Bioremediation of Hexavalent Chromium by Chromium Resistant Bacteria Reduces Phytotoxicity.
ABSTRACT: Chromium (Cr) (VI) has long been known as an environmental hazard that can be reduced from aqueous solutions through bioremediation by living cells. In this study, we investigated the efficiency of reduction and biosorption of Cr(VI) by chromate resistant bacteria isolated from tannery effluent. From 28 screened Cr(VI) resistant isolates, selected bacterial strain SH-1 was identified as Klebsiella sp. via 16S rRNA sequencing. In Luria-Bertani broth, the relative reduction level of Cr(VI) was 95%, but in tannery effluent, it was 63.08% after 72 h of incubation. The cell-free extract of SH-1 showed a 72.2% reduction of Cr(VI), which indicated a higher activity of Cr(VI) reducing enzyme than the control. Live and dead biomass of SH-1 adsorbed 51.25 mg and 29.03 mg Cr(VI) per gram of dry weight, respectively. Two adsorption isotherm models-Langmuir and Freundlich-were used for the illustration of Cr(VI) biosorption using SH-1 live biomass. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed an increased cell size of the treated biomass when compared to the controlled biomass, which supports the adsorption of reduced Cr on the biomass cell surface. Fourier-transform infrared analysis indicated that Cr(VI) had an effect on bacterial biomass, including quantitative and structural modifications. Moreover, the chickpea seed germination study showed beneficial environmental effects that suggest possible application of the isolate for the bioremediation of toxic Cr(VI).
Project description:The current study aimed to isolate and characterize a chromate-resistant bacterium from tannery effluent, able to reduce Cr(VI) aerobically at high pH and salinity. Environmental contamination by hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), presents a serious public health problem. Enrichment led to the isolation of 12 bacteria displaying different degrees of chromate reduction. Phenotypic characterization and phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequence comparison indicated that the most potent strain belonged to the genus Halomonas. The new strain designated as Halomonas sp. M-Cr was able to reduce 82% of 50 mg L(-1) Cr(VI) in 48 h, concomitant with discolouring of yellow colour of the medium and formation of white insoluble precipitate of Cr(III). It exhibited growth up to 3500 mg L(-1) Cr(VI), 20% NaCl and showed strong Cr(VI) reduction under alkaline condition, pH 10. Scanning electron microscopy revealed precipitation of chromium hydroxide on bacterial cell surfaces, which showed characteristic peak of chromium in energy-dispersive X-ray analysis. Plackett-Burman design was used to evaluate the influence of related parameters for enhancing Cr(VI) reduction. Glucose, yeast extract and KH2PO 4 were confirmed as significant variables in the medium. Data suggest Halomonas sp. M-Cr as a promising candidate for bioremediation of Cr(VI) contaminated effluents particularly in saline and alkaline environments. Up to our knowledge, this is the first report on isolation of haloalkaliphilic Halomonas sp. from tannery effluent.
Project description:The present study aims to address the problem of chromium (Cr) toxicity by providing important insights into the mechanisms involved in its bioremediation. Among the 22 Rhizobium and Sinorhizobium isolates obtained from Sesbania sesban root nodules, Sinorhizobium sp. SAR1 (JX174035.1) tolerated the maximum Cr concentration (1mM) and hence was used for further studies. The excess secretion of extra polymeric substances, as seen from scanning electron micrographs, could be a probable mechanism of adaptation to the Cr stress. The Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data did not show any peaks of Cr. The biosorption studies done on the isolate gave maximum adsorption capacity as 285.71mg/g. The isotherm studies showed a better fit to Langmuir isotherm. The Weber and Morris plot established that the phenomenon of adsorption was governed by film diffusion mechanism. The FTIR analysis suggested the role of cell wall components and extracellular polymeric substances in Cr adsorption to the biomass of Sinorhizobium. On the basis of these results a compiled mechanism of Cr (VI) adsorption and its biotransformation into Cr (III) by Sinorhizobium sp. SAR1 is explained. This work outlines a comprehensive detail for the exact phenomenon of Cr biotransformation by Sinorhizobium sp. SAR1. These results may further help in developing and enhancing effective bioremediation approaches.
Project description:The biosorption of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions by Opuntia cladodes and ectodermis from cactus fruits was investigated. Both types of biomass are considered low-cost, natural, and ecofriendly biosorbents. Batch experiments were carried out to determine Cr(VI) biosorption capacity and the efficiency of the biosorption process under different pH, initial Cr(VI) concentration, and sorbent dosage. The biosorption of Cr(VI) by Opuntia biomass was highly pH dependent, favoring higher metal uptake at low pH. The higher biosorption capacity was exhibited at pH 2. The optimal conditions were obtained at a sorbent dosage of 1 g L(-1) and initial metal concentration of 10 mg L(-1). Biosorption kinetic data were properly fitted with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. The rate constant, the initial biosorption rate, and the equilibrium biosorption capacity were determined. The experimental equilibrium data obtained were analyzed using two-parameter isotherm models (Langmuir, Freundlich, and Temkin). The Langmuir maximum monolayer biosorption capacity (q max) was 18.5 mg g(-1) for cladodes and 16.4 mg g(-1) for ectodermis. The results suggest that Opuntia biomass could be considered a promising low-cost biosorbent for the ecofriendly removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous systems.
Project description:The bacterial strains resistant to pentachlorophenol (PCP) and hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] were isolated from treated tannery effluent of a common effluent treatment plant. Most of the physico-chemical parameters analyzed were above permissible limits. Thirty-eight and four bacterial isolates, respectively were found resistant to >50 ?g/ml concentration of [Cr(VI)] and the same level of PCP. Out of the above 42 isolates, only one was found simultaneously tolerant to higher levels of both PCP (500 ?g/ml) and Cr(VI) (200 ?g/ml), and hence was selected for further studies. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report in which a native bacterial isolate simultaneously tolerant to such a high concentrations of Cr(VI) and PCP has been reported. The culture growth was best at 0.4% (w/v) glucose as an additional carbon source and 0.2% (w/v) ammonium chloride as a nitrogen source. The growth results with cow urine as a nitrogen source were comparable with the best nitrogen source ammonium chloride. The isolate exhibited resistance to multiple heavy metals (Pb, As, Hg, Zn, Co & Ni) and to antibiotics nalidixic acid and polymixin-B. The efficacy of bacterial isolate for growth, PCP degradation (56.5%) and Cr(VI) bioremediation (74.5%) was best at 48 h incubation. The isolate was identified as Bacillus sp. by morphological and biochemical tests. The 16S rDNA sequence analysis revealed 98% homology with Bacillus cereus. However, further molecular analysis is underway to ascertain its likelyhood of a novel species.
Project description:Biosorption is a promising alternative method to replace the existing conventional technique for Cr(VI) removal from the industrial effluent. In the present experimental design, the removal of Cr(VI) from the aqueous solution was studied by Aspergillus niger MSR4 under different environmental conditions in the batch systems. The optimum conditions of biosorption were determined by investigating pH (2.0) and temperature (27°C). The effects of parameters such as biomass dosage (g/L), initial Cr(VI) concentration (mg/L) and contact time (min) on Cr(VI) biosorption were analyzed using a three parameter Box-Behnken design (BBD). The experimental data well fitted to the Langmuir isotherm, in comparison to the other isotherm models tested. The results of the D-R isotherm model suggested that a chemical ion-exchange mechanism was involved in the biosorption process. The biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, which indicates that the rate limiting step is chemisorption process. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopic studies revealed the possible involvement of functional groups, such as hydroxyl, carboxyl, amino and carbonyl group in the biosorption process. The thermodynamic parameters for Cr(VI) biosorption were also calculated, and the negative ?Gº values indicated the spontaneous nature of biosorption process.
Project description:Waste biomass from ?-polyglutamic acid production was used as an adsorbent to remove Cr(VI) from wastewater. Waste biomass was entrapped in sodium alginate to enhance performance. Orthogonal array design was used to optimize biosorption of Cr(VI) by immobilized waste biomass. The optimal adsorption conditions for immobilized waste biomass were as follows: pH 7.0, initial Cr(VI) concentration of 200?mg/L, 35?°C, waste biomass of 2?g/L, 60?min. Under these conditions, the absorption efficiency of Cr(VI) was 96.38?±?0.45%. When the waste biomass was treated with 1?mol/L HCl for 1?h, the desorption rate could reach 94.42?±?0.87%. It was shown that the adsorption kinetics followed the Freundlich adsorption model, indicating that the adsorption of Cr(VI) by bacteria was mainly based on multi-molecular layer adsorption. The absorption conditions of waste biomass were mild (pH 6.0-7.5, 20-35?°C) and easily operated. These investigations lay a foundation for reducing the pollution of ?-polyglutamic acid production, turning the biomass waste into a useful adsorbent for wastewater treatment.
Project description:Cr(VI) is most toxic heavy metal and second most widespread hazardous metal compound worldwide. Present work focused on Cr(VI) reduction from synthetic solutions and polluted samples by Achromobacter xylosoxidans SHB 204. It could tolerate Cr(VI) up to 1600 ppm and reduce 500 ppm with 4.5 chromium reductase enzyme units (U) having protein size 30 kDa. Changes in morphology of cells on interaction with Cr(VI) metal ion was also studied using SEM-EDX and FTIR. Microcosm studies in pollutant samples for Cr(VI) reduction and adsorption isotherm with biomass of bacterium was best fitted with Langmuir model along with kinetic studies. This study focuses on significance of Cr reduction from synthetic solutions and polluted samples by A. xylosoxidans SHB 204 and its potential for bioremediation.
Project description:The present work demonstrates the heavy metal resistance and detoxification of Cr(VI) by the probiotic actinobacterial cultures isolated from chicken and goat feces. The actinobacterial isolates were screened for heavy metal resistance by qualitative, semiquantitative assays and Cr(VI) biosorption was determined by analytical techniques such as atomic absorption spectrophotometry and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FT-IR). All the tested actinobacterial isolates (n = 20) showed resistance toward K2Cr2O7, NiCl2, ZnCl2, CuSO4 and PbNO3 at 20 mg L-1 concentration. The maximum tolerance concentration values were found to be 200-250 mg L-1 for K2Cr2O7, 100-250 mg L-1 for PbNO3 and <50-250 mg L-1 for NiCl2, ZnCl2 and CuSO4. Among the five tested heavy metals, Cr(VI) was resisted by 95 % of the tested actinobacterial cultures up to 250 mg L-1 concentration; particularly, the isolate LD22 exhibited a high degree of tolerance to all the tested heavy metals. Thus, the isolate was justifiably chosen for Cr(VI) biosorption study and the biosorption efficacy was found maximum at 100 mg L-1 of metal ion concentration (3 g L-1 of biomass dosage and pH 7.0). FT-IR spectrum revealed the chemical interactions between the hydroxyl, amine and carboxyl groups of the biomass and the metal ions. On the basis of phenotypic, physiological, biochemical and molecular characteristics the isolate LD22 was identified as Streptomyces werraensis LD22 (JX524481) which could be used to develop a biosorbent for adsorbing Cr(VI) metal ions.
Project description:For the first time, the heat dried biomass of a newly isolated fungus Arthrinium malaysianum was studied for the toxic Cr(VI) adsorption, involving more than one mechanism like physisorption, chemisorption, oxidation-reduction and chelation. The process was best explained by the pseudo-second order kinetic model and Redlich-Peterson isotherm with maximum predicted biosorption capacity (Q m ) of 100.69?mg?g-1. Film-diffusion was the rate-controlling step and the adsorption was spontaneous, endothermic and entropy-driven. The mode of interactions between Cr(VI) ions and fungal biomass were investigated by several methods [Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX)]. X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) studies confirmed significant reduction of Cr(VI) into non-toxic Cr(III) species. Further, a modified methodology of Atomic Force Microscopy was successfully attempted to visualize the mycelial ultra-structure change after chromium adsorption. The influence of pH, biomass dose and contact time on Cr(VI) depletion were evaluated by Response Surface Model (RSM). FESEM-EDX analysis also exhibited arsenic (As) and lead (Pb) peaks on fungus surface upon treating with synthetic solutions of NaAsO2 and Pb(NO3)2 respectively. Additionally, the biomass could also remove chromium from industrial effluents, suggesting the fungal biomass as a promising adsorbent for toxic metals removal.
Project description:Heavy metal biosorption is an efficient technology for the decontamination of metal from industrial waste water. The present study focused on exploration of Aspergillus niger towards removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous solution. The influence of different experimental parameters-initial pH, adsorbent dose, initial concentration, contact time, shaking speed, temperature, and their combined effect during Cr(VI) adsorption-was investigated by means of response surface methodology based on four factorial Box-Behnken experimental design. Optimized values of initial Cr(VI) concentration, pH, adsorbent dose, and contact time were found as 33.33 mg/L, 4.6, 1.0 g/L, and 48.45 min, respectively. A. niger showed the highest adsorption capacity 11.792 mg/g at initial pH 2.0. Equilibrium data fitted well to the Temkin and Freundlich isotherms. Cr(VI) biosorption showed Pseudo-second order rate kinetics. The activation energy of the adsorption was estimated as 2.9 × 10-3 kJ/mol. Thermodynamics properties of the Cr(VI) biosorption was spontaneous in nature. Desorption study showed that nearly 94% of the Cr(VI) adsorbed on A. niger could be desorbed using 0.5 M EDTA.