Magneto-optical Kerr characterization indicates that H C decreases for increasing thickness and width, providing a route to control the magnetization reversal field through the modification of the nanowire dimensions. Transmission electron microscopy experiments indicate that these wires have a bell-type shape with a surface oxide layer of about 5 nm. Such features are decisive in the actual value of H C as micromagnetic simulations demonstrate. These results will help to make appropriate designs of magnetic nanowires grown by FEBID.
Project description:Three-dimensional nanostructured magnetic materials have recently been the topic of intense interest since they provide access to a host of new physical phenomena. Examples include new spin textures that exhibit topological protection, magnetochiral effects and novel ultrafast magnetic phenomena such as the spin-Cherenkov effect. Two-photon lithography is a powerful methodology that is capable of realising 3D polymer nanostructures on the scale of 100 nm. Combining this with postprocessing and deposition methodologies allows 3D magnetic nanostructures of arbitrary geometry to be produced. In this article, the physics of two-photon lithography is first detailed, before reviewing the studies to date that have exploited this fabrication route. The article then moves on to consider how non-linear optical techniques and post-processing solutions can be used to realise structures with a feature size below 100 nm, before comparing two-photon lithography with other direct write methodologies and providing a discussion on future developments.
Project description:Combining different physical systems in hybrid quantum circuits opens up novel possibilities for quantum technologies. In quantum magnonics, quanta of collective excitation modes in a ferromagnet, called magnons, interact coherently with qubits to access quantum phenomena of magnonics. We use this architecture to probe the quanta of collective spin excitations in a millimeter-sized ferromagnetic crystal. More specifically, we resolve magnon number states through spectroscopic measurements of a superconducting qubit with the hybrid system in the strong dispersive regime. This enables us to detect a change in the magnetic moment of the ferromagnet equivalent to a single spin flipped among more than 1019 spins. Our demonstration highlights the strength of hybrid quantum systems to provide powerful tools for quantum sensing and quantum information processing.
Project description:Utilization of pure spin currents not accompanied by the flow of electrical charge provides unprecedented opportunities for the emerging technologies based on the electron's spin degree of freedom, such as spintronics and magnonics. It was recently shown that pure spin currents can be used to excite coherent magnetization dynamics in magnetic nanostructures. However, because of the intrinsic nonlinear self-localization effects, magnetic auto-oscillations in the demonstrated devices were spatially confined, preventing their applications as sources of propagating spin waves in magnonic circuits using these waves as signal carriers. Here, we experimentally demonstrate efficient excitation and directional propagation of coherent spin waves generated by pure spin current. We show that this can be achieved by using the nonlocal spin injection mechanism, which enables flexible design of magnetic nanosystems and allows one to efficiently control their dynamic characteristics.
Project description:Studies of nanoscale superconducting structures have revealed various physical phenomena and led to the development of a wide range of applications. Most of these studies concentrated on one- and two-dimensional structures due to the lack of approaches for creation of fully engineered three-dimensional (3D) nanostructures. Here, we present a 'bottom-up' method to create 3D superconducting nanostructures with prescribed multiscale organization using DNA-based self-assembly methods. We assemble 3D DNA superlattices from octahedral DNA frames with incorporated nanoparticles, through connecting frames at their vertices, which result in cubic superlattices with a 48?nm unit cell. The superconductive superlattice is formed by converting a DNA superlattice first into highly-structured 3D silica scaffold, to turn it from a soft and liquid-environment dependent macromolecular construction into a solid structure, following by its coating with superconducting niobium (Nb). Through low-temperature electrical characterization we demonstrate that this process creates 3D arrays of Josephson junctions. This approach may be utilized in development of a variety of applications such as 3D Superconducting Quantum interference Devices (SQUIDs) for measurement of the magnetic field vector, highly sensitive Superconducting Quantum Interference Filters (SQIFs), and parametric amplifiers for quantum information systems.
Project description:Control of the motion of domain walls in magnetic nanowires is at the heart of various recently proposed three-dimensional (3D) memory devices. However, fabricating 3D nanostructures is extremely complicated using standard lithography techniques. Here we show that highly pure 3D magnetic nanowires with aspect-ratios of ~100 can be grown using focused electron-beam-induced-deposition. By combining micromanipulation, Kerr magnetometry and magnetic force microscopy, we determine that the magnetisation reversal of the wires occurs via the nucleation and propagation of domain walls. In addition, we demonstrate that the magnetic switching of individual 3D nanostructures can be directly probed by magneto-optical Kerr effect.