Extracellular Vesicles in the Development of Cancer Therapeutics.
ABSTRACT: Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are small lipid bilayer-delimited nanoparticles released from all types of cells examined thus far. Several groups of EVs, including exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies, have been identified according to their size and biogenesis. With extensive investigations on EVs over the last decade, it is now recognized that EVs play a pleiotropic role in various physiological processes as well as pathological conditions through mediating intercellular communication. Most notably, EVs have been shown to be involved in cancer initiation and progression and EV signaling in cancer are viewed as potential therapeutic targets. Furthermore, as membrane nanoparticles, EVs are natural products with some of them, such as tumor exosomes, possessing tumor homing propensity, thus leading to strategies utilizing EVs as drug carriers to effectively deliver cancer therapeutics. In this review, we summarize recent reports on exploring EVs signaling as potential therapeutic targets in cancer as well as on developing EVs as therapeutic delivery carriers for cancer therapy. Findings from preclinical studies are primarily discussed, with early phase clinical trials reviewed. We hope to provide readers updated information on the development of EVs as cancer therapeutic targets or therapeutic carriers.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, are released by different cell types and participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes. EVs mediate intercellular communication as cell-derived extracellular signalling organelles that transmit specific information from their cell of origin to their target cells. As a result of these properties, EVs of defined cell types may serve as novel tools for various therapeutic approaches, including (a) anti-tumour therapy, (b) pathogen vaccination, (c) immune-modulatory and regenerative therapies and (d) drug delivery. The translation of EVs into clinical therapies requires the categorization of EV-based therapeutics in compliance with existing regulatory frameworks. As the classification defines subsequent requirements for manufacturing, quality control and clinical investigation, it is of major importance to define whether EVs are considered the active drug components or primarily serve as drug delivery vehicles. For an effective and particularly safe translation of EV-based therapies into clinical practice, a high level of cooperation between researchers, clinicians and competent authorities is essential. In this position statement, basic and clinical scientists, as members of the International Society for Extracellular Vesicles (ISEV) and of the European Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST) program of the European Union, namely European Network on Microvesicles and Exosomes in Health and Disease (ME-HaD), summarize recent developments and the current knowledge of EV-based therapies. Aspects of safety and regulatory requirements that must be considered for pharmaceutical manufacturing and clinical application are highlighted. Production and quality control processes are discussed. Strategies to promote the therapeutic application of EVs in future clinical studies are addressed.
Project description:Intercellular communication is an essential hallmark of multicellular organisms and can be mediated through direct cell-cell contact or transfer of secreted molecules. In the last two decades, a third mechanism for intercellular communication has emerged that involves intercellular transfer of extracellular vesicles (EVs). EVs are membranous vesicles of 30-5000 nm in size. Based on their dimension and biogenesis, EVs can be divided into different categories, such as microvesicles, apoptotic bodies, ectosomes, and exosomes. It has already been demonstrated that protein changes, expressed on the surfaces or in the content of these vesicles, may reflect the status of producing cells. For this reason, EVs, and exosomes in particular, are considered ideal biomarkers in several types of disease-from cancer diagnosis to heart rejection. This aspect opens different opportunities in EVs clinical application, considering the importance given to liquid biopsy in the recent years. Furthermore, extracellular vesicles can be natural or engineered carriers of cytoprotective or cytotoxic factors and applied, as a therapeutic tool, from regenerative medicine to target cancer therapy. This is of pivotal importance in the so called "era of the 4P medicine". This Editorial focuses on recent findings pertaining to EVs in different medical areas, from biomarkers to therapeutic applications.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are cell-derived membrane-bound nanoparticles, which act as shuttles, delivering a range of biomolecules to diverse target cells. They play an important role in maintenance of biophysiological homeostasis and cellular, physiological, and pathological processes. EVs have significant diagnostic and therapeutic potentials and have been studied both in vitro and in vivo in many fields. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent cells with many therapeutic applications and have also gained much attention as prolific producers of EVs. MSC-derived EVs are being explored as a therapeutic alternative to MSCs since they may have similar therapeutic effects but are cell-free. They have applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering and, most importantly, confer several advantages over cells such as lower immunogenicity, capacity to cross biological barriers, and less safety concerns. In this review, we introduce the biogenesis of EVs, including exosomes and microvesicles. We then turn more specifically to investigations of MSC-derived EVs. We highlight the great therapeutic potential of MSC-derived EVs and applications in regenerative medicine and tissue engineering.
Project description:Analysis of extracellular vesicles (EVs) derived from plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has emerged as a promising biomarker platform for therapeutic monitoring in glioblastoma patients. However, the contents of the various subpopulations of EVs in these clinical specimens remain poorly defined. Here we characterize the relative abundance of miRNA species in EVs derived from the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of glioblastoma patients. EVs were isolated from glioblastoma cell lines as well as the plasma and CSF of glioblastoma patients. The microvesicle subpopulation was isolated by pelleting at 10,000×g for 30 min after cellular debris was cleared by a 2000×g (20 min) spin. The exosome subpopulation was isolated by pelleting the microvesicle supernatant at 120,000×g (120 min). qRT-PCR was performed to examine the distribution of miR-21, miR-103, miR-24, and miR-125. Global miRNA profiling was performed in select glioblastoma CSF samples. In plasma and cell line derived EVs, the relative abundance of miRNAs in exosome and microvesicles were highly variable. In some specimens, the majority of the miRNA species were found in exosomes while in other, they were found in microvesicles. In contrast, CSF exosomes were enriched for miRNAs relative to CSF microvesicles. In CSF, there is an average of one molecule of miRNA per 150-25,000 EVs. Most EVs derived from clinical biofluids are devoid of miRNA content. The relative distribution of miRNA species in plasma exosomes or microvesicles is unpredictable. In contrast, CSF exosomes are the major EV compartment that harbor miRNAs.
Project description:Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs), including microvesicles and exosomes, play several important roles in cell biology and serve as potential biomarkers in various kidney diseases. Although they have differential biophysical properties, specific biomarkers are required to discriminate these EVs during isolation/purification. The present study aimed to define differential lipidome profiles of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes. Urine samples collected from eight healthy individuals were pooled and underwent lipid extraction using 2:1(v/v) chloroform/methanol. The recovered lipids were resolved by thin layer liquid chromatography (TLC) and analyzed by MALDI-TOF MS. From three and five TLC bands observed in microvesicles and exosomes, respectively, several fatty acids, glycerolipids and phospholipids were identified from both EVs without clear differential patterns. However, their sphingolipid profiles were unique. Ceramide phosphates (CerP), hexosyl sphingoid bases (HexSph), lactosyl ceramides (LacCer), mannosyl di-PI-ceramides (M(IP)2?C), sulfatides hexosyl ceramide (SHexCer) and sulfatides hexoxyl sphingoid bases (SHexSph) were detectable only in urinary exosomes, whereas phosphatidylinositol ceramides (PI-Cer) were detectable only in urinary microvesicles. The presence of CerP only in urinary exosomes was successfully validated by dot blot analysis. Our extensive lipidome analyses of urinary microvesicles vs. exosomes provide potential lipidome markers to discriminate exosomes from microvesicles and may lead to better understanding of EVs biogenesis.
Project description:Critical processes such as growth, invasion, and metastasis of cancer cells are sustained via bidirectional cell-to-cell communication in tissue complex environments. Such communication involves the secretion of soluble factors by stromal cells and/or cancer cells within the tumor microenvironment (TME). Both stromal and cancer cells have been shown to export bilayer nanoparticles: encapsulated regulatory molecules that contribute to cell-to-cell communication. These nanoparticles are known as extracellular vesicles (EVs) being classified into exosomes, microvesicles, and apoptotic bodies. EVs carry a vast repertoire of molecules such as oncoproteins and oncopeptides, DNA fragments from parental to target cells, RNA species (mRNAs, microRNAs, and long non-coding RNA), and lipids, initiating phenotypic changes in TME. According to their specific cargo, EVs have crucial roles in several early and late processes associated with tumor development and metastasis. Emerging evidence suggests that EVs are being investigated for their implication in early cancer detection, monitoring cancer progression and chemotherapeutic response, and more relevant, the development of novel targeted therapeutics. In this study, we provide a comprehensive understanding of the biophysical properties and physiological functions of EVs, their implications in TME, and highlight the applicability of EVs for the development of cancer diagnostics and therapeutics.
Project description:It is currently thought that extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes and microvesicles, play an important autocrine/paracrine role in intercellular communication. EVs package proteins, mRNA and microRNA (miRNA), which have the ability to transfer biological information to recipient cells in the lungs. Depending on their origin, EVs fulfil different functions. EVs derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been found to promote therapeutic activities that are comparable to MSCs themselves. Recent animal model-based studies suggest that MSC-derived EVs have significant potential as a novel alternative to whole-cell therapies. Compared to their parent cells, EVs may have a superior safety profile and can be stored without losing function. It has been observed that MSC-derived EVs suppress pro-inflammatory processes and reduce oxidative stress, pulmonary fibrosis and remodeling in a variety of in vivo inflammatory lung disease models by transferring their components. However, there remain significant challenges to translate this therapy to the clinic. From this view point, we will summarize recent studies on EVs produced by MSCs in preclinical experimental models of inflammatory lung diseases. We will also discuss the most relevant issues in bringing MSC-derived EV-based therapeutics to the clinic for the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases.
Project description:Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a heterogeneous collection of membrane-bound vesicles released by cells that contain bioactive cargoes including proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. Multiple subpopulations of EVs have now been recognized and these include exosomes and microvesicles. EVs have been thought to facilitate intercellular and distal communication to bring about various processes that enable tumor progression and metastases. Here, we describe the current knowledge of the functional cargo contained within EVs, with a focus on tumor microvesicles, and review the emerging theory of how EVs support immune suppression in cancer.
Project description:Extracellular Vesicles (EVs) represent a heterogeneous population of membranous cell-derived structures, including cargo-oriented exosomes and microvesicles. EVs are functionally associated with intercellular communication and play an essential role in multiple physiopathological conditions. Shedding of EVs is frequently increased in malignancies and their content, including proteins and nucleic acids, altered during carcinogenesis and cancer progression. EVs-mediated intercellular communication between tumor cells and between tumor and stromal cells can modulate, through cargo miRNA, the survival, progression, and drug resistance in cancer conditions. These consolidated suggestions and EVs' stability in bodily fluids have led to extensive investigations on the potential employment of circulating EVs-derived miRNAs as tumor biomarkers and potential therapeutic vehicles. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge about circulating EVs-miRNAs in human cancer and the application limits of these tools, discussing their clinical utility and challenges in functions such as in biomarkers and instruments for diagnosis, prognosis, and therapy.
Project description:During the past decade, extracellular vesicles (EVs), which include apoptotic bodies, microvesicles, and exosomes, have emerged as important players in cell-to-cell communication in normal physiology and pathological conditions. EVs encapsulate and convey various bioactive molecules that are further transmitted to neighboring or more distant cells, where they induce various signaling cascades. The message delivered to the target cells is dependent on EV composition, which, in turn, is determined by the cell of origin and the surrounding microenvironment during EV biogenesis. Among their multifaceted role in the modulation of biological responses, the involvement of EVs in vascular development, growth, and maturation has been widely documented and their potential therapeutic application in regenerative medicine or angiogenesis-related diseases is drawing increasing interest. EVs derived from various cell types have the potential to deliver complex information to endothelial cells and to induce either pro- or antiangiogenic signaling. As dynamic systems, in response to changes in the microenvironment, EVs adapt their cargo composition to fine-tune the process of blood vessel formation. This article reviews the current knowledge on the role of microvesicles and exosomes from various cellular origins in angiogenesis, with a particular emphasis on the underlying mechanisms, and discusses the main challenges and prerequisites for their therapeutic applications.