Garlic Substrate Induces Cucumber Growth Development and Decreases Fusarium Wilt through Regulation of Soil Microbial Community Structure and Diversity in Replanted Disturbed Soil.
ABSTRACT: Garlic substrate could influence plant growth through affecting soil microbiome structure. The relationship mechanism between changes in soil microbial communities, disease suppression and plant development, however, remains unclear, particularly in the degraded soil micro-ecological environment. In this study, garlic substrates as a soil amendment were incorporated with different ratios (1:100, 3:100 and 5:100 g/100 g of soil) in a replanted disturbed soil of long-term cucumber monoculture (annual double cropping system in a greenhouse). The results indicated that higher amount of C-amended garlic substrate significantly induced soil suppressiveness (35.9% greater than control (CK) against the foliar disease incidence rate. This inhibitory effect consequently improved the cucumber growth performance and fruit yield to 20% higher than the non-amended soil. Short-term garlic substrate addition modified the soil quality through an increase in soil organic matter (SOM), nutrient availability and enzymatic activities. Illumina MiSeq sequencing analysis revealed that soil bacterial and fungal communities in the garlic amendment were significantly different from the control. Species richness and diversity indices significantly increased under treated soil. The correlation-based heat map analysis suggested that soil OM, nutrient contents and biological activators were the primary drivers reshaping the microbial community structure. Furthermore, garlic substrate inhibited soil-borne pathogen taxa (Fusarium and Nematoda), and their reduced abundances, significantly affecting the crop yield. In addition, the host plant recruited certain plant-beneficial microbes due to substrate addition that could directly contribute to plant-pathogen inhibition and crop biomass production. For example, abundant Acidobacteria, Ascomycota and Glomeromycota taxa were significantly associated with cucumber yield promotion. Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Basidiomycota and Glomeromycota were the associated microbial taxa that possibly performed as antagonists of Fusarium wilt, with plant pathogen suppression potential in monocropped cucumber-planted soil.
Project description:The incorporation of plant residues into soil can be considered a keystone sustainability factor in improving soil structure function. However, the effects of plant residue addition on the soil microbial communities involved in biochemical cycles and abiotic stress phenomena are poorly understood. In this study, experiments were conducted to evaluate the role of raw garlic stalk (RGS) amendment in avoiding monoculture-related production constraints by studying the changes in soil chemical properties and microbial community structures. RGS was applied in four different doses, namely the control (RGS0), 1% (RGS1), 3% (RGS2), and 5% (RGS3) per 100 g of soil. The RGS amendment significantly increased soil electrical conductivity (EC), N, P, K, and enzyme activity. The soil pH significantly decreased with RGS application. High-throughput Illumina MiSeq sequencing revealed significant alterations in bacterial community structures in response to RGS application. Among the 23 major taxa detected, Anaerolineaceae, Acidobacteria, and Cyanobacteria exhibited an increased abundance level. RGS2 increased some bacteria reported to be beneficial including Acidobacteria, Bacillus, and Planctomyces (by 42%, 64%, and 1% respectively). Furthermore, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) fungal regions revealed significant diversity among the different treatments, with taxa such as Chaetomium (56.2%), Acremonium (4.3%), Fusarium (4%), Aspergillus (3.4%), Sordariomycetes (3%), and Plectosphaerellaceae (2%) showing much abundance. Interestingly, Coprinellus (14%) was observed only in RGS-amended soil. RGS treatments effectively altered soil fungal community structures and reduced certain known pathogenic fungal genera, i.e., Fusarium and Acremonium. The results of the present study suggest that RGS amendment potentially affects the microbial community structures that probably affect the physiological and morphological attributes of eggplant under a plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation system (PGVC) in monoculture.
Project description:Monotonous cucumber double-cropping systems under plastic greenhouse vegetable cultivation (PGVC) previously intensified by long-term anthropogenic activities and manipulative treatments leads to a crop productivity reduction and soil biota disturbances. In this study, the role of the indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal strain (AM: Glomus versiforme L.) and organic substrate (GS: Garlic stalk) application were assessed for plant microbe interaction and crop productivity feedback in a greenhouse (2016⁻2018) under a cultivated Anthrosol characterized as a replanted degraded soil. We found that repetitively adding AM inocula with organic substrates (GS) improved the cucumber growth and physiology. The useful trait of AM symbiosis with C-amended organic substrates preferentially manifested as increased root colonization, hyphal density proliferation, AM sporulation, root activity, and suppressed Fusarium incidence. The post AM development further prevailed the synergistic interaction, and the co-inoculation effect resulted in an increase in fruit nutrition uptake, seasonal cucumber yield and fruit quality attributes. Illumina MiSeq analysis of the 18S rRNA gene amplicons revealed that the dominant AM genera that are particularly enriched with the Glomus taxon may be important ecological drivers associated with plant productivity and fruit quality characteristics. These results suggest that the AM-organic substrate association might be a pragmatic option for use as an economic and efficient biological resource and as a newly-sustainable plant microbe mediator to enhance the regional ecosystem services and plant productivity of the anthropogenic PGVC of this region.
Project description:Phosphate fertilization is a common practice in agriculture worldwide, and several commercial products are widely used. Triple superphosphate (TSP) is an excellent soluble phosphorus (P) source. However, its high cost of production makes the long-term use of crude rock phosphate (RP) a more attractive alternative in developing countries, albeit its influence on plant-associated microbiota remains unclear. Here, we compared long-term effects of TSP and RP fertilization on the structure of maize rhizosphere microbial community using next generation sequencing. Proteobacteria were dominant in all conditions, whereas Oxalobacteraceae (mainly Massilia and Herbaspirillum) was enriched in the RP-amended soil. Klebsiella was the second most abundant taxon in the RP-treated soil. Burkholderia sp. and Bacillus sp. were enriched in the RP-amended soil when compared to the TSP-treated soil. Regarding fungi, Glomeromycota showed highest abundance in RP-amended soils, and the main genera were Scutellospora and Racocetra. These taxa are already described as important for P solubilization/acquisition in RP-fertilized soil. Maize grown on TSP and RP-treated soil presented similar productivity, and a positive correlation was detected for P content and the microbial community of the soils. The results suggest changes of the microbial community composition associated to the type of phosphate fertilization. Whilst it is not possible to establish causality relations, our data highlights a few candidate taxa that could be involved in RP solubilization and plant growth promotion. Moreover, this can represent a shorter path for further studies aiming the isolation and validation of the taxa described here concerning P release on the soil plant system and their use as bioinoculants.
Project description:We collected urban soil samples impacted by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from a sorbent-based remediation field trial to address concerns about unwanted side-effects of 2% powdered (PAC) or granular (GAC) activated carbon amendment on soil microbiology and pollutant biodegradation. After three years, total microbial cell counts and respiration rates were highest in the GAC amended soil. The predominant bacterial community structure derived from denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) shifted more strongly with time than in response to AC amendment. DGGE band sequencing revealed the presence of taxa with closest affiliations either to known PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus jostii RHA-1, or taxa known to harbor PAH degraders, e.g. Rhodococcus erythropolis, in all soils. Quantification by real-time polymerase chain reaction yielded similar dioxygenases gene copy numbers in unamended, PAC-, or GAC-amended soil. PAH availability assessments in batch tests showed the greatest difference of 75% with and without biocide addition for unamended soil, while the lowest PAH availability overall was measured in PAC-amended, live soil. We conclude that AC had no detrimental effects on soil microbiology, AC-amended soils retained the potential to biodegrade PAHs, but the removal of available pollutants by biodegradation was most notable in unamended soil.
Project description:It has been shown that the golden apple snail (GAS, Pomacea canaliculata), which is a serious agricultural pest in Southeast Asia, can provide a soil amendment for the reversal of soil acidification and degradation. However, the impact of GAS residue (i.e., crushed, whole GAS) on soil bacterial diversity and community structure remains largely unknown. Here, a greenhouse pot experiment was conducted and 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to measure bacterial abundance and community structure in soils amended with GAS residue and lime. The results suggest that adding GAS residue resulted in a significant variation in soil pH and nutrients (all P?<?0.05), and resulted in a slightly alkaline (pH?=?7.28-7.75) and nutrient-enriched soil, with amendment of 2.5-100 g kg-1 GAS residue. Soil nutrients (i.e., NO3-N and TN) and TOC contents were increased (by 132-912%), and some soil exocellular enzyme activities were enhanced (by 2-98%) in GAS residue amended soil, with amendment of 1.0-100 g kg-1 GAS residue. Bacterial OTU richness was 19% greater at the 2.5 g kg-1 GAS residue treatment than the control, while it was 40% and 53% lower at 100 g kg-1 of GAS residue and 50 g kg-1 of lime amended soils, respectively. Firmicutes (15-35%) was the most abundant phylum while Bacterioidetes (1-6%) was the lowest abundant one in GAS residue amended soils. RDA results suggest that the contents of soil nutrients (i.e., NO3-N and TN) and soil TOC explained much more of the variations of bacterial community than pH in GAS residue amended soil. Overuse of GAS residue would induce an anaerobic soil environment and reduce bacterial OTU richness. Soil nutrients and TOC rather than pH might be the main factors that are responsible for the changes of bacterial OTU richness and bacterial community structure in GAS residue amended soil.
Project description:The application of organic amendments to agricultural soil can enhance crop yield, while improving the physicochemical and biological properties of the recipient soils. However, the use of manure-derived amendments as fertilizers entails environmental risks, such as the contamination of soil and crops with antibiotic residues, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). In order to delve into these risks, we applied dairy cow manure-derived amendments (slurry, fresh manure, aged manure), obtained from a conventional and an organic farm, to soil. Subsequently, lettuce and wheat plants were grown in the amended soils. After harvest, the abundance of 95 ARGs and MGE-genes from the amended soils and plants were determined by high-throughput qPCR. The structure of soil prokaryotic communities was determined by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and qPCR. The absolute abundance of ARGs and MGE-genes differed between treatments (amended vs. unamended), origins of amendment (conventional vs. organic), and types of amendment (slurry vs. fresh manure vs. aged manure). Regarding ARG-absolute abundances in the amendments themselves, higher values were usually found in slurry vs. fresh or aged manure. These abundances were generally higher in soil than in plant samples, and higher in wheat grain than in lettuce plants. Lettuce plants fertilized with conventional amendments showed higher absolute abundances of tetracycline resistance genes, compared to those amended with organic amendments. No single treatment could be identified as the best or worst treatment regarding the risk of antibiotic resistance in soil and plant samples. Within the same treatment, the resistome risk differed between the amendment, the amended soil and, finally, the crop. In other words, according to our data, the resistome risk in manure-amended crops cannot be directly inferred from the analysis of the amendments themselves. We concluded that, depending on the specific question under study, the analysis of the resistome risk should specifically focus on the amendment, the amended soil or the crop.
Project description:Garlic is considered to have a strong positive effect on the growth and yield of receptors under soil cultivation conditions. However, how this positive promotion is produced by changing the growth environment of the receptors or directly acting on the receptors is still not very clear. The direct influence of co-culturing with different quantities of garlic plants (the control 5, 10, 15, 20) on the growth and biochemical processes of cucumber plants was studied using a hydroponic co-culture system. Different numbers of garlic bulbs inhibited the growth of cucumber plants and increased the production and induction of reactive oxygen species, which accompanied the enhancement of lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to cucumber. This allelopathic exposure further reduced the chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis rate, and consequently impaired the photosynthetic performance of photosystem II (PSII). Garlic root exudates increased the leaves' carbohydrates accumulation, such as soluble sugar contents and sucrose levels by regulating the activities of metabolismic enzymes; however, no such accumulation was observed in the roots. Our results suggested that garlic root exudates can mediate negative plant-plant interactions and its phytotoxic influence on cucumber plants may have occurred through the application of oxidative stress, which consequently imbalanced the source-to-sink photo-assimilate flow.
Project description:Negative plant-soil feedback (NPSF) frequently cause replant failure in agricultural ecosystems, which has been restricting the sustainable development of agriculture. Biochar application has appealing effects on soil improvement and potential capacity to affect NPSF, but the process is poorly understood. Here, our study demonstrated that biochar amendment can effectively alleviate the NPSF and this biochar effect is strongly linked to soil microorganism in a sanqi (Panax notoginseng) production system. High-throughput sequencing showed that the bacterial and fungal communities were altered with biochar amendment, and bacterial community is more sensitive to biochar amendment than the fungal community. Biochar amendment significantly increased the soil bacterial diversity, but the fungal diversity was not significantly different between biochar-amended and non-amended soils. Moreover, we found that biochar amendment significantly increased the soil pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, available phosphorus, available potassium, and C/N ratio. The correlation analysis showed that these increased soil chemical variables have a significantly positive correlation with the bacterial diversity. Further analysis of the soil microbial composition demonstrated that biochar soil amendment enriched the beneficial bacterium Bacillus and Lysobacter but suppressed pathogens Fusarium and Ilyonectria. In addition, we verified that biochar had no direct effect on the pathogen Fusarium solani, but can directly enrich biocontrol bacterium Bacillus subtilis. In short, biochar application can mitigate NPSF is mostly due to the fact that biochar soil amendment modified the soil microbiome, especially inhibited pathogens by enriching beneficial bacterium with antagonistic activity against pathogen.
Project description:The continuous cropping obstacle of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) under facility cultivation is more prevalent in China. This is associated with an imbalance in soil microbial and ecological environment in long-term monocultures. It was postulated that intercropping with green garlic would relieve the continuous cropping obstacle of cucumber by altering the soil micro-ecology status. A pot-based experiment was conducted to investigate the green garlic-cucumber intercropping and cucumber monocropping systems. The results showed that the cucumber shoot biomass was improved by intercropping with green garlic. However, the population of soil bacteria and actinomycetes increased, while the fungal population decreased. The fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) profiles indicated that soil contained more fungal FAME biomarkers (18:1?9c, 18:2?6, 9) and higher fungal:bacterial ratio in the monoculture system, whereas clustering of more bacterial FAME biomarkers (cy17:0, cy19:0, 16:1?7c10, Me16:0, 10Me17:0, 10Me18:0) was observed under intercropping conditions. Moreover, significantly (P < 0.05) higher soil invertase and alkaline phosphatase activities, organic matter, and available N, P and K contents were observed under intercropping systems. These were high in both bulk and rhizosphere soils in the intercropping system when compared to monocropping system. These findings suggest that intercropping with green garlic can alleviate continuous cropping obstacle of cucumber by improving the diverse composition of soil microbial community, enzyme activities, and nutrient availability.
Project description:Microbial communities that inhabit environments such as soil can contain thousands of distinct taxa, yet little is known about how this diversity is maintained in response to environmental perturbations such as changes in the availability of carbon. By utilizing aerobic substrate arrays to examine the effect of carbon amendment on microbial communities taken from six distinct environments (soil from a temperate prairie and forest, tropical forest soil, subalpine forest soil, and surface water and soil from a palustrine emergent wetland), we examined how carbon amendment and inoculum source shape the composition of the community in each enrichment. Dilute subsamples from each environment were used to inoculate 96-well microtiter plates containing triplicate wells amended with one of 31 carbon sources from six different classes of organic compounds (phenols, polymers, carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, amines, amino acids). After incubating each well aerobically in the dark for 72 h, we analyzed the composition of the microbial communities on the substrate arrays as well as the initial inocula by sequencing 16S rRNA gene amplicons using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Comparisons of alpha and beta diversity in these systems showed that, while the composition of the communities that grow to inhabit the wells in each substrate array diverges sharply from that of the original community in the inoculum, these enrichment communities are still strongly affected by the inoculum source. We found most enrichments were dominated by one or several OTUs most closely related to aerobes or facultative anaerobes from the Proteobacteria (e.g., Pseudomonas, Burkholderia, and Ralstonia) or Bacteroidetes (e.g., Chryseobacterium). Comparisons within each substrate array based on the class of carbon source further show that the communities inhabiting wells amended with a carbohydrate differ significantly from those enriched with a phenolic compound. Selection therefore seems to play a role in shaping the communities in the substrate arrays, although some stochasticity is also seen whereby several replicate wells within a single substrate array display strongly divergent community compositions. Overall, the use of highly parallel substrate arrays offers a promising path forward to study the response of microbial communities to perturbations in a changing environment.