The Inhibitory Effects of Heterotrigona Itama Honey Marinades on the Formation of Carcinogenic Heterocyclic Amines in Grilled Beef Satay.
ABSTRACT: Heterocyclic amines (HCAs) are carcinogenic food toxicants formed in cooked meats, which may increase the risk of cancer development in humans. Therefore, in this study, the effect of stingless bee honey from different botanical origins on the formation of HCAs in grilled beef satay was investigated. HCAs concentration in grilled beef satay was determined by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In total, six of the most toxigenic HCAs representing aminoimidazo-azaarenes (AIAs) (MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, and PhIP) and amino carbolines (norharman, harman, and A?C) groups were identified in all the beef samples investigated. A significant reduction in HCAs was observed in grilled beef marinated in honey as compared to beef samples marinated in table sugar (control), in which the reduction of 95.14%, 88.45%, 85.65%, and 57.22% was observed in gelam, starfruit, acacia, and Apis honey marinades, respectively. According to the partial least squares regression (PLS) model, the inhibition of HCAs in grilled beef was shown to be significantly correlated to the antioxidant activity (IC50) of the honey samples. Therefore, the results of this study revealed that the addition of stingless bee honey could play an important role in reducing HCAs in grilled beef.
Project description:The objective of this data in brief article is to present the associated data set regarding the published paper Novel unfiltered beer-based marinades to improve the nutritional quality, safety, and sensory perception of grilled ruminant meats in Food Chemistry . Grilling is a popular cooking method; however, the high temperatures required can modify grilled meat quality and safety. In this data set, we include 5 tables containing the volatile composition of unmarinated and marinated grilled ruminant meat (beef and moose). Novel unfiltered beer-based marinades infused with herbs and spices were used for meat marination, and the volatiles present in the meat following grilling extracted by solid phase microextraction and subsequently analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The volatile profile includes alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, acids, esters, alkylfurans, nitrogenated compounds, terpenes (mono-, sesqui- and oxygenated terpenes), sulfur derivatives, benzene derivatives, and phenol derivatives. This dataset provides valuable information on meat volatile composition useful to understand certain aspects of the quality and safety of grilled meat following preparation with unfiltered beer-based marinades. For more insight please see .
Project description:This article presents the associated data set in the research article entitled "Assessing beer-based marinades effects on ether and ester linked phosphatidylcholines and phosphatidylethanolamines in grilled beef and moose meat" published in <i>Meat Science</i> , demonstrating the use of unfiltered beer-based marinades in improving the nutritional quality of grilled ruminant meat by suppressing the degradation of health-promoting ester and ether-linked PC and PE the most predominant glycerophospholipids (GPL) in meat. High throughput lipidomics analysis was conducted using high-resolution accurate mass tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HRAMS/MS-MS) to profile the meat lipids following marination and grilling. The marinades were composed of a combination of unfiltered beers, fruits, herbs and spices. The data presented show the retention levels of ether as well as ester linked PC and PE molecular species; Pearson's correlations for the associations between antioxidants, phenolics, volatile oxygenated terpenes, oxidation status and preserved phospholipid species in the marinated grilled meats. There are many studies demonstrating cooking effects on fatty acid composition of meat phospholipids in the literature. However, information on how marination and grilling affects intact ether and ester linked PC and PE composition in grilled ruminant meats is limited. As such, this dataset provides useful information on the preservation of ruminant meat ester and ether-linked glycerophospholipid composition following marination with unfiltered beer-based marinades and meat preparation via grilling. Specifically, this data demonstrate the preservation of ether and ester linked PC and PE enriched with essential ω3 and ω6 fatty acids from degradation during grilling. For additional insights see  DOI: 10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108271.
Project description:Stingless bee honey, specifically honeydew honey, is generally valued for its better health benefits than those of most blossom types. However, scientific studies about the differentiation of stingless bee honey based on honeydew and blossom origins are very limited. In this study, <sup>13</sup>C NMR spectroscopy was employed to quantify the seven major sugar tautomers in stingless bee honey samples, and the major sugar compositions of both honeydew and blossom types were found not significantly different. However, several physicochemical properties of honeydew honey including moisture content, free acidity, electrical conductivity, ash content, acetic acid, diastase, hydrogen peroxide, and mineral elements levels were significantly higher; while total soluble solid, proline, and hydroxymethylfurfural were significantly lower than blossom honey. Greater antioxidant capacity in honeydew honey was proven with higher total phenolic compounds, ABTS, DPPH, superoxide radical scavenging activities, peroxyl radical inhibition, iron chelation, and ferric reducing power. Using principal component analysis (PCA), two clusters of stingless bee honey from the honeydew and blossom origin were observed. PCA also revealed that the differentiation between honeydew and blossom origin of stingless bee honey is possible with certain physicochemical and antioxidant parameters. The combination of NMR spectroscopy and chemometrics are suggested to be useful to determine the authenticity and botanical origin of stingless bee honey.
Project description:This study aimed to isolate, identify, and evaluate the probiotic properties of Bacillus species from honey of the stingless bee Heterotrigona itama. Bacillus spp. were isolated from five different H. itama meliponicultures, and the isolates were characterized through Gram-staining and a catalase test. Tolerance to acidic conditions and bile salt (0.3%), hydrophobicity, and autoaggregation tests were performed to assess the probiotic properties of the selected isolates, B. amyloliquefaciens HTI-19 and B. subtilis HTI-23. Both Bacillus isolates exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and possessed significantly high survival rates in 0.3% bile solution for 3 h. Their survival rates in acidic conditions were also comparable to a commercial probiotic strain, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Interestingly, the hydrophobicity and autoaggregation percentage showed no significant difference from L. rhamnosus GG, a commercial probiotic strain. The results from this study suggest that B. amyloliquefaciens HTI-19 and B. subtilis HTI-23 isolated from stingless bee honey have considerably good probiotic properties. Therefore, more studies should be done to investigate the effects of these bacteria cultures on gastrointestinal health.
Project description:Stingless bees are a type of honey producers that commonly live in tropical countries. Their use for honey is being abandoned due to its limited production. However, the recent improvements in stingless bee honey production, particularly in South East Asia, have brought stingless bee products back into the picture. Although there are many stingless bee species that produce a wide spread of products, known since old eras in traditional medicine, the modern medical community is still missing more investigational studies on stingless bee products. Whereas comprehensive studies in the current era attest to the biological and medicinal properties of honeybee (Apis mellifera) products, the properties of stingless bee products are less known. This review highlights for the first time the medicinal benefits of stingless bee products (honey, propolis, pollen and cerumen), recent investigations and promising future directions. This review emphasizes the potential antioxidant properties of these products that in turn play a vital role in preventing and treating diseases associated with oxidative stress, microbial infections and inflammatory disorders. Summarizing all these data and insights in one manuscript may increase the commercial value of stingless bee products as a food ingredient. This review will also highlight the utility of stingless bee products in the context of medicinal and therapeutic properties, some of which are yet to be discovered.
Project description:Bacteria are present in stingless bee nest products. However, detailed information on their characteristics is scarce. Thus, this study aims to investigate the characteristics of bacterial species isolated from Malaysian stingless bee, Heterotrigona itama, nest products. Honey, bee bread and propolis were collected aseptically from four geographical localities of Malaysia. Total plate count (TPC), bacterial identification, phenotypic profile and enzymatic and antibacterial activities were studied. The results indicated that the number of TPC varies from one location to another. A total of 41 different bacterial isolates from the phyla Firmicutes, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were identified. Bacillus species were the major bacteria found. Therein, Bacillus cereus was the most frequently isolated species followed by Bacillus aryabhattai, Bacillus oleronius, Bacillus stratosphericus, Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus nealsonii, Bacillus toyonensis, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus safensis, Bacillus pseudomycoides, Enterobacter asburiae, Enterobacter cloacae, Pantoea dispersa and Streptomyces kunmingensis. Phenotypic profile of 15 bacterial isolates using GEN III MicroPlate™ system revealed most of the isolates as capable to utilise carbohydrates as well as amino acids and carboxylic acids and derivatives. Proteolytic, lipolytic and cellulolytic activities as determined by enzymatic assays were detected in Bacillus stratosphericus PD6, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PD9, Bacillus subtilis BD3 and Bacillus safensis BD9. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens PD9 showed broad-spectrum of antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in vitro. The multienzymes and antimicrobial activities exhibited by the bacterial isolates from H. itama nest products could provide potential sources of enzymes and antimicrobial compounds for biotechnological applications.
Project description:Heterotrigona itama is a species of stingless bee recently domesticated (or reared) for honey production in a few Southeast Asian countries namely Malaysia and Indonesia. Being categorized in the clade Corbiculata together with the honeybees (Apis spp.) and bumble bees (Bombus spp.), the stingless bees are highly social in which the colony members are subjected to labor division where a queen functions as the reproductive caste. In this data article, we provide a resource encompassing a transcriptome profile (de novo assembled) from H. itama queen larva - the first report of transcriptome assembly for this species. The generated data is pivotal for the characterization of important genes and biological pathways in order to further improve our understanding on the developmental biology, behavior, social structure and ecological needs of this eusocial hymenopteran insect from the molecular aspect. The raw RNA sequencing data is available at NCBI Sequence Read Archive (SAR) under the accession number SRP230250 and the assembled reads are deposited at DDBJ/EMBL/Genbank as Transcriptome Shotgun Assembly (TSA) under the accession GIIH00000000.
Project description:Stingless bee honey (SBH) is an astounding 'miracle liquid' with countless medicinal properties for various diseases such as gastroenteritis, cataracts, as well as for wound-healing. However, knowledge regarding it is still rather scarce. Henceforth, it is intriguing for us to contemplate on the less-studied stingless bee and its honey in particular. First and foremost, the antimicrobial ability of honey from eight different stingless bee species was tested to further proven its health benefit. Homotrigona fimbriata honey showed the highest antimicrobial activity with inhibition against five bacteria; Serratia marcescens, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Alcaligenes faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. The next aim of our study is to characterize their honey bacterial community via the use of 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing technology. A total of eight bacterial phyla, 71 families, 155 genera and 70 species were identified from our study and two of the stingless bee species honey were determined to have the highest bacterial diversity compared to other six stingless bee species, namely Heterotrigona erythrogastra and Tetrigona melanoleuca. Furthermost, Lactobacillus malefermentans was thought to be the native dominant bacteria of SBH due to its predominant presence throughout all studied species. The aforementioned SBH's antimicrobial results and characterization study of its bacterial diversity are hoped to carve the pathway towards extending its probiotic ability into our everyday lives.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Honey is a versatile and complex substance consisting of bioactive chemicals which vary according to many bee and environmental factors. The aim of this study was to assess the physical and antimicrobial properties of five honey samples obtained from three species of bees; two stingless bees, Frieseomelitta nigra and Melipona favosa and one stinging bee, Apis mellifera (fresh and aged honey). Samples were acquired from apiaries across Trinidad and Tobago. An artificial honey, made from sugar, was also used for comparison. METHODS:Physical properties such as appearance, pH, moisture content, sugar content and specific gravity were determined. Antimicrobial activity was assessed utilizing the agar diffusion assay and comparison to a phenol equivalence. The broth microdilution test was performed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and the minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) of the five honey samples against four common pathogens, including Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus pyogenes and Haemophilus influenzae. RESULTS:All honey samples were acidic, with pH values ranging from 2.88 (M. favosa of Tobago) to 3.91 (fresh A. mellifera). Sugar content ranged from 66.0 to 81.6% with the highest values detected in stinging bee honeys of the A. mellifera (81.6 and 80.5°Bx). Moisture content ranged from 16.9% for aged A. mellifera honey (from Trinidad) to 32.4% for F. nigra honey (from Tobago). The MICs (2 to 16%) and MBCs (2 to 32%) of stingless bee honeys were lower than that of stinging bee and artificial honeys (16 to >?32%). Stingless bee honeys also exhibited a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms with higher phenol equivalence values (4.5 to 28.6%) than the A. mellifera honeys (0 to 3.4%) against the isolates tested. M. favosa honey of Tobago displayed the greatest antimicrobial activity as indicated by the high phenol equivalence and low MIC and MBC values. CONCLUSIONS:Stingless bee honeys from Tobago showed the greatest antimicrobial activity when compared to the other honeys used in this study. M. favosa honey of Tobago showed the most potential for use as medicinal honey.
Project description:Propolis is a natural resinous material produced by bees and has been used in folk medicines since ancient times. Due to it possessing a broad spectrum of biological activities, it has gained significant scientific and commercial interest over the last two decades. As a result of searching 122 publications reported up to the end of 2019, we assembled a unique compound database consisting of 578 components isolated from both honey bee propolis and stingless bee propolis, and analyzed the chemical space and chemical diversity of these compounds. The results demonstrated that both honey bee propolis and stingless bee propolis are valuable sources for pharmaceutical and nutraceutical development.