Profile and Areal Surface Parameters for Fatigue Fracture Characterisation.
ABSTRACT: Post-mortem characterisation is a pivotal tool to trace back to the origin of structural failures in modern engineering analyses. This work compared both the crack propagation and rupture roughness profiles based on areal parameters for total fracture area. Notched and smooth samples made of weather-resistant structural steel (10HNAP), popular S355J2 structural steel and aluminium alloy AW-2017A under bending, torsion and combined bending-torsion were investigated. After the fatigue tests, fatigue fractures were measured with an optical profilometer, and the relevant surface parameters were critically compared. The results showed a great impact of the loading scenario on both the local profiles and total fracture areas. Both approaches (local and total fracture zones) for specimens with different geometries were investigated. For all specimens, measured texture parameters decreased in the following order: total area, rupture area and propagation area.
Project description:The flexural cracking resistance of an asphalt concrete mixture used in a steel bridge deck pavement needs to be higher than that of one used in ordinary pavement. In this study, mechanical experimental tests were used to evaluate the influence of the aggregate strength on the flexural cracking behavior of epoxy asphalt concrete (EAC). The aggregate fracture area of beam cross sections was quantitatively analyzed by digital image processing, and crack propagation in the mixture was analyzed using fracture mechanics theory. The bending test results showed that the EAC containing high-strength aggregates exhibited the highest flexural cracking resistance among all of the aggregate mixtures under the same conditions. The use of high-strength aggregates led to a reduction in the aggregate fracture area, thereby improving the flexural cracking resistance of the mixture. The aggregate strength had a significant influence on the flexural cracking propagation behavior of the mixture. Fatigue test results at strain-controlled levels of 600-1200 ?? and 15 °C showed that the aggregate strength had no evident influence on the fatigue properties of the EAC. It is recommended that high-strength aggregates are used to increase the fracture resistance of aggregates and the flexural crack resistance of EACs.
Project description:This study presents the life-dependent material parameters concept as applied to several well-known fatigue models for the purpose of life prediction under multiaxial and non-zero mean loading. The necessity of replacing the fixed material parameters with life-dependent parameters is demonstrated. The aim of the research here is verification of the life-dependent material parameters concept when applied to multiaxial fatigue loading with non-zero mean stress. The verification is performed with new experimental fatigue test results on a 7075-T651 aluminium alloy and S355 steel subjected to multiaxial cyclic bending and torsion loading under stress ratios equal to R = -0.5 and 0.0, respectively. The received results exhibit the significant effect of the non-zero mean value of shear stress on the fatigue life of S355 steel. The prediction of fatigue life was improved when using the life-dependent material parameters compared to the fixed material parameters.
Project description:In this paper, a Paris law-based model is presented whereby crack propagation occurs under cyclic loading in air (fatigue) and in an aggressive environment (corrosion-fatigue) for the case of corner cracks (with a wide range of aspect ratios in the matter of the initial cracks) in finite-thickness plates of 316L austenitic stainless steel subjected to tension, bending, or combined (tension + bending) loading. Results show that the cracks tend during their growth towards a preferential propagation path, exhibiting aspect ratios slightly lower than unity only for the case of very shallow cracks, and diminishing as the crack grows (increasing the relative crack depth)-more intensely in the case of bending than in the case of tension (the mixed loading tension/bending representing an intermediate case). In addition, the crack aspect ratios during fatigue propagation evolution are lower in fatigue (in air) than in corrosion-fatigue (in aggressive environment).
Project description:This paper deals with the effect of several residual stress profiles on the fatigue crack propagation in prestressing steel wires subjected to tension loading or bending moment. To this end, a computer program was developed to evaluate the crack front evolution on the basis of the Walker law. Results demonstrate that the absence of residual stresses makes the crack propagate towards a preferential crack path. When surface residual stresses are tensile and, correspondingly, core residual stresses are compressive, the fatigue crack fronts rapidly converge towards a quasi-straightshape. When surface residual stresses are compressive, with their corresponding tensile stresses in the core area, a preferential crack path also appears.
Project description:In this paper, the sensitivity to the type of loads (axial and bending loading) of selected construction materials (AW6063 T6 aluminum alloy, S355J2+C structural steel, and 1.4301 acid-resistant steel) in high-cycle fatigue was verified. The obtained S-N fatigue characteristics were described by a probabilistic model of the 3-parameters Weibull cumulative distribution function. The main area of research concerned the correct implementation of the weakest link theory model. The theory is based on a highly-stressed surface area and a highly-stressed volume in the region of the highest stresses. For this purpose, an analytical model and a numerical model based on the finite element method were used. The model that gives the lowest error implemented in specific test conditions was determined on the basis of high-cycle fatigue analysis. For the analyzed materials, it was a highly-stressed volume model based on the weakest link theory.
Project description:This article addresses the study of crack behavior elicited on axial fatigue in specimens joined by butt weld made of steel ASTM A36 by using fracture mechanics and simulation software of finite elements (Ansys APDL, Franc3D). The computational model was initially to define the geometry model by using CAD software. Specimens with Weld Reinforcement of 2 mm and 3mm were simulated. Subsequently, the type of element for the mesh, the information inclusion concerning material mechanical properties and load conditions were selected. By using Franc3D software, the crack propagation phenomenon is analyzed, and its growth parameters have been established. In this way, it is possible to calculate the magnitude of stress intensity factor (SIF) along the crack front. It is concluded that the stress located in the weld toe is maximized proportionately to the size of the weld reinforcement due to the concentration effect of geometric stress. In addition, it is observed that the propagation rate obtained from Paris law has a similar behavior for the studied weld reinforcements; the latter as there were short cracks.
Project description:In this study, 16Mo3 steel was analysed for fatigue tests under tension-compression and oscillatory bending conditions. The analysis involved a comparison of fatigue test results obtained using the Manson-Coffin-Basquin, Langer and Kandil models and the models proposed by Kurek-?agoda. It was observed that it is possible to substitute the basic tension-compression test performed in large testing machines with oscillatory bending tests carried out on a simple, modern test stand. The tests were performed under oscillatory bending on a prototype machine. The testing of 16Mo3 steel proved that the best-known Mason-Coffin-Basquin fatigue characteristic describes the results of all of the experimental tests very well, but the model can only be used when it is possible to divide strains into elastic and plastic components. It should be emphasised here that there is no such possibility in the case of tests performed under oscillatory bending conditions. It was proven that the proposed test method can substitute the tension-compression test very well and be a much more cost efficient way to obtain LCF material fatigue properties.
Project description:Non-collagenous proteins are a vital component of bone matrix. Amongst them, osteocalcin (OC) and osteopontin (OPN) hold special significance due to their intimate interaction with the mineral and collagenous matrix in bone. Both proteins have been associated with microdamage and fracture, but their structural role in energy dissipation is unclear. This study used bone tissue from genetic deficient mice lacking OC and/or OPN and subjected them to a series of creep-fatigue-creep tests. To this end, whole tibiae were loaded in four-point bending to 70% stiffness loss which captured the three characteristic phases of fatigue associated with initiation, propagation, and coalescence of microdamage. Fatigue loading preceded and followed creep tests to determine creep and dampening parameters. Microdamage in the form of linear microcracks and diffuse damage were analyzed by histology. It was shown that OC and OPN were 'activated' following stiffness loss associated with fatigue damage where they facilitated creep and dampening parameters (i.e. increased energy dissipation). More specifically, post-fatigue creep rate and dampening were significantly greater in wild-types (WTs) than genetic deficient mice (p?<?0.05). These results were supported by microdamage analysis which showed significant increase in creep-associated diffuse damage formation in WTs compared to genetic deficient groups (p?<?0.05). Based on these findings, we propose that during local yield events, OC and OPN rely on ionic interactions of their charged side chains and on hydrogen bonding to dissipate energy in bone.
Project description:The interior defect-induced fracture of surface-hardened metallic materials in the long life region has become a key issue on engineering design. In the present study, the axial loading test with fully reversed condition was performed to examine the fatigue property of a surface-carburized low alloy gear steel in the long life region. Results show that this steel represents the duplex S-N (stress-number of cycles) characteristics without conventional fatigue limit related to 10⁷ cycles. Fatigue cracks are all originated from the interior inclusions in the matrix region due to the inhabitation effect of carburized layer. The inclusion induced fracture with fisheye occurs in the short life region below 5 × 10⁵ cycles, whereas the inclusion induced fracture with fine granular area (FGA) and fisheye occurs in the long life region beyond 10⁶ cycles. The stress intensity factor range at the front of FGA can be regarded as the threshold value controlling stable growth of interior long crack. The evaluated maximum inclusion size in the effective damage volume of specimen is about 27.29 μm. Considering the size relationships between fisheye and FGA, and inclusion, the developed life prediction method involving crack growth can be acceptable on the basis of the good agreement between the predicted and experimental results.
Project description:In this work, the effects of loading condition and corrosion solution on the corrosion fatigue behavior of smooth steel wire were discussed. The results of polarization curves and weight loss curves showed that the corrosion of steel wire in acid solution was more severe than that in neutral and alkaline solutions. With the extension of immersion time in acid solution, the cathodic reaction of steel wire gradually changed from the reduction of hydrogen ion to the reduction of oxygen, but was always the reduction of hydrogen ion in neutral and alkaline solutions. The corrosion kinetic parameters and equivalent circuits of steel wires were also obtained by simulating the Nyquist diagrams. In corrosion fatigue test, the effect of stress ratio and loading frequency on the crack initiation mechanism was emphasized. The strong corrosivity of acid solution could accelerate the nucleation of crack tip. The initiation mechanism of crack under different conditions was summarized according to the side and fracture surface morphologies. For the crack initiation mechanism of anodic dissolution, the stronger the corrosivity of solution was, the more easily the fatigue crack source formed, while, for the crack initiation mechanism of deformation activation, the lower stress ratio and higher frequency would accelerate the generation of corrosion fatigue crack source.