The interaction between TERT promoter mutation and MGMT promoter methylation on overall survival of glioma patients: a meta-analysis.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:There are controversial results concerning the prognostic implication of TERT promoter mutation in glioma patients concerning MGMT status. In this meta-analysis, we investigated whether there are any interactions of these two genetic markers on the overall survival (OS) of glioma patients. METHODS:Electronic databases including PubMed and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. Hazard ratio (HR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) for OS adjusted for selected covariates were calculated from the individual patient data (IPD), Kaplan-Meier curve (KMC), or directly obtained from the included studies. RESULTS:A total of nine studies comprising 2819 glioma patients were included for meta-analysis. Our results showed that TERT promoter mutation was associated with a superior outcome in MGMT-methylated gliomas (HR?=?0.73; 95% CI?=?0.55-0.98; p-value?=?0.04), whereas this mutation was associated with poorer survival in gliomas without MGMT methylation (HR?=?1.86; 95% CI?=?1.54-2.26; p-value
Project description:Background and objective:Promoter status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) has been widely established as a clinically relevant factor in glioblastoma (GBM) patients. However, in addition to varied therapy schedule, the prognosis of GBM patients is also affected by variations of age, race, primary or recurrent tumor. This study comprehensively investigated the association between MGMT promoter status and prognosis in overall GBM patients and in different GBM subtype including new diagnosed patients, recurrent patients and elderly patients. Methods:A comprehensive search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane databases to identify literatures (published from January 1, 2005 to April 1, 2017) that evaluated the associations between MGMT promoter methylation and prognosis of GBM patients. Results:Totally, 66 studies including 7,886 patients met the inclusion criteria. Overall GBM patients with a methylated status of MGMT receiving temozolomide (TMZ)-containing treatment had better overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) [OS: hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.46, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.41-0.52, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.017; PFS: HR?=?0.48, 95% CI 0.40-0.57, p?<?0.001, Bon?=?0.014], but no significant advantage on OS or PFS in GBM patients with TMZ-free treatment was observed (OS: HR?=?0.97, 95% CI 0.91-1.03, p?=?0.08, Bon?=?1; PFS: HR?=?0.76, 95% CI 0.57-1.02, p?=?0.068, Bon?=?0.748). These different impacts of MGMT status on OS were similar in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM. Among patients receiving TMZ-free treatment, survival benefit in Asian patients was not observed anymore after Bonferroni correction (Asian OS: HR?=?0.78, 95% CI 0.64-0.95, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24, I2?=?0%; PFS: HR?=?0.69, 95% CI 0.50-0.94, p?=?0.02, Bon?=?0.24). No benefit was observed in Caucasian receiving TMZ-free therapy regardless of Bonferroni adjustment. Conclusion:The meta-analysis highlights the universal predictive value of MGMT methylation in newly diagnosed GBM patients, elderly GBM patients and recurrent GBM patients. For elderly methylated GBM patients, TMZ alone therapy might be a more suitable option than radiotherapy alone therapy. Future clinical trials should be designed in order to optimize therapeutics in different GBM subpopulation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Previous studies addressing the influence of surgery on the outcome of patients with glioblastomas (GBM) have not addressed molecular markers. The value of surgery versus the tumor's major biological markers remains unclear. OBJECTIVE:We investigate the extent of resection as a prognosticator for patients with newly diagnosed primary GBM with the incorporation of molecular diagnostics as per the updated WHO 2016 diagnostic criteria for GBM. METHODS:Patients with newly diagnosed GBM who underwent resection were prospectively included within a database. We analyzed patients with newly diagnosed GBM and excluded patients who presented with IDH1 R132H mutations. Gross total resection (GTR) was defined as complete removal of enhancing disease. RESULTS:One hundred seventy-five patients were included within the analysis. One hundred four patients (59.4%) had GTR, 71 patients (40.6%) had subtotal or partial resection. Eighty patients (45.7%) displayed O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation, 95 patients (54.3%) showed no MGMT promoter methylation. In Cox regression analysis, MGMT promoter methylation (hazard ratio [HR] 1.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.01-2.19; P = .0133) and GTR (HR 1.48; 95% CI, 1.06-2.07; P = .0206) were significantly associated with favorable progression-free survival. MGMT promoter methylation (HR 2.13; 95% CI, 1.45-3.12; P = .0001) and GTR (HR 1.81; 95% CI, 1.24-2.63; P = .002) were associated with favorable overall survival (OS). Of other risk factors analyzed, age (>60 vs ? 60 yr) was significantly associated with progression-free survival (HR 1.60; 95% CI, 1.14-2.24; P = .006) and OS (HR 2.19; 95% CI, 1.51-3.19; P < .0001). CONCLUSION:GTR and MGMT promoter methylation are independent prognosticators for improved overall and progression-free survival in a homogeneous cohort of newly diagnosed patients with IDH wild-type glioblastoma.
Project description:Importance:There is a need for a more refined, molecularly based classification model for glioblastoma (GBM) in the temozolomide era. Objective:To refine the existing clinically based recursive partitioning analysis (RPA) model by incorporating molecular variables. Design, Setting, and Participants:NRG Oncology RTOG 0525 specimens (n?=?452) were analyzed for protein biomarkers representing key pathways in GBM by a quantitative molecular microscopy-based approach with semiquantitative immunohistochemical validation. Prognostic significance of each protein was examined by single-marker and multimarker Cox regression analyses. To reclassify the prognostic risk groups, significant protein biomarkers on single-marker analysis were incorporated into an RPA model consisting of the same clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurologic function) as the existing RTOG RPA. The new RPA model (NRG-GBM-RPA) was confirmed using traditional immunohistochemistry in an independent data set (n?=?176). Main Outcomes and Measures:Overall survival (OS). Results:In 452 specimens, MGMT (hazard ratio [HR], 1.81; 95% CI, 1.37-2.39; P?<?.001), survivin (HR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.76; P?=?.02), c-Met (HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.23; P?=?.02), pmTOR (HR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.60-0.97; P?=?.03), and Ki-67 (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.78; P?=?.007) protein levels were found to be significant on single-marker multivariate analysis of OS. To refine the existing RPA, significant protein biomarkers together with clinical variables (age, Karnofsky Performance Status, extent of resection, and neurological function) were incorporated into a new model. Of 166 patients used for the new NRG-GBM-RPA model, 97 (58.4%) were male (mean [SD] age, 55.7 [12.0] years). Higher MGMT protein level was significantly associated with decreased MGMT promoter methylation and vice versa (1425.1 for methylated vs 1828.0 for unmethylated; P?<?.001). Furthermore, MGMT protein expression (HR, 1.84; 95% CI, 1.38-2.43; P?<?.001) had greater prognostic value for OS compared with MGMT promoter methylation (HR, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.28-2.44; P?<?.001). The refined NRG-GBM-RPA consisting of MGMT protein, c-Met protein, and age revealed greater separation of OS prognostic classes compared with the existing clinically based RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation in NRG Oncology RTOG 0525. The prognostic significance of the NRG-GBM-RPA was subsequently confirmed in an independent data set (n?=?176). Conclusions and Relevance:This new NRG-GBM-RPA model improves outcome stratification over both the current RTOG RPA model and MGMT promoter methylation, respectively, for patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and was biologically validated in an independent data set. The revised RPA has the potential to contribute to improving the accurate assessment of prognostic groups in patients with GBM treated with radiation and temozolomide and to influence clinical decision making. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00304031.
Project description:The prognostic value of the status of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation measured by pyrosequencing assay (PSQ) among glioblastoma (GBM) patients was examined in meta-analysis.Eligible studies that reported the association between the status of MGMT promoter methylation by PSQ and prognostic value of GBM patients from three electronic databases, like PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane library were involved in meta-analysis. Using Stata 11.0, the summarized hazard ratios (HRs) for overall survival (OS) and the progression-free survival (PFS) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were calculated.Eleven studies were included to evaluate the relationship between the status of MGMT promoter methylation and GBM patients' survival. Overall, regardless of the cut-off value of methylation status of MGMT promoter by PSQ, methylated-positive patients were evidently associated with an improved HRs for OS (HRs?=?0.50, 95 % CI?=?0.35-0.66). For summary, progression-free survival (PFS) from four studies, the prognostic effect was also found (HRs?=?0.56, 95 % CI?=?0.32-0.80).Methylation positivity of MGMT promoter by PSQ was related to an increased survival in GBM patients. Thus, the status of MGMT promoter methylation by PSQ might be used to be a prognostic biomarker, and GBM patients might have a vested interest in clinical application of standardized PSQ.
Project description:Importance:The initial report of NRG Oncology/Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0424 demonstrated a 3-year overall survival benefit with the addition of temozolomide to radiotherapy compared with a historical control. However, an important end point of the trial-evaluation of the association between O6-methylgaunine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation and survival outcomes-was not previously reported. Objective:To examine the proportion of patients in NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424 with MGMT promoter methylation and its association with survival outcomes. Design, Setting, and Participants:Specimens collected were analyzed after trial completion to determine MGMT promoter methylation and IDH1/2 status and the association between MGMT status and survival outcomes. A model derived from logistic regression (MGMT-STP27) was used to calculate MGMT promoter methylation status. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed using the Cox proportional hazards regression model to determine the association of MGMT status with survival outcomes. Patient pretreatment characteristics were included as covariates in multivariable analyses. Main Outcomes and Measures:Progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS). Results:Of all 129 eligible patients in NRG Oncology/RTOG 0424, 75 (58.1%) had MGMT status available (median age, 48 years; age range, 20-76 years; 42 [56.0%] male): 57 (76.0%) methylated and 18 (24.0%) unmethylated. A total of 13 unmethylated patients (72.2%) had astrocytoma as opposed to oligoastrocytoma or oligodendroglioma, whereas 23 methylated patients (40.4%) had astrocytoma. On univariate analyses, an unmethylated MGMT promoter was significantly associated with worse OS (hazard ratio [HR], 3.52; 95% CI, 1.64-7.56; P?<?.001) and PFS (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.55-6.04; P?<?.001). The statistical significances were maintained in multimarker multivariable analyses, including IDH1/2 status for both OS (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.02-7.14; P?=?.045) and PFS (HR, 2.74; 95% CI, 1.19-6.33; P?=?.02). Conclusions and Relevance:In this study, MGMT promoter methylation was an independent prognostic biomarker of high-risk, low-grade glioma treated with temozolomide and radiotherapy. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to validate the prognostic importance of MGMT promoter methylation in patients with grade II glioma treated with combined radiotherapy and temozolomide and highlights its potential prognostic value beyond IDH1/2 mutation status. Trial Registration:ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00114140.
Project description:O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is an independent predictor of therapeutic response and potential prognosis in patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). However, its significance of clinical prognosis in different continents still needs to be explored.To explore the effects of MGMT promoter methylation on both progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) among GBM patients from different continents, a systematic review of published studies was conducted.A total of 5103 patients from 53 studies were involved in the systematic review and the total percentage of MGMT promoter methylation was 45.53%. Of these studies, 16 studies performed univariate analyses and 17 performed multivariate analyses of MGMT promoter methylation on PFS. The pooled hazard ratio (HR) estimated for PFS was 0.55 (95% CI 0.50, 0.60) by univariate analysis and 0.43 (95% CI 0.38, 0.48) by multivariate analysis. The effect of MGMT promoter methylation on OS was explored in 30 studies by univariate analysis and in 30 studies by multivariate analysis. The combined HR was 0.48 (95% CI 0.44, 0.52) and 0.42 (95% CI 0.38, 0.45), respectively.In each subgroup divided by areas, the prognostic significance still remained highly significant. The proportion of methylation in each group was in inverse proportion to the corresponding HR in the univariate and multivariate analyses of PFS. However, from the perspective of OS, compared with data from Europe and the US, higher methylation rates in Asia did not bring better returns.
Project description:BACKGROUND:High grade glioma molecular profiling is of particular interest in neurooncology. The role of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) varies dependent upon other molecular parameters. We explored the role of TERT in 101 high-grade gliomas. METHODS:A total of 101 patients (pts) with grade III-IV gliomas treated with standard of care and informative tumor genotypes were included in the present study. Of 55 genes targeted with the next-generation sequencing panel, mutations (muts) were found in 37; these were included in the analysis. TERT mut were tested with Sanger sequencing. MGMT promoter methylation status was determined by methylation specific PCR. RESULTS:270 mut were detected in 92/101 tumors (91.1%). TERT was the most frequently mutated gene (74.3%). IDH1/2 mut were mutually exclusive with mut in the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene. Mutated TERT was associated with wild-type (wt) IDH1/2 (p = 0.025). The 12-month overall survival (OS) rate was 74.3% (median OS: 22 months). Pts with TERT and NF1 wt had a median OS of 40.8 months, while among pts with NF1 wt/TERT mutant, the median OS was 18.5 months. NF1 and TERT mut univariately conferred shorter OS (HR = 3.19; p = 0.004 and HR = 2.28; p = 0.002). Upon multivariate analysis, mutated TERT showed marginal unfavorable prognostic significance for OS (p = 0.049), while NF1 lost its unfavorable significance (p = 0.151). CONCLUSIONS:TERT is herein proven to confer poor prognosis in high grade gliomas, independent of IDH and MGMT. NF1 seems to also confer poor prognosis although our small numbers do not allow for firm conclusions.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most malignant glioma, with a median overall survival (OS) of 14-16 months. Temozolomide (TMZ) is the first-line chemotherapy drug for glioma, but whether TMZ should be withheld from patients with GBMs that lack O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) promoter methylation is still under debate. DNA methylation profiling holds great promise for further stratifying the responses of MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs to TMZ. In this study, we studied 147 TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBM, whose methylation information was obtained from the HumanMethylation27 (HM-27K) BeadChips (n = 107) and the HumanMethylation450 (HM-450K) BeadChips (n = 40) for training and validation, respectively. In the training set, we performed univariate Cox regression and identified that 3,565 CpGs were significantly associated with the OS of the TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs. Functional analysis indicated that the genes corresponding to these CpGs were enriched in the biological processes or pathways of mitochondrial translation, cell cycle, and DNA repair. Based on these CpGs, we developed a 31-CpGs methylation signature utilizing the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) Cox regression algorithm. In both training and validation datasets, the signature identified the TMZ-sensitive GBMs in the MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs, and only the patients in the low-risk group appear to benefit from the TMZ treatment. Furthermore, these identified TMZ-sensitive MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs have a similar OS when compared with the MGMT promoter methylated GBMs after TMZ treatment in both two datasets. Multivariate Cox regression demonstrated the independent prognostic value of the signature in TMZ-treated MGMT promoter unmethylated GBMs. Moreover, we also noticed that the hallmark of epithelial-mesenchymal transition, ECM related biological processes and pathways were highly enriched in the MGMT unmethylated GBMs with the high-risk score, indicating that enhanced ECM activities could be involved in the TMZ-resistance of GBM. In conclusion, our findings promote our understanding of the roles of DNA methylation in MGMT umethylated GBMs and offer a very promising TMZ-sensitivity predictive signature for these GBMs that could be tested prospectively.
Project description:Glioblastoma (GBM) is one of the lethal tumors with poor prognosis. However, prognostic prediction approaches need to be further explored. Therefore, we developed an evaluation system that could be used for prognostic prediction of GBM patients. Published mRNA expression datasets from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA), Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA) were analyzed. Quantitative Realtime-PCR of signature genes and molecular aberrations of 178 Xiangya GBM patients were used for confirmation. Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed for functional annotation. As a result, we established a 13-gene signature which named Combined Therapy Sensitivity Index (CTSI). Based on a cutoff point, we divided patients into high-risk group and low-risk group. Based on Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariate Cox regression analysis, we found that patients in the high-risk group had a shorter overall survival time than patients in the low-risk group (p<0.001 in TCGA and CGGA datasets, p=0.047 in GSE4271 dataset, p=0.008 in Xiangya GBM cohort, HR: 1.65-3.42). By comparing the status of IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation (TERTp-mut) and MGMT promoter methylation, CTSI was predictable in IDH wild-type (IDH-wt)/MGMT promoter unmethylated (MGMTp-unmeth) patients (p=0.037 in IDH-wt/TERTp-mut/MGMTp-unmeth subgroup, HR: 1.98; p=0.032 in IDH-wt/TERTp-wt/MGMTp-unmeth subgroup, HR: 2.09). Based on GESA, the Gene Ontology (GO) gene sets were enriched differently between CTSI high-risk and low-risk groups. Our results showed CTSI risk score can predict the prognosis of IDH-wt/MGMTp-unmeth GBM patients. Based on CTSI, combined with the status of IDH mutation, TERT promoter mutation and MGMT promoter methylation, a stepwise prognosis evaluation system which can provide precise prognosis prediction for GBM patients was established.
Project description:Background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive type of primary malignant brain tumor. Carmustine is used by intravenous injection or local implantation in the resection cavity for gliomas, including GBMs. However, the therapeutic potential of carmustine is not well-recognized. This analysis aimed to evaluate the survival benefits of carmustine in glioma patients, especially those with GBM. Methods: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies regarding carmustine for glioma treatment were searched in PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Embase from January 1979 to March 2020. Quality assessment was conducted with Jadad and Newcastle-Ottawa scales (NOS). Statistical analysis was conducted by the Revman 5.3 software. Results: Twenty-two eligible RCTs and cohort studies involving 5,821 glioma patients were included. Overall, glioma patients receiving carmustine as an adjuvant therapy had better progression-free survival [PFS; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77-0.94, P = 0.002] and overall survival (OS; HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.79-0.92, P < 0.0001) than those without carmustine treatment. Subgroup analysis showed that the OS benefit was observed in GBM (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.78-0.91, P < 0.00001) but not in anaplastic glioma patients (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.70-2.07, P = 0.50). Additionally, both newly diagnosed and recurrent GBM patients who received carmustine treatment showed better OS (HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.79-0.95, P = 0.002; HR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.67-0.89, P = 0.0002, respectively). Both carmustine implantation in resection cavity and intravenous administration significantly prolonged OS (HR = 0.84, 95% CI = 0.78-0.92, P < 0.0001; HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.75-0.99, P = 0.04, respectively). Moreover, GBM patients receiving a combined carmustine and temozolomide (TMZ) therapy had longer OS than those receiving TMZ alone (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.63-0.97, P = 0.03). Conclusion: Carmustine implantation in resection cavity provides survival benefit for GBM patients, and it may be a promising supplement to standard therapeutic protocol by offering a bridge between surgical resection and onset of TMZ therapy.